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본 연구는 다양한 계열의 농약을 대상으로 체내에서 농약을 무독화하는 효소로 알려진 glutathine-S-transferase(GST)와 esterases에 대한 저해정도를 조사하고, 이 중 저해력이 높은 약제를 선발하여 무독화 효소에 의하여 분해되는 것으로 보고된 약제와 혼합 처리하였을 때 나타나는 약효의 변화를 조사하고자 수행하였다. 무독화효소를 저해하는 농약을 선발하기 위하여 34종의 살충제와 31종의 살균제를 대상으로 glutathione-S-transferase와 esterases에 대한 저해력을 측정한 결과, thiodicarb (I?? : 1.87×10?⁴ M), thiocyclarn (I?? : 7.40×10?⁴ M), dithianon (I?? : 7.55×10×?? M)' tolylfluanide (I?? : 8.66×10?? M)은 glutathione-S-transferase의 활성을 강하게 저해하였고, dichlorvos (I?? : 8.95×10?? M), pirimicarb (I?? : 2.74×10?? M), pyrazophos (I?? : 3.31× 10?? M), benomyl (I?? : 4.96×10?? M)은 esterases의 활성을 강하게 저해하였다. Glutathione-S-transferase를 저해하였던 thiodicarb, thiocyclam, dithianon, tolylfluanide와 glutathione-S-transferase에 의해 대사되는 것으로 알려진 acephate를 혼합(1:1)하여 배추좀나방 (Plutella xylostella L.)에 처리하고 약효를 관찰한 결과, 각각의 단제를 처리하였을 때보다 약효가 상승되었다. 특히 dithianon과 thiocyclam을 acephate와 혼합시 각각 7배와 4배 약효가 상승하였다. 그리고 esterase를 저해한 약제인 dichlorvos, pirimicarb, pyrazophos, benomyl을 esterase에 의해 대사되는 것으로 알려진 phenthoate와 혼합하였을 경우에도 단제 처리시의 약효보다는 혼합처리시의 약효가 높았다. Phenthoate와 dichlorvos 혼합시 18배, phenthoate와 benomyl 혼합처리시 12배의 약효상승효과가 나타났다, 본 연구의 결과들은 무독화과정 효소에 의해 무독화되는 약제를 무독화효소 저해제와 혼합처리시 약효상승이 유발된다는 것을 나타내는데, 이러한 결과들은 향후 혼합제 개발에 유용하게 사용될 수 있을 것이라 생각된다. In vitro inhibitory activity of 34 insecticides and 31 fungicides to glutathione-S-transferase and esterases extracted from rats was determined. Of tested pesticides, the pesticides with high activity on both detoxifying enzymes were mixed with pesticides that are known to be detoxified by detoxifying enzymes. Glutathione-S-transferase was inhibited by thiodicarb (I??: 1.87×10?⁴M), thiocyc1am (7.40×10?⁴M), dithianon (7.55×10??M), and tolylfluanide (8.66×10??M), while esterases by dichlorvos (8.95×10??M), pirimicarb (2.74×10??M), pyrazophos (3.31×10??M), and benomyl (4.96×10??M). After acephate known to be detoxified by glutathione-S-transferase was mixed with glutathione-S-transferase-inhibiting pesticides and phenthoate known to be detoxified by esterases was mixed with esterases-inhibiting pesticides, insecticidal activities of such mixtures were determined against diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.). Synergistic action was observed in all pesticide combinations. The highest synergistic action was obtained when phenthoate was combined with dichlorvos, showing that co-toxicity coefficients were 1512 and 1877 after 24 and 48 hours of treatment, respectively. Several other combinations of pesticides, such as phenthoate with benomyl, and acephate with dithianon, also showed synergism, showing that their co-toxicity coefficients were about 1,000 and 500, after 24 hours of treatment, respectively. Our results showed that combinations of pesticides inhibited by detoxifying enzymes and ones detoxified by detoxifying enzymes resulted in increased toxicities of pesticides, suggesting that such combinations could be used to develop pesticide mixtures with more broad spectrum and high effectiveness.
