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The paper shows MPEG-4 FGS(Fine Granularity Scalability) using the scalable video encoding technique that is adapted by MPEG-4 standard and a scheme to improve its efficiency. MPEG-4 FGS is the encoding technique that has the good flexibility for various property of devices and bandwidth variation over the internet. To improve MPEG-4 FGS coding efficiency, we applied an encoding technique with temporal scalability. In other words, the base layer is encoded with the same technique as the typical MPEG-4 FGS and the enhancement layer is encoded by adding temporal scalability property In test results, we could know that had better coding efficiency in the case of adding temporal scalability for the enhancement layer.
This paper proposes a novel ECU (Electronic Control Units) update algorithm for AUTOSAR based automotive embedded system. The proposed algorithm provides fast and easy ECU update by extending AUTOSAR CAN Interface. The proposed system removes the update sequences from PDUR to RTE (ECU update program), and it stops other ISRs and operating system in order to reduce unnecessary context switching time. In experimental results, we can see that the proposed algorithm reduces update time.
This paper examines the interactions among immigrants, inbound FDI, and imports in the U.S. In testing the patterns of international movements of factors of production, most existing analyses have omitted the role of international trade. On the other hand, research on the relationship between FDI and international trade has neglected the importance of international labor movements. This study uses a vector error correction model to consider all three variables. Using U.S. annual data from 1969 to 2000, we find that labor and FDI move in the same direction and labor movements cause FDI movements. In addition, it is also found that inbound FDI and imports are substitutes.
The dielectric characteristics of low-k interlayer dielectric materials was fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). BTMSM precursor was evaporated and introduced with the flow rates from 16 sccm to 25 sccm by 1sccm step in the constant flow rate of 60 sccm O₂ in process chamber. Manufactured samples are analyzed components by measuring FT/IR absorption lines. Decomposition each Microscopic structures through two-dimensional correlation analysis about mechanisms for the formation of SiOCH in SiOCH₃, Si-O-Si and Si-CH₃ bonding group and analyzed correlation between the micro-structure of each group. It is a tendency that seems to be growing of Si-O-Si(C) bonding group and narrowing of Si-O-CH₃ bonding group relative to the increasing flow-rate BTMSM. The order of changing sensitivity about changes of flow-rate in Si-O-Si(C) bonding group is cross link mode(1050 ㎝-1) → open link mode(1100 ㎝-1) → cage link mode (1140 ㎝-1).
We have Manufactured the low-k dielectric interlayer fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The thin film of SiOCH is studied correlation between components and Dielectric constant. The precursor was evaporated and introduced with the flow rates from 16 sccm to 25 sccm by 1sccm step in the constant flow rate of 60 sccm O₂ in process chamber. The chemical characteristics of SiOCH were analyzed by measuring FT/IR absorption lines and obtained each dielectric constant measuring C-V. Then compare respectively. ILD of BTMSM/O₂ could have low dielectric constant about k ~ 2, and react sensitively. Also dielectric constant could be decreased by the effects of decreasing CH₃ and growing Si-O-Si(C) after annealing process.
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) has been of interest as a promising coating for protection and insulating layer in micro-electromechanical systems due to high hardness, wear resistance, transparency in IR range, chemical inertness and biocompatibility. The interfacial effect on thermal transport is studied for DLC films deposited on Al2O3 substrates with an ion gun method. Thermal conductivity of DLC thin films is measured with a 3ω method. DLC films show the thickness-dependent thermal conductivity, which is understood with the interfacial thermal resistance between DLC thin film and Al2O3 substrate. The interfacial thermal resistance and thermal conductivity of bulk DLC are determined with the measured thickness-dependent thermal conductivity of DLC films.
Polymetallic nodule and sediment characteristics were investigated for two blocks (KR2 and KR5) in the Korea Deep Ocean Study (KODOS) area in order to better understand nodule distribution and the potential effects of sediments on nodule genesis. The northern block (KR2) is dominated by hydrogenetic nodules, whereas the southern block (KR5) is dominated by diagenetic nodules. Sediments in the study area are assigned to three major lithologic units which are distinctive in color and texture. The northern block is characterized by a thick, metalpoor Unit 1 sediment, which is thin in the southern block, where metal-rich Units 2b and 3 occur close to the surface. The distribution of different nodule genetic types in the northern and southern blocks can be attributed to topographic variations (topographic high near seamounts in KR2 and abyssal plain in KR5) and different sedimentation rates (0.1 and 0.32 mm/kyr in blocks KR2 and KR5, respectively). The southern block has a geologic setting more conducive to diagenetic nodule formation,such as flat topography and sediment composition. Nodule distribution in the studied blocks might also be explained by the distribution of the sediment units of different metal contents. The northern block, in which Unit 1 is thicker, has more abundant hydrogenetic nodules, possibly because Unit 1 prevents metals that are remobilized from the underlying sediments from reaching the seabed where the nodules are forming.
본 논문에서는 국내 광대역 CDMA WLL(Wireless Local Loop) 규격올 적용한 스마트안테나 시스템의 빔 형성모듈을 설계, 제작하여 본 연구실에서 제안한 빔형성 알고리즘의 수신신호 성능을 실시간으로 분석할 수 있는 시연시스템을 제안하였다. 본 논문에서 소개되는 시연시스템은 범형성모듈뿐 아니라, 빔형성모듈의 성능을 확인 . 평가. 분석하기 위한 PC와 인터페이스 장치인 테스트 모률(신호생성모률)이 포함된다. 빔형성모율 에서는 자체 개발한 CGM(Conjugate Gradient Meth떠)알고리즘을 이용하여 최적의 웨이트 벡터를 생성시켜 주며, 계산된 웨이트 빽터는 PC로 전달되어 다양한 성능분석을 수행하게 한다. 스마트 안테나 시스템을 직접 구현 하여 성능을 분석한 결과, CDMA WLL 기지국에 스마트 안테나를 사용함으로써 대폭적인 통신품질 향상 및 용량 증대가 될 것으로 판단된다. In this paper, we present the hardware implementation of a smart antenna test-bed for a real -time performance analysis of the beam-forming algorithm operating in a wide-band CDMA environments of the WLL(Wireless Local Loop) standard. The test-bed introduced in this paper includes an external PC and signal generating module as well as the beam-forming module in order to perform, analyze, and evaluate the performance of the proposed smart antenna system. In the beam-forming module, the optimal weight vector is provided by the modified CGM algorithm. The computed weight vector is transferred back to the external PC for the performance analysis based on the off-line processing. From our analysis obtained in the hardware of the test-bed, it is concluded that the proposed smart antenna system for the WLL system is appropriate for enhancing the communication quality and capacity tremendously at the cell-site of the CDMA environment.