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The purpose of this study was designed to identify the health care condition aggressively to urban and semi-urban seniors and to inform the importance of prevention prior to treatment for better old age. A total of 200 seniors who were over the age of 65and lived specific area of Seoul and Daeboo-island Ansan-city, from 7 September to 4 October 2012, and used self-developed questionnaire. The result of relevance analysis for oral health care demands shows that seniors from Ansan-city had higher dental prosthesis demands(the average 4.43) than seniors from Seoul(3.96) and the difference was statistically significant(p<0.01). Analysis of the correlation between items represented positive(+) relation in all items and same age distribution. Dental prosthesis has high correlation in every items, but fluorine treatment has low correlation relatively. Correlation between independent variables and dependent variables was slightly high, R=0.356(35.6%). However daily activity, oral heath care and anxiety times showed statistical significances. The result of this study shows that there are significant differences between urban area and semi-urban area. Therefore, authorities need to offer oral health education.
Many methods have been developed for more efficient gene delivery and expression in human cells. A number of studies have been performed in achieving successful gene delivery and expression conditions. We investigated differential gene expression patterns after delivery adenoviral vector containing green fluorescent protein(GFP) gene into human cancer cell lines. We constructed recombinant adenoviral Ad-CMV-GFP containing CMV promoter and GFP gene. The efficiency of gene expression was assessed by observation GFP expressing cells using fluorescent microscopy after transfer of Ad-CMV-GFP in concentrations of 0.1μl. 1μl. 10μl. At first, we evaluated expression patterns of gene in several human cancer cell lines, gastric adenocarcinoma cell line AGS was showed high level of GFP expression compared with colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29. After transfer 0.1μl of Ad-CMV-GFP in AGS, we could found that GFP expression cells were observed in next day and highly increased 2 days. While, small number of GFP expressing cells were examined in HT-29 and SNU-C4. Therefore, these data showed that AGS was expressed the highest level of GFP and almost AGS cells seems to express GFP in concentration of 1μl of Ad-CMV-GFP. GFP expression pattern in HT-29 reveal that expression was low in next day after gene transfer but significantly increase expression level in 2 days. In case of SNU-C4, GFP expression increased with increasing concentration of Ad-CMV-GFP and transfer times. For examine effects of transfer times in small amount gene, we transfer in concentration of 0.1μl Ad-CMV-GFP and detected GFP expression patterns after 2 days or 4 days. As a result, expression level of GFP in AGS was increase about 2 fold after 4 days compared with 2 days, but any difference of GFP expression levels were not showed in HT-29 and SNU-C4. Our study suggested that adenovirus was very efficient gene transfer vector for gene expression in human cancer cell lines. In addition to, we also demonstrated that gene expression patterns was dependent on each human cell lines. Therefore, further studies will be needed to confirm the optimum conditions for efficient gene delivery and expression in each target cell lines with consideration to cellular properties.
In order to perform the protein analysis using the paraffin sections previous fixed with formalin, we applied the ImmunoMemBlot (IMB) method1) to detect the epitopes of target proteins with specific antibodies. In this study the protein extracts were obtained from the paraffin sections of each representative case of ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), and normal gingiva, and more a protein extract from fresh tissue of ameloblastoma was also compared to evaluate the IMB results used with 24 different antibodies. First of all, in the comparison between the paraffin section extract and fresh tissue extract of ameloblastoma, the latter consistently showed more positive IMB reaction than the former. Meanwhile, the paraffin section extract of ameloblastoma was more comparable with that of normal gingival, disclosing that most of proliferating genes, oncogenes, and apoptosis related genes, i.e., PCNA, CDK4, c-erbB2, CEA, p53, Bax, Bad, FLIP, FAS, Bcl-2, p21, N-ras, MMP-2, MMP-9, caspase-3, -8, -9, were highly expressed in ameloblastoma, but EGFR, HGF, and VEGF were similarly expressed both in the ameloblastoma and in normal human gingiva. On the other hand, the comparison between ameloblastoma and AOT both in the immunohistochemistry and IMB using their paraffin section extracts clearly demonstrated that the ameloblastoma showed more expression of proliferating genes and oncogenes while the AOT showed more expression of apoptosis related genes, i.e., Bax, Bad, FLIP, and caspase-9. Taken together, these data suggest that the IMB can be used for the primary screening of quantitative protein analysis using the paraffin section extract, and that the IMB results could be evaluated in conjunction with the immunohistochemical observation.
