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서구 공원 녹지 배치 계획 이론의 초기 발전 과정과 특성
박구원 ( Koo Won Park ) 한국녹지환경디자인학회 2006 녹지환경학회지 Vol.2 No.2
In America and Europe from the latter part of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the planning ideologies of park system and greenbelts were made and these planning ideologies are called Green Network System. They are different in terms of the purpose, type and method, but they have common characteristics of encouraging order and amenity in cities based on the consecutive connection of green space, and of coping with the problems happening in cities. Just as the park system was made, centering around new America and greenbelts were developed to meet with the problems happening in large cities, the structural arrangement and the roles of greens should be different. However, this connection system of greens was oriented in the circumstances of America and Europe at that time so it has not been confirmed what sizes of cities it would be useful for. On the other hand, separately from the Green Network System, the theory of park arrangement is being developed. It intends to cope with deterioration of the living environment caused by overcrowded cities and with increase in the demands of public parks. It is based on the neighborhood unit and the science of human settlement. In addition, the theory of park arrangement is based on the effects of greens in use, rather than, in decoration so it encourages dispersion and hierarchical system of parks, having the human settlement as base. Consequently, the theory of park arrangement is influenced by the characteristics and the type of households, and it has a required area and planning unit. However, this theory has the right for walking and human scale as the basic unit so for the large parks that are beyond the human scale, the planning criteria are not clear. The theory of park arrangement, which is based on the neighborhood unit, may be useful for the cities with tens of thousands of residents, but it is partially applied for the cities with 500,000~1,000,000 residents. And further, in organizing the green system for the whole city, the theory of park arrangement can be ignored. As seen in the above, the existing arrangement theory has some problems: it is just for partial application; and it is not suitable for the size and the growing speed of cities. The greens in cities should be operated as the comprehensive system, but greenbelts and park arrangement have been studied separately so far. That`s why it is necessary to review again the existing arrangement theory.
A Study of the Carrying Capacity and Management of Mountainous National Park
Park, Bong Woo 한국임학회 1986 한국산림과학회지 Vol.72 No.1
The Mountainous National Park is the area where it has the coexisted purposes, use and preservation, which cannot be harmonized. But in recent year, it is natural tendency that the use of the National Park is increasing day by day and the fact is that the side of use than preservation is emphasized. Especially in leisure society as today, even the appointment itself of the National Park is the factor that use can be increased and because it has the great influence affecting to the neighboring community economy including the National Park its neighbors have a marked leaning toward the use of two purposes and insist only development. In fact, the area of most National Park is equipped with the necessary facility to offer convenience of the user. But such necessity causes the increase of the weighted level of use in liaison with the requests of development of its inhabitants. But the National Park, for the original purposes, must keep the balance between use and preservation. Because the natural environmental condition that the National Park has is the product of nature and cannot be produced by human-power the demand cannot be met by the increase of supply even though the requests for the offer of natural environment are increased. Therefore, to keep the balance between use and preservation it is necessary that there should be consideration for the usable side and preservable one of resource, the National Park. This can be said by the concept of social carrying capacity and ecological carrying capacity. Accordingly the concept of carrying capacity of the National Park is formed by the duplicated projections of the ecological carrying capacity and the social one. In addition these carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Parks are used for the efficient management objectives of them and they offer the policy frame necessary for their future purpose. Finally, the results from this research work are as follows: 1. We can define the concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park consisting of the total of management objectives, ecological carrying capacity and social carrying capacity as the level which the characteristics of the Mountainous National Park can be maintained without the deterioration in quality of experience of user and ecological environment. 2. The major key points consisting of the concepts of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park necessarily require the establishment of the concrete and clear management objective. 3. The management of the Mountainous National Park, centering around the zoning district, requires the establishment of the levels of management and the followings are required by each level. 1) non-interference. 2) the intensive management. 3) the more intensive management. 4. We must recognize the management objectives of the Mountainous National Park as the limitation of acceptable changes. 5. The concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park can use for the policy level deciding the means and strategies for the management of the Mountainous National Park.
