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        • SCIESCOPUS

          Incremental filling ratio of pipe pile groups in sandy soil

          Fattah,,Mohammed,Y.,Salim,,Nahla,M.,Al-Gharrawi,,Asaad,M.B. Techno-Press 2018 Geomechanics & engineering Vol.15 No.1

          Formation of a soil plug in an open-ended pile is a very important factor in determining the pile behavior both during driving and during static loading. The degree of soil plugging can be represented by the incremental filling ratio (IFR) which is defined as the change in the plug length to the change of the pile embedment length. The experimental tests carried out in this research contain 138 tests that are divided as follows: 36 tests for single pile, 36 tests for pile group ($2{\times}1$), 36 tests for pile group ($2{\times}2$) and 30 pile group ($2{\times}3$). All tubular piles were tested using the poorly graded sand from the city of Karbala in Iraq. The sand was prepared at three different densities using a raining technique. Different parameters are considered such as method of installation, relative density, removal of soil plug with respect to length of plug and pile length to diameter ratio. The soil plug is removed using a new device which is manufactured to remove the soil column inside open pipe piles group installed using driving and pressing device. The principle of soil plug removal depends on suction of sand inside the pile. It was concluded that the incremental filling ratio (IFR) is changed with the changing of soil state and method of installation. For driven pipe pile group, the average IFR for piles in loose is 18% and 19.5% for L/D=12 and 15, respectively, while the average of IFR for driven piles in dense sand is 30% and 20% for L/D=12 and L/D=15 respectively. For pressed method of pile installation, the average IFR for group is zero for loose and medium sand and about 5% for dense sand. The group capacity increases with the increase of IFR. For driven pile with length of 450 mm, the average IFR % is about 30.3% in dense sand, 14% in medium and 18.3% for loose sand while when the length of pile is 300 mm, the percentage equals to 20%, 17% and 19.5%, respectively.

        • A techno-economic analysis of partial repowering of a 210 MW coal fired power plant

          Samanta,,Samiran,Ghosh,,Sudip Techno-Press 2015 Advances in energy research Vol.3 No.3

          This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of a partial repowering scheme for an existing 210 MW coal fired power plant by integrating a gas turbine and by employing waste heat recovery. In this repowering scheme, one of the four operating coal mills is taken out and a new natural gas fired gas turbine (GT) block is considered to be integrated, whose exhaust is fed to the furnace of the existing boiler. Feedwater heating is proposed through the utilization of waste heat of the boiler exhaust gas. From the thermodynamic analysis it is seen that the proposed repowering scheme helps to increase the plant capacity by about 28% and the overall efficiency by 27%. It also results in 21% reduction in the plant heat rate and 29% reduction in the specific $CO_2$ emissions. The economic analysis reveals that the partial repowering scheme is cost effective resulting in a reduction of the unit cost of electricity (UCOE) by 8.4%. The economic analysis further shows that the UCOE of the repowered plant is lower than that of a new green-field power plant of similar capacity.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

          Effects of Constrained Groove Pressing (CGP) on the plane stress fracture toughness of pure copper

          Mohammadi,,Bijan,Tavoli,,Marzieh,Djavanroodi,,Faramarz Techno-Press 2014 Structural Engineering and Mechanics, An Int'l Jou Vol.52 No.5

          Among severe plastic deformation methods, groove pressing is one of the prominent techniques for producing ultra-fine grained sheet materials. This process consists of imposing repetitive severe plastic deformation on the plate or sheet metals through alternate pressing. In the current study, a 2 mm pure Cu sheet has been subjected to repetitive shear deformation up to two passes. Hardness and tensile yield and ultimate stress were obtained after groove pressing. Fracture toughness tests have been performed and compared for three conditions of sheet material namely as received (initial annealed state), after one and two passes of groove pressing. Results of experiments indicate that a decrease in the values of fracture toughness attains as the number of constrained groove pressing (CGP) passes increase.

        • KCI등재SCOPUS

          Effect of blockage on the drag of a triangular cylinder

          Yeung,,W.W.H. Techno-Press 2009 Wind and Structures, An International Journal (WAS Vol.12 No.1

          A method is presented to estimate the form drag and the base pressure on a triangular cylinder in the presence of blockage effect. The Strouhal number, which is found to increase with the flow constriction experimentally by Ramamurthy & Ng (1973), may be decoupled from the blockage effect when re-defined by using the velocity at flow separation and a theoretical wake width. By incorporating this wake width into the momentum equation by Maskell (1963) for the confined flow, a relationship between the form drag and the base pressure is derived. Independently, the experimental data of surface pressure from Ramamurthy & Lee (1973) are found to be independent of the blockage effect when expressed in terms of a modified pressure coefficient involving the pressure at separation. Using the potential flow model by Parkinson & Jandali (1970) and its subsequent development in Yeung & Parkinson (2000) for the unconfined flow, a linear relation between the pressure at separation and the form drag is formulated. By solving the two equations simultaneously with a specified blockage ratio and an apex angle of the triangular cylinder, the predictions of the drag and the base pressure are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. A new theoretical relationship for the Strouhal number, pressure drag coefficient and base pressure proposed in this study allows the confinement effect to be appropriately taken into consideration. The present approach may be extended to three-dimensional bluff bodies.

