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        • A techno-economic analysis of partial repowering of a 210 MW coal fired power plant

          Samanta,,Samiran,Ghosh,,Sudip Techno-Press 2015 Advances in energy research Vol.3 No.3

          This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of a partial repowering scheme for an existing 210 MW coal fired power plant by integrating a gas turbine and by employing waste heat recovery. In this repowering scheme, one of the four operating coal mills is taken out and a new natural gas fired gas turbine (GT) block is considered to be integrated, whose exhaust is fed to the furnace of the existing boiler. Feedwater heating is proposed through the utilization of waste heat of the boiler exhaust gas. From the thermodynamic analysis it is seen that the proposed repowering scheme helps to increase the plant capacity by about 28% and the overall efficiency by 27%. It also results in 21% reduction in the plant heat rate and 29% reduction in the specific $CO_2$ emissions. The economic analysis reveals that the partial repowering scheme is cost effective resulting in a reduction of the unit cost of electricity (UCOE) by 8.4%. The economic analysis further shows that the UCOE of the repowered plant is lower than that of a new green-field power plant of similar capacity.

        • SCIESCOPUS

          Incremental filling ratio of pipe pile groups in sandy soil

          Fattah,,Mohammed,Y.,Salim,,Nahla,M.,Al-Gharrawi,,Asaad,M.B. Techno-Press 2018 Geomechanics & engineering Vol.15 No.1

          Formation of a soil plug in an open-ended pile is a very important factor in determining the pile behavior both during driving and during static loading. The degree of soil plugging can be represented by the incremental filling ratio (IFR) which is defined as the change in the plug length to the change of the pile embedment length. The experimental tests carried out in this research contain 138 tests that are divided as follows: 36 tests for single pile, 36 tests for pile group ($2{\times}1$), 36 tests for pile group ($2{\times}2$) and 30 pile group ($2{\times}3$). All tubular piles were tested using the poorly graded sand from the city of Karbala in Iraq. The sand was prepared at three different densities using a raining technique. Different parameters are considered such as method of installation, relative density, removal of soil plug with respect to length of plug and pile length to diameter ratio. The soil plug is removed using a new device which is manufactured to remove the soil column inside open pipe piles group installed using driving and pressing device. The principle of soil plug removal depends on suction of sand inside the pile. It was concluded that the incremental filling ratio (IFR) is changed with the changing of soil state and method of installation. For driven pipe pile group, the average IFR for piles in loose is 18% and 19.5% for L/D=12 and 15, respectively, while the average of IFR for driven piles in dense sand is 30% and 20% for L/D=12 and L/D=15 respectively. For pressed method of pile installation, the average IFR for group is zero for loose and medium sand and about 5% for dense sand. The group capacity increases with the increase of IFR. For driven pile with length of 450 mm, the average IFR % is about 30.3% in dense sand, 14% in medium and 18.3% for loose sand while when the length of pile is 300 mm, the percentage equals to 20%, 17% and 19.5%, respectively.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

          Effects of Constrained Groove Pressing (CGP) on the plane stress fracture toughness of pure copper

          Mohammadi,,Bijan,Tavoli,,Marzieh,Djavanroodi,,Faramarz Techno-Press 2014 Structural Engineering and Mechanics, An Int'l Jou Vol.52 No.5

          Among severe plastic deformation methods, groove pressing is one of the prominent techniques for producing ultra-fine grained sheet materials. This process consists of imposing repetitive severe plastic deformation on the plate or sheet metals through alternate pressing. In the current study, a 2 mm pure Cu sheet has been subjected to repetitive shear deformation up to two passes. Hardness and tensile yield and ultimate stress were obtained after groove pressing. Fracture toughness tests have been performed and compared for three conditions of sheet material namely as received (initial annealed state), after one and two passes of groove pressing. Results of experiments indicate that a decrease in the values of fracture toughness attains as the number of constrained groove pressing (CGP) passes increase.