<P>S.-H. Kim, S.-O. Lee, I.-A. Park, S.J. Park, S.-H. Choi, Y.S. Kim, J.H. Woo, S.-K. Park, J.S. Park, S.C. Kim, D.J. Han. Diagnostic usefulness of a T cell-based assay for latent tuberculosis infection in kidney transplant candidates before transplantation.Transpl Infect Dis 2010: <B>12:</B> 113–119. All rights reserved</P><P>Background</P><P>The presence of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) should be evaluated before kidney transplantation. Although a new T cell-based assay for diagnosing LTBI gave promising results, this assay has not yet been compared with the tuberculin skin test (TST) for diagnosing LTBI in renal transplant candidates before transplantation.</P><P>Patients and methods</P><P>All adult patients admitted to a single institute for renal transplantation over a 1-year period were prospectively enrolled. A clinically predictive risk of LTBI was defined as: (i) recent close contact with a person with pulmonary TB; (ii) abnormal chest radiography; (iii) a history of untreated or inadequately treated TB; or (iv) a new infection (i.e., a recent conversion of TST).</P><P>Results</P><P>Of 209 renal recipients, 47 (22%) had a positive TST≥5 mm, 21 (10%) had a positive TST≥10 mm, 65 (30%) had a positive T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> test, and 25 (12%) had an indeterminate T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> test. The induration size of TST was significantly associated with a high positivity rate on T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> (<I>P</I><0.001). Agreement between T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> test and TST≥10 mm was fair (<I>k</I>=0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.11–0.36). However, neither univariate nor multivariate analysis showed any association between the clinical risk for LTBI and positivity on T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> or TST.</P><P>Conclusion</P><P>T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> test was more frequently positive than TST in renal transplant candidates. However, further longitudinal studies are awaited to determine whether the ability of T-SPOT.<I>TB</I> assay to detect LTBI in renal transplant recipients can better predict the development of TB than can TST after transplantation.</P>
6S RNA, a conserved and abundant small non-coding RNA found in most bacteria, regulates gene expression by inhibiting RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme. 6S RNAs from α-proteobacteria have been studied poorly so far. Here, we present a first in-depth analysis of 6S RNAs from two α-proteobacteria species, Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Although both belong to the order Rhizobiales and are typical nitrogen-fixing symbionts of legumes, their 6S RNA expression profiles were found to differ: B. japonicum 6S RNA accumulated in the stationary phase, thus being reminiscent of Escherichia coli 6S RNA, whereas S. meliloti 6S RNA level peaked at the transition to the stationary phase, similarly to Rhodobacter sphaeroides 6S RNA. We demonstrated in vitro that both RNAs have hallmarks of 6S RNAs: they bind to the σ70-type RNAP holoenzyme and serve as templates for de novo transcription of so-called product RNAs (pRNAs) ranging in length from ~13 to 24 nucleotides, with further evidence of the synthesis of even longer pRNAs. Likewise, stably bound pRNAs were found to rearrange the 6S RNA structure to induce its dissociation from RNAP. Compared with B. japonicum 6S RNA, considerable conformational heterogeneity was observed for S. meliloti 6S RNA and its complexes with pRNAs, even though the two 6S RNAs share ~75% sequence identity. Overall, our findings suggest that the two rhizobial 6S RNAs have diverged with respect to their regulatory impact on gene expression throughout the bacterial life cycle.
Measurements of In2S3 and ZnIn2S4 sprayed thin films thermal characteristics have been carried out using the photodetection technique. The thermal conductivity k and diffusivity D were obtained using a new protocol based on photothermal signal parameters analysis. Measured values of k and D were respectively, (15.2 ± 0.85) Wm-1K-1 and (69.8 ± 7.1) × 10-6 ㎡s-1 for In2S3, (7.2 ± 0.7) Wm-1K-1 and (32.7 ± 4.3) × 10-6 ㎡s-1 for ZnIn2S4. These values are extremely important since similar compounds are more and more proposed as Cd-free alternative materials for solar cells buffer layers. Measurements of In2S3 and ZnIn2S4 sprayed thin films thermal characteristics have been carried out using the photodetection technique. The thermal conductivity k and diffusivity D were obtained using a new protocol based on photothermal signal parameters analysis. Measured values of k and D were respectively, (15.2 ± 0.85) Wm-1K-1 and (69.8 ± 7.1) × 10-6 ㎡s-1 for In2S3, (7.2 ± 0.7) Wm-1K-1 and (32.7 ± 4.3) × 10-6 ㎡s-1 for ZnIn2S4. These values are extremely important since similar compounds are more and more proposed as Cd-free alternative materials for solar cells buffer layers.
China's trajectory over recent years displays a shift in its public diplomacy from traditional coercive measures under hard power toward a combination of both hard and soft power. As soft power signifies the diplomatic ability of a nation to attract others by projecting its internal values and policies, China has taken significant steps within the course of its political history to transition from an isolated authoritarian regime into a more engaged global stakeholder. In addition to analyzing China's soft power and obligations within a global context, an internal examination of China's public diplomacy is also required as the nature of the regime often serves to limit its capabilities in further attracting global actors. As China remains an authoritarian regime, activities related to public diplomacy are largely reserved for the state actors, including officials and state-owned enterprises. Although China has successfully shifted more towards practicing soft power from traditional hard power, areas of concern remain regarding its development, including a lack of attractiveness towards developed nations and limited use of civil society. China's diplomatic agenda includes identifying methods for extending its soft power towards developed and developing countries.