        • SCIESCOPUS

          Adaptive balancing of highly flexible rotors by using artificial neural networks

          Saldarriaga,,M.,Villafane,Mahfoud,,J.,Steffen,,V.,Jr.,Der,Hagopian,,J. Techno-Press 2009 Smart Structures and Systems, An International Jou Vol.5 No.5

          The present work is an alternative methodology in order to balance a nonlinear highly flexible rotor by using neural networks. This procedure was developed aiming at improving the performance of classical balancing methods, which are developed in the context of linearity between acting forces and resulting displacements and are not well adapted to these situations. In this paper a fully experimental procedure using neural networks is implemented for dealing with the adaptive balancing of nonlinear rotors. The nonlinearity results from the large displacements measured due to the high flexibility of the foundation. A neural network based meta-model was developed to represent the system. The initialization of the learning procedure of the network is performed by using the influence coefficient method and the adaptive balancing strategy is prone to converge rapidly to a satisfactory solution. The methodology is tested successfully experimentally.

        • SCIESCOPUS

          A decentralized approach to damage localization through smart wireless sensors

          Jeong,,Min-Joong,Koh,,Bong-Hwan Techno-Press 2009 Smart Structures and Systems, An International Jou Vol.5 No.1

          This study introduces a novel approach for locating damage in a structure using wireless sensor system with local level computational capability to alleviate data traffic load on the centralized computation. Smart wireless sensor systems, capable of iterative damage-searching, mimic an optimization process in a decentralized way. The proposed algorithm tries to detect damage in a structure by monitoring abnormal increases in strain measurements from a group of wireless sensors. Initially, this clustering technique provides a reasonably effective sensor placement within a structure. Sensor clustering also assigns a certain number of master sensors in each cluster so that they can constantly monitor the structural health of a structure. By adopting a voting system, a group of wireless sensors iteratively forages for a damage location as they can be activated as needed. Since all of the damage searching process occurs within a small group of wireless sensors, no global control or data traffic to a central system is required. Numerical simulation demonstrates that the newly developed searching algorithm implemented on wireless sensors successfully localizes stiffness damage in a plate through the local level reconfigurable function of smart sensors.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

          Reliability based analysis of torsional divergence of long span suspension bridges

          Cheng,,Jin,Li,,Q.S. Techno-Press 2009 Wind and Structures, An International Journal (WAS Vol.12 No.2

          A systematic reliability evaluation approach for torsional divergence analysis of long span suspension bridges is proposed, consisting of the first order reliability method and a simplified torsional divergence analysis method. The proposed method was implemented in the deterministic torsional divergence analysis program SIMTDB through a new strategy involving interfacing the proposed method with SIMTDB via a freely available MATLAB software tool (FERUM). A numerical example involving a detailed computational model of a long span suspension bridge with a main span of 888 m is presented to demonstrate the applicability and merits of the proposed method and the associated software strategy. Finally, the most influential random variables on the reliability of long span suspension bridges against torsional divergence failure are identified by a sensitivity analysis.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

          Series solutions for spatially coupled buckling anlaysis of thin-walled Timoshenko curved beam on elastic foundation

          Kim,,Nam-Il Techno-Press 2009 Structural Engineering and Mechanics, An Int'l Jou Vol.33 No.4

          The spatially coupled buckling, in-plane, and lateral bucking analyses of thin-walled Timoshenko curved beam with non-symmetric, double-, and mono-symmetric cross-sections resting on elastic foundation are performed based on series solutions. The stiffness matrices are derived rigorously using the homogeneous form of the simultaneous ordinary differential equations. The present beam formulation includes the mechanical characteristics such as the non-symmetric cross-section, the thickness-curvature effect, the shear effects due to bending and restrained warping, the second-order terms of semitangential rotation, the Wagner effect, and the foundation effects. The equilibrium equations and force-deformation relationships are derived from the energy principle and expressions for displacement parameters are derived based on power series expansions of displacement components. Finally the element stiffness matrix is determined using force-deformation relationships. In order to verify the accuracy and validity of this study, the numerical solutions by the proposed method are presented and compared with the finite element solutions using the classical isoparametric curved beam elements and other researchers' analytical solutions.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

          Identification of prestress force in a prestressed Timoshenko beam

          Lu,,Z.R.,Liu,,J.K.,Law,,S.S. Techno-Press 2008 Structural Engineering and Mechanics, An Int'l Jou Vol.29 No.3

          This paper presents a new identification approach to prestress force. Firstly, a bridge deck is modeled as a prestressed Timoshenko beam. The time domain responses of the beam under sinusoidal excitation are studied based on modal superposition. The prestress force is then identified in the time domain by a system identification approach incorporating with the regularization of the solution. The orthogonal polynomial function is used to improve the noise effect and obtain the derivatives of modal responses of the bridge. Good identification results are obtained from only the first few measured modal data under both sinusoidal and impulsive excitations. It is shown that the proposed method is insensitive to the magnitude of force to be identified and can be successfully applied to indirectly identify the prestress force as well as other physical parameters, such as the flexural rigidity and shearing rigidity of a beam even under noisy environment.

        • The effects of stiffness strengthening nonlocal stress and axial tension on free vibration of cantilever nanobeams

          Lim,,C.W.,Li,,C.,Yu,,J.L. Techno-Press 2009 Interaction and multiscale mechanics Vol.2 No.3

          This paper presents a new nonlocal stress variational principle approach for the transverse free vibration of an Euler-Bernoulli cantilever nanobeam with an initial axial tension at its free end. The effects of a nanoscale at molecular level unavailable in classical mechanics are investigated and discussed. A sixth-order partial differential governing equation for transverse free vibration is derived via variational principle with nonlocal elastic stress field theory. Analytical solutions for natural frequencies and transverse vibration modes are determined by applying a numerical analysis. Examples conclude that nonlocal stress effect tends to significantly increase stiffness and natural frequencies of a nanobeam. The relationship between natural frequency and nanoscale is also presented and its significance on stiffness enhancement with respect to the classical elasticity theory is discussed in detail. The effect of an initial axial tension, which also tends to enhance the nanobeam stiffness, is also concluded. The model and approach show potential extension to studies in carbon nanotube and the new result is useful for future comparison.

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