박주용(Ju-Yong Park),임형규(Hyeong-giu Lim) 한국엔터테인먼트산업학회 2011 한국엔터테인먼트산업학회논문지 Vol.5 No.1
주차안내 시스템은 주차장에서 주차정보를 제공하여 운전자에게 주차 편리성을 제공한다. 동시에 다수의 센서, 디스플레이와 제어모듈을 이용하여 아주 소량의 전기 에너지 만을 소모한다. 녹색 빌딩 설계의 요구가 점차 증가함에 따라 주차관리 시스템의 운용 전력 감축 문제가 이수화 되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 주차 관리 시스템의 감지기와 디스플레이 장치의 설계와 소비전력 감축의 결과를 제시한다. 이 시스템은 무선 Park Tile 과 Park Disk를 사용하여 전력소비를 감축 시키고, 여러 개의 주차공간 감지기와 자동차 카운터, 정보 디스플레이 장치, 안내 터미널과 제어장치로 구성되어 있다. 그리고 시스템 구조설계와 통신망 설계, 주차정보 서비스 시나리오 설계, .배터리 수명 제어, 운영 전력 평가 등이 수행되었다. 주차장당 운영전력은 0.4W로 평가 되었으며, 이는 기존 시스템의 17%정도 이고 매년 유지비는 기존 시스템에 비해 43%에 해당된다. The parking guidance system can increase driver’s convenience with detailed parking information service in the parking lot. At the same time, parking guidance system consumes non-negligible electrical energy with large amount of sensors, displays and control modules. With the increase in the demand for green and sustainable building design all over the world, it becomes a meaningful issue for parking guidance system to reduce operating power. This paper presents the preliminary design and estimated results of a parking guidance system which is optimized to reduce the power consumption mainly on detectors and displays. The system design is based on pre-developed wireless parking detectors, Park Tile and Park Disk. The system has a number of parking space detectors, vehicle count detectors, information displays, guidance terminals and other control units. We have performed system architecture design, communication network design, parking information service scenario planning, battery life regulation and at last operating power estimation. The estimated operating power was 0.4 watt per parking-slot, which is 17% of traditional systems. The estimated annual maintain cost was 43% of traditional systems.
도시공원의 이용후 평가에 기초한 공원의 개발지표 설정 : 부산광역시 암남공원을 사례로 Case Study of Amnam Park in Busan City
박승범,김승환,남정칠,강영조,이기철,김석규 동아대학교 환경문제연구소 1999 硏究報告 Vol.22 No.2
The purpose of this study is to investigate the prime factors that affect to user postoccupancy evaluation of activities and facilities in urban parks, to classify those factors, to find out factors about them, and then to suggest important indicators in the urban park planning, design, and development. The survey research was done using the self-administered questionnaire method by 435 peoples in the Busan City who participated in recreational activities in the Amnam Park. The Analysis of the data primarily consists of two phase: The first analysis was dealt an exploratory factor analysis which identified major factors involved in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the SPSS(Ver.6.0) program and the second analysis was used to investigate the factors affected to user postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis. According to the factor analysis, user postoccupancy evaluation of facilities in urban parks concerning the 20 variables, 5 prime factors by the staistical values were considered. The factor analysis showed that user postoccupancy evaluation of activities in urban parks concerning the 11 variables, 3 prime factors by the staistical values were analysed. Postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis suggested that the two varlables as 'the directions of park development' and 'companies with the personal specific characteristics' are significant in addition to the some variables presented in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the factor analysis. Furthomore the analysis models were identified as having significant effects on the factor and regression analysis. Overall fits of both models were very good. These significant relationships indicate important factors and variables that should be considered in planning, design, and development of the urban parks. Therefore, development direction of the h a m park has to be analyzed as significant factors concerning user postoccupancy evaluation in a systematic way, recognized as important variables for planning process. The urban park has to be fully designed and established in the planning process not by the decision-maker's subjective evaluation but by user postoccupancy evaluation.
전재석(Jaeseok Jeon),박현배(Hyunbae Park),문희석(Heeseok Moon),곽수진(Sujin Kwag) 한국자동차공학회 2013 한국자동차공학회 부문종합 학술대회 Vol.2013 No.5
In this paper, we described about evaluation of human sensibility using park assist system of the commercial vehicle. The perpendicular parking and parallel parking have been carried out as a user test and subjects are classified as beginning drivers, drivers with less than 1 year experience and over 3 years experience. As a result, parking duration of beginning drivers and drivers with less than 1 year experience who use automatic parking assistance system is similar to drivers with over 3 years experience. However error occurred according to sensor position and distance between vehicle and parking space. And also it occurred that the vehicle leaves from parking line or does not recognize the parking space. Therefore, if we improve its completeness by compensating problems that came up from this evaluation and distribute the automatic parking assistance system, it is expected that the park assistance system is to help driver providing convenience of parking.