The nasopalatine duct, the most dominant developmental tubule formed by the emergence of premaxilla and both sides of anterior palatal processes. This duct normally disappears in humans but remains latent and provides communication between the oral and nasal cavities in some mammals. However, the duct is obliterated and degenerated before birth in human, thus the persisting or patent nasopalatine duct in postnatal life is considered a developmental anomaly. Two cases of patent nasopalatine duct were presented in this study. Although the ducts were not sectioned longitudinally, they were probably connected each other and contained mucous materials secreted from the associated mucous glands. In the immunohistochemical study the ductal epithelium was consistently positive for the growth-related biomarkers including TGFβ1, c-erbB2, EGFR, CTGF, FGFb, HGF, eiF5A, FAK, and pAKT. And many columnar epithelial cells of the duct were positive for PCNA. Particularly, TNFα was clearly positive in the ductal epithelium together with β-defensin-2, -3 and MMP-3, -9. These findings may imply that the ducts have a growth potential postnatally and also can induce inflammatory reaction. Therefore, it was presumed that the present cases of patent nasopalatine ducts were caused by the latent proliferation of ductal epithelia in the vascular environment of nasopalatine canal without cyst formation, and also suggested that the patent nasopalatine ducts connected with functioning mucous glands were partly open to oral/nasal cavity and should be differentially diagnosed from the nasopalatine duct cyst.
Recently, oteomyelitis from oral and maxillofacial region which is an acute or chronic inflammatory process in medullary spaces or cortical surfaces of bone is uncommon in Korea. And the clinicopatholgic study of osteomyelitis in Korea has been rarely reported. The purpose of this study were to examine the clinicopatholgic analysis of osteomyelitis patients and to apply its results for treatment. Retrospective analysis of 103 cases of osteomyelitis patients treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at DKUDH from 1991 to 2000. There was a male predominance with a 2.3:1 ratio. The mean age of onset of disease was almost the same in cases of acute and chronic osteomyelitis: 29.4 years(range 1-81 years). Swelling, pain, pus discharge, and sequestration were main characteristic features of this disease entity. Acute chronic osteomyelitis of the jaws is caused mostly by a bacterial focus(odontogenic disease, periapical lesion, pericoronitis, periodontal disease, postextraction wounds, and infected fractures). It suggested that acute and chronic osteomyelitis could be basically the same disease separated by the arbitrary time limit of 1 month after onset of the disease by a true bacterial infection. And these results could play an role in the diagnosis and treatment of osteomyelitis of the jaws
Anchorage plays an important role in orthodontic treatment. Recently, some clinicians have tried to use skeletal anchorage system(titanium miniscrews and microscrews) in treatment due to their many advantages such as ease of insertion and removal, low cost, immediate loading, and the ability to place miniscrews in any area of alveolar bone. The purpose of this study was to investigate the histopathologic change of alveolar bone density around miniscrew under variable ortho -donticforceinyoung-adultdogs, throughthepolarizingmicroscopic findings. For this study, three young adult mongrel dogs(6-months in age) were used, 12 titanium miniscrews were inserted into the palatal bone(4 miniscrews placed in each dog), and then miniscrews were loadedwithorthodonticforce [50gm(F1),100gm(F2),250gm(F3), 500gm(F4)] immediately after implantation. After 1, 3 and 6 weeks, the animals were sacrificed. Then the miniscrews and surrounding bone of dogs were removed, respectively. The grinding samples along the long axis of miniscrew were made. The changes of bone density and thrombosis were examined under the polarizing microscope. Bone density was determined as color changes. The results of this study were as follows. 1. There was no thrombosis in the F1 group. But thrombosis was seen in 1 week of T side, 1, 3, 6 weeks of P side in the F2 group, 1, 3 weeks of T side, 1, 3, 6 weeks of P side in the F3 group and 1, 3, 6 weeks of both P and T side in the F4 group. 2. The changes of bone density decreased in P side more than T side in 1 week, while more decreased P side in 3 weeks than 1 week. In 6 weeks, bone density more increased in T side than P side along the middle & apex. 3. As orthodontic force increased, there was severe thrombosis, especially in cervical of P side. As it went up to 3, 6 weeks, thrombosis was decreased but remained. 4. As orthodontic force increased, bone density more severely decreased due to bone destruction in 1 and 3 weeks, but more slowly increased due to bone formation in 6 weeks. Based on the results of this study, in the practice, because of optimal orthodontic force for the most of tooth movement was less than 150gm, I thought that miniscrews could play role of use of skeletal anchorage immediately after implantation. In the more than 250gm & 500gm of orthodontic force, I thought that miniscrews would be delayed as use of skeletal anchorage after loss of bone was restored.