In the past 25 years, international, regional and national women's media networks have worked together to build what has become a truly global women's movement. With a strong background ofleadership and linkages often built around the early work of more traditional international membership organizations such as the World YWCA and Associated Country Women of the World, women have set up and expanded networks ofcommunication and information that stretch into the farthest reaches ofthe world. The advent of new information technologies such as electronic networking via computers, websites, fax broadcasting, and other forms of telecommunications, has introduced a new dimension into all ofthis. These new tools and techniques for women's empowerment are expansions ofwhat has already been put in place by women worldwide. One example of a global women's network is the IWTC network. The International Women's Tribune Centre (IWTC) is an international nongovernmental organization established in 1976 following the UN International Women's Year World Conference in Mexico City. With a philosophical commitment to empowering people and building communities, IWTC provides communication, information, education, and organizing support services to women's organizations and community groups working to improve the lives of women, particularly low-income women, in Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Eastern Europe and Western Asia. Another women's global communications strategy emerged from discussions between women's information and media networks participating in the first Preparatory Committee for the UN Beijing Plus Five Special Session in 2000. These networks formed the Womennction 2000 Coalition and worked solidly to implement a communications strategy that made it possible for women community activists in every world region to participate in the Beijing Plus Five review and appraisal process. Women's media networks worldwide have continued working to get gender issues and concerns onto the agenda ofthe World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). So much is dependent on the ability to inform and communicate with each other and with the world at large. We ask for nothing less than gender equality at every level of decisionmaking and implementation as the world becomes increasingly dependent on not only access to information but the ability and resources to produce and disseminate information.
In this study, a method for fatigue performance estimation of deepwater steel catenary riser (SCR) under short-term vortex-induced vibration was investigated for selected S-N curves. General tendency between S-N curve capacity and fatigue performance was analysed. SCRs are generally used to transport produced oil and gas or to export separated oil and gas, and are exposed to various environmental loads in terms of current, wave, wind and others. Current is closely related with VIV and it affects fatigue life of riser structures significantly. In this regards, the process of appropriate S-N curve selection was performed in the initial design stage based on the scale of fabrication-related initial imperfections such as welding, hot spot, crack, stress concentration factor, and others. To draw the general tendency, the effects of stress concentration factor (SCF), S-N curve type, current profile, and three different sizes of SCRs were considered, and the relationship between S-N curve capacity and short-term VIV fatigue performance of SCR was derived. In case of S-N curve selection, DNV (2012) guideline was adopted and four different current profiles of the Gulf of Mexico (normal condition and Hurricane condition) and Brazil (Amazon basin and Campos basin) were considered. The obtained results will be useful to select the S-N curve for deepwater SCRs and also to understand the relationship between S-N curve capacity and short-term VIV fatigue performance of deepwater SCRs.
Mecke!'s car t ilage is one of the ea rliest structu re to appear in a mandible derived from the lï rst branchi a l a rch and serves as the primorclium I"or the formation 01‘ mandible‘ mall eus. incus. and sphenomandibular li gament However. its direct role a nd the mechanism in mandibular clevelopment a re not well elucidated. 1'0 address t his Issue‘ we observed morphol ogical and histological changes and gene expression patterns in the Mecke!'s cart ilage 01" a cleveloping mouse. I"rom E13.5 to E18.5 embryos. using skeletal preparation samples a ncl routinely prepa red s lide secti ons for light mi croscopic observation in various sectional planes. The following methods were per |‘ ormecl : H&E staining I"or general hi st이 og i cal observation ‘ Von Kossafor detection of minerali zation. TRAP activ ity staining for locali zaLion 01' osteoclastic cell s. immunohistochemistry for !Iα@-1 a ncl -9 forevaluati on of enzy matic activity 01" osteoclasLic cell s. a ncl in situ hybricli zation for detection of collagen type 1. Il. ancl X mRNA ex presslon‘ respecLively. AL E1 3.5 Mec kel's cartilage appeared as a V-shaped rod fused a t the micl line and thin minera li zed ma ndibular buccal plaLe was I"ormed lateral to. and at some clistance from. Meckel's carti lage in an intramembranous ossi lïcation mocle. WiLh the progression of tooth development. t he Meckel's in carti lage adjacent incisors revealecl hyperLrophi c chonclrocyte di ff"er entiation with minerali zation of the chondroid matrix. The Meckel's car Li lage was replacecl with bone by o~ L eoc l asLs . showing strong immunoreact ivity for MMP- l ancl -9 from E16 5 Wi Lh ti me‘ Lhis bony replacement of Meckel's cartilage in an endochondral ossification mode was ex Lenclecl up Lo the mid-porLion of Lhe molar sockets til l EI8.5. The bony replacement of minera li zed hypertrophic chondrocyte zone expressing X collagen mHNA conLri buted to the formation of thick mandibular lingual plate . 1'hese f"i ndings suggesL LhaL mandibular formalion and development is closely relatecl with not only Mecke!'s carLi lage. buL also wiLh Lhc developing LooLh. and thaL C'erLai n in f"l uence from the developing tooth may play a role in detcrmin in g Lhe faLc of Meckel's ca rLi lage cluring ma ndi bular development.