DJ-1/park7 modulates vasorelaxation and blood pressure via epigenetic modification of endothelial nitric oxide synthase
Won, Kyung Jong,Jung, Seung Hyo,Jung, Soo Hyun,Lee, Kang Pa,Lee, Hwan Myung,Lee, Dong-Youb,Park, Eun-Seok,Kim, Junghwan,Kim, Bokyung Oxford University Press 2014 Cardiovascular research Vol.101 No.3
<P><B>Aims</B></P><P>DJ-1/park7, a multifunctional protein, may play essential roles in the vascular system. However, the function of DJ-1/park7 in vascular contractility has remained unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether the DJ-1/park7 is involved in the regulation of vascular contractility and systolic blood pressure (SBP).</P><P><B>Methods and results</B></P><P>Norepinephrine (NE) elevated contraction in endothelium-intact vessels in a dose-dependent manner, to a greater extent in DJ-1/park7 knockout (DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP>) mice than in wild-type (DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP>) mice. Acetylcholine inhibited NE-evoked contraction in endothelium-intact vessels, and this was markedly impaired in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP>. Nitric oxide (NO) production (82.1 ± 2.8% of control) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression (61.7 ± 8.9%) were lower, but H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB> production (126.4 ± 8.6%) was higher, in endothelial cells from DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice than in those from DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls; these effects were reversed by DJ-1/park7-overexpressing endothelial cells from DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice. Histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1 recruitment and H3 histone acetylation at the eNOS promoter were elevated and diminished, respectively, in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls. Moreover, SBP was significantly elevated in DJ-1/park7<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice compared with DJ-1/park7<SUP>+/+</SUP> controls, but this elevation was inhibited in mice treated with valproic acid, an inhibitor of Class I HDACs including HDAC-1.</P><P><B>Conclusion</B></P><P>These results demonstrate that DJ-1/park7 protein may be implicated in the regulation of vascular contractility and blood pressure, probably by the impairment of NO production through H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB>-mediated epigenetic inhibition of eNOS expression.</P>
박훈(Park, Hoon) 한국도시설계학회 2015 도시설계 : 한국도시설계학회지 Vol.16 No.2
마곡중앙공원 조성계획은 기존 마곡워터프론트 계획이 백지화 된 이후 다양한 논의를 거쳐 보타닉가든으로 방향성이 결정되었으며, 식물원과 공원이 결합되는 새로운 타입의 도시공원으로 방향이 제시되었다. 마곡이 가지고 있는 지형적 특성과 역사적 의의, 그리고 도시공간에서의 입지특성은 공원조성을 위한 기본 철학과 조성원칙으로 발전하였으며, 공간계획으로 구체화 되었다. 이와 같은 개념은 식물원, 호수공원, 열린숲공원, 생태천이원 등 4개의 존으로 영역화하여 세부공간계획으로 구체화 된다. 특히 식물원 부분은 핵심적인 공간으로 약 128,000㎡의 규모로 조성되어 새로운 명소가 될 것으로 기대하며, 도시공원에서 경험할 수 있는 호수와 잔디마당은 도시민들이 쉴 수 있는 여가의 공간으로 조성될 것이다. 또한 마곡중앙공원은 내ㆍ외적 성장의 개념을 바탕으로 조성될 것이며, 100년의 시간을 통해 성장하게 될 것이다. 이와 같은 종합적인 계획은 기존 선행하여 연구되었던 현대공원설계의 특성에서 제안한 여섯 가지 전략과 밀접하게 연관성을 갖고 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. After the Magok Waterfront Plan was annulled, discussions led to the decision to develop Magok Central Park as a botanical garden. It was proposed that the botanical garden and park be combined to create a new type of city park. The geographical characteristics and historical implications of Magok and the location’s urban spatial characteristics were developed into a basic philosophy and a composition principle for a park design and then shaped into a spatial plan. The concept divides the space into four zones, including a botanical garden, a lake park, an open forest park, and an ecological succession area, which are given shape through a detailed spatial plan. The botanical garden, in particular, as a core space that occupies 128,000㎡, is expected to become a new attraction. A lake and a lawn in the city park will become a leisure area where citizens can relax. Moreover, Magok Central Park will be built based on the concept of internal and external growth, and it will grow over 100 years. It was identified that this comprehensive plan is closely related to six strategies for modern park design as delineated in existing studies.