        • SCIESCOPUS

          Damage localization and quantification in beams from slope discontinuities in static deflections

          Ma,,Qiaoyu,Solis,,Mario Techno-Press 2018 Smart Structures and Systems, An International Jou Vol.22 No.3

          This paper presents a flexibility based method for damage identification from static measurements in beam-type structures. The response of the beam at the Damaged State is decomposed into the response at the Reference State plus the response at an Incremental State, which represents the effect of damage. The damage is localized by detecting slope discontinuities in the deflection of the structure at the Incremental State. A denoising filtering technique is applied to reduce the effect of experimental noise. The extent of the damage is estimated through comparing the experimental flexural stiffness of the damaged cross-sections with the corresponding values provided by analytical models of cracked beams. The paper illustrates the method by showing a numerical example with two cracks and an experimental case study of a simply supported steel beam with one artificially introduced notch type crack at three damage levels. A Digital Image Correlation system was used to accurately measure the deflections of the beam at a dense measurement grid under a set of point loads. The results indicate that the method can successfully detect and quantify a small damage from the experimental data.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

          Reliability analysis on flutter of the long-span Aizhai bridge

          Liu,,Shuqian,Cai,,C.S.,Han,,Yan,Li,,Chunguang Techno-Press 2018 Wind and Structures, An International Journal (WAS Vol.27 No.3

          With the continuous increase of span lengths, modern bridges are becoming much more flexible and more prone to flutter under wind excitations. A reasonable probabilistic flutter analysis of long-span bridges involving random and uncertain variables may have to be taken into consideration. This paper presents a method for estimating the reliability index and failure probability due to flutter, which considers the very important variables including the extreme wind velocity at bridge site, damping ratio, mathematical modeling, and flutter derivatives. The Aizhai Bridge in China is selected as an example to demonstrate the numerical procedure for the flutter reliability analysis. In the presented method, the joint probability density function of wind speed and wind direction at the deck level of the bridge is first established. Then, based on the fundamental theories of structural reliability, the reliability index and failure probability due to flutter of the Aizhai Bridge is investigated by applying the Monte Carlo method and the first order reliability method (FORM). The probabilistic flutter analysis can provide a guideline in the design of long-span bridges and the results show that the structural damping and flutter derivatives have significant effects on the flutter reliability, more accurate and reliable data of which is needed.

        • SCIESCOPUS

          Coupling relevance vector machine and response surface for geomechanical parameters identification

          Zhao,,Hongbo,Ru,,Zhongliang,Li,,Shaojun Techno-Press 2018 Geomechanics & engineering Vol.15 No.6

          Geomechanics parameters are critical to numerical simulation, stability analysis, design and construction of geotechnical engineering. Due to the limitations of laboratory and in situ experiments, back analysis is widely used in geomechancis and geotechnical engineering. In this study, a hybrid back analysis method, that coupling numerical simulation, response surface (RS) and relevance vector machine (RVM), was proposed and applied to identify geomechanics parameters from hydraulic fracturing. RVM was adapted to approximate complex functional relationships between geomechanics parameters and borehole pressure through coupling with response surface method and numerical method. Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm was used to search the geomechanics parameters as optimal method in back analysis. The proposed method was verified by a numerical example. Based on the geomechanics parameters identified by hybrid back analysis, the computed borehole pressure agreed closely with the monitored borehole pressure. It showed that RVM presented well the relationship between geomechanics parameters and borehole pressure, and the proposed method can characterized the geomechanics parameters reasonably. Further, the parameters of hybrid back analysis were analyzed and discussed. It showed that the hybrid back analysis is feasible, effective, robust and has a good global searching performance. The proposed method provides a significant way to identify geomechanics parameters from hydraulic fracturing.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Application of shakedown analysis technique to earthquake-resistant design of ductile moment-resisting steel structures

          Lee,,Han-Seon,Bertero,,Vitelmo,V. Techno-Press 1993 Structural Engineering and Mechanics, An Int'l Jou Vol.1 No.1

          The motivations of the application of shakedown analysis to the earthquake-resistant design of ductile moment-resisting steel structures are presented. The problems which must be solved with this application are also addressed. The illustrative results from a series of static and time history nonlinear analyses of one-bay three-story steel frame and the related discussions have shown that the incremental collapse may be the critical design criterion in case of earthquake loading. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the inelastic excursion mechanism for alternation load pattern, such as in earthquake, should be the sidesway mechanism of the whole structure for the efficient mobilization of the structural energy dissipating capacity and that the shakedown analysis technique can be used as a tool to ensure this mechanism.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

          Effects of deviation in materials' strengths on the lateral strength and damage of RC frames