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본 연구는 군자적 리더십이 구성원의 유교적 가치와 리더에 대한 신뢰간의 관계에 미치는 영향을 검증하는 것을 주요 연구목적으로 하였다. 개인수준의 유교적 가치효과와 집단수준의 군자적 리더십 효과를 동시에 고려하기 위해 위계적 선형모형(HLM)분석을 실행하였다. 국내 다양한 산업에 속해 있는 18개 조직으로부터 얻은 98개 팀, 464명의 자료를 분석한 결과, 구성원의 유교적 가치성향이 리더에 대한 신뢰에 정적인 영향을 미쳤고, 집단의 리더가 군자적 리더십을 발휘할 때 이 효과의 크기가 정적으로 강화되고 있음을 확인하였다. 그리고 집단의 공식화 정도가 군자적 리더십의 효과를 대체하고 있음을 발견하였다. 이에 대한 해석을 결론부분에서 자세히 논의하였고, 본 연구의 한계와 미래 연구방향을 제시하였다. This article examines the influence of Kunja's leadership of team leaders on the relationship between Confucian values of team members and their trust in the leader. We hypothesized that 1) the strength of Confucian values of a team member is positively associated with his/her trust in the team leader, 2) Kunja's leadership of a team leader is positively associated with trust of his/her followers in the leader, 3) the degree of formalization of team operations is positively associated with the trust in team leader, 4) the degree of formalization weakens the relationship between Kunja's leadership of a team leader and the trust of his/her followers in the leader, and 5) Kunja's leadership of the team leader strengthens the positive relationship between the strength of Confucian values of followers and their trust in the team leader. To test these supposed hypotheses, we used data of 98 teams with 464 individuals from 18 domestic corporations in various industries. We conducted hierarchical linear regression model analysis to identify the crossed-effect of among multi-level variables as well as both roles of individual level's predicting variables and group level's predicting variables. The results strongly supported the research hypotheses (See Table 2, Figure 1 and Figure 2). First, We found that Confucian values of followers can positively contribute on member's attitudes in working place. This result is significant in suggesting empirically explainable rationale why parental leadership is more effective in Asian cultures than others. Despite many researcher attending the relationship between social value systems and desirable leadership styles referred that Confucian values would affect on the relationship between leaders and followers and the way of exercising power and accepting authority, however, no empirical article existed to directly testify these relationship. Therefore, we expect this result can inspire to stimulate forwarding research for roles of Confucianism in the workplace. Second, the result showed the more similar to Kunja's leadership a team leader is, the much more the leader obtain trust from his/her followers. This finding can be interpreted that deˊ(德), the nature of Kunja's leadership, has the power and its main influencing principle induces the feeling of debts for thanks from others by firstly giving kindness. Once they have feeling of debts, then they try to settle their uncomfortable mind by accepting and following the leader's requirements. This result has implication in empirically supporting the effectiveness of leading by virtues. Third, we found the degree of formalization positively affected on trust in the leader. This implies that institutional trust referred by Zucker(1986) can be transfer to human factor. Therefore, this result can give practical implication to field managers in advising to build standardized norms and procedures. Fourth, We also found remarkable result that the degree of formalization and Kunja's leadership were negatively interacted (Hypothesis 4). This explains that as referred to Kerr & Jamer(1978), the degree of formalization worked for a substitute variable of Kunja's leadership. This result implies that leadership effectiveness would be much larger norm or rules less developed and leader's autonomous control required situations than system well equipped situations. Fifth, the support of hypothesis 5, the positive interaction between Kunja's leadership and Confucian values of followers, is impressive result. Main reason of this result can be inferred from that Kunja's leadership includes emphasized core values of Confucianism and this would be positively affect to produce likeness, agreement and compliance of followers.