마곡 워터프론트 조성계획과 도시환경변화에 따른 전략 연구
박훈(Park, Hoon) 한국도시설계학회 2012 도시설계 : 한국도시설계학회지 Vol.13 No.4
마곡워터프론트 조성계획은 한강르네상스계획과 연계하여 마곡지구를 특화된 수변도시로 발전하기 위하여 정책적으로 제시된 공모로 시작되었다. 도시 환경과 공원의 특성을 살려 제안 당선된 Heart of Magok is Nature of Living Water안은 다음과 같은 특성을 지닌다. 첫째, 유수지, 청정호수, 주운수로, 생태공원 등의 시설을 중심으로 테마형 공원을 구성한다. 둘째, 녹색제방(Green Levee)이 공원의 중심 기능을 담당하며, 상징적 역할을 한다. 셋째, 공원의 순환동선, 물에너지의 순환 등이 종합적인 공원의 지속가능성을 확보하고 있다. 넷째, 공원과 주변도시와의 접근성을 높여 이용의 편의성을 고려한다. 다섯째, 시간에 따라 성장하는 공원의 이상을 제안하고 있다. 이상과 같은 계획 특성은 공원의 이용성을 높이며, 워터프론트로서의 역할에 젓실하고, 도심에서 공원의 역할을 한 단계 높이는 역할을 기대하게 하였다. 그러나 이후 도시환경의 변화에 따라 다양한 발전 전략을 모색하게 되었으며, 특히 경제성, 환경성 등을 중심으로 각각 육상공원의 확보, 업무·상업기능의 강화, 그리고 공원의 환경성 강화 등의 방안이 고려되고 있다. The development plan of Magok waterfront has begun with the public design contest with an intention that the Magok District is to advance into a specialized waterside city in connection with the Hangang Renaissance Plan. The winning work, the ‘Heart of Magok is Nature of Living Water’ plan, contained the characteristics of urban environment and park as follows. First, it builds up the theme park around the facilities of detention reservoir, clean lake, navigation channel, ecology park and others. Second, the green levee undertakes the central function of the park as well as symbolic role thereof. Third, it secures the sustainability of a general park with the circulation of park, circulation of water energy and the like. Fourth, it considers the convenience of utility by enhancing the accessibility with parks and surrounding cities. And fifth, it proposes the more than a simple park that grows in time. The foregoing plan characteristics heightens the utility of park, substantiate the role as water front, and expects to have the role to one notch upgrade in the roles of urban parks. And, along with the effort, following the changes of Magok District, base facilities and urban environment, the changes of Magok Water Front may be sought with respect to change into ground park, plan to strengthen the environment, strengthening of commercial and office functions, and this is considered in relations to the comprehensive development plan of Magok District. This is considered as a part of seeking for diverse improvement plan in accordance with the changes in urban environment, and it seeks for possibilities through seeking changes of program together with the physical changes in lake parks and ground parks.
이용자간 만족도를 고려한 공원의 공간개선 방향연구 - 목포시 삼학도공원을 중심으로 -
박성현 ( Park Sung-hyun ),배현미 ( Bae Hyun-mi ) 한국도서(섬)학회 2020 韓國島嶼硏究 Vol.32 No.4
본 연구에서는 역사와 문화를 품고 있는 목포 삼학도공원의 재정비계획 수립과정에서 이용만족도를 높이기 위한 계획 및 설계에 필요한 기초자료를 제공하고자, 공원 이용자들을 대상으로 만족도 분석을 진행하였다. 구체적으로 먼저, 역사적인 측면에서 삼학도공원의 특징을 살펴본 후, 공원시설의 구성과 운용실태에 대해 살펴보았다. 다음으