          Massumi,,Ali,Sadeghi,,Kabir,Moshtagh,,Ehsan Techno-Press 2018 Structural Engineering and Mechanics, An Int'l Jou Vol.68 No.3

          The real behavior of the RC structures constructed based on the assumed specifications of the used materials is matched with the designed ones when the assumed and the applied specifications in construction are the same. Despite in the construction phase of the reinforced concrete (RC) structures always it is tried to implement the same specifications of materials as given in the executive drawings, but considering the unpredicted/uncontrolled parameters that affect the specification of materials, always there is a deviation between the constructed and the designed materials' specifications. The objective of this paper is to submit a guideline for the evaluation of the strength and damage to the existing RC structures encountered deviation in materials' strengths. To achieve this goal, the lateral strength (plastic behaviors) and damage to twenty-five RC moment-resisting frames (MRFs) are studied by applying the inelastic analysis. In this study, a couple of concrete and reinforcement strengths' deviations are investigated. The obtained results indicate that in general, there is a semi-linear relationship between the deviation in the strength of reinforcement and the changes in the lateral strength values of the MRFs. The relative effect of the deviation in the strength of reinforcements is more than the relative effect of the deviation in the concrete strength on the damage rate. The obtained results could be a guideline for the engineers in the survey of the existing buildings encountered deviation in materials' strengths during their construction phase.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

          Effect of bogie fairings on the snow reduction of a high-speed train bogie under crosswinds using a discrete phase method

          Gao,,Guangjun,Zhang,,Yani,Zhang,,Jie,Xie,,Fei,Zhang,,Yan,Wang,,Jiabin Techno-Press 2018 Wind and Structures, An International Journal (WAS Vol.27 No.4

          This paper investigated the wind-snow flow around the bogie region of a high-speed train under crosswinds using a coupled numerical method of the unsteady Realizable $k-{\varepsilon}$ turbulence model and discrete phase model (DPM). The flow features around the bogie region were discussed and the influence of bogie fairing height on the snow accumulation on the bogie was also analyzed. Here the high-speed train was running at a speed of 200 km/h in a natural environment with the crosswind speed of 15 m/s. The mesh resolution and methodology for CFD analysis were validated against wind tunnel experiments. The results show that large negative pressure occurs locally on the bottom of wheels, electric motors, gear covers, while the positive pressure occurs locally on those windward surfaces. The airflow travels through the complex bogie and flows towards the rear bogie plate, causing a backflow in the upper space of the bogie region. The snow particles mainly accumulate on the wheels, electric motors, windward sides of gear covers, side fairings and back plate of the bogie. Longer side fairings increase the snow accumulation on the bogie, especially on the back plate, side fairings and brake clamps. However, the fairing height shows little impact on snow accumulation on the upper region of the bogie. Compared to short side fairings, a full length side fairing model contributes to more than two times of snow accumulation on the brake clamps, and more than 20% on the whole bogie.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

          Capacity assessment of existing corroded overhead power line structures subjected to synoptic winds

          Niu,,Huawei,Li,,Xuan,Zhang,,Wei Techno-Press 2018 Wind and Structures, An International Journal (WAS Vol.27 No.5

          The physical infrastructure of the power systems, including the high-voltage transmission towers and lines as well as the poles and wires for power distribution at a lower voltage level, is critical for the resilience of the community since the failures or nonfunctioning of these structures could introduce large area power outages under the extreme weather events. In the current engineering practices, single circuit lattice steel towers linked by transmission lines are widely used to form power transmission systems. After years of service and continues interactions with natural and built environment, progressive damages accumulate at various structural details and could gradually change the structural performance. This study is to evaluate the typical existing transmission tower-line system subjected to synoptic winds (atmospheric boundary layer winds). Effects from the possible corrosion penetration on the structural members of the transmission towers and the aerodynamic damping force on the conductors are evaluated. However, corrosion in connections is not included. Meanwhile, corrosion on the structural members is assumed to be evenly distributed. Wind loads are calculated based on the codes used for synoptic winds and the wind tunnel experiments were carried out to obtain the drag coefficients for different panels of the transmission towers as well as for the transmission lines. Sensitivity analysis is carried out based upon the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) to evaluate the structural capacity of the transmission tower-line system for different corrosion and loading conditions. Meanwhile, extreme value analysis is also performed to further estimate the short-term extreme response of the transmission tower-line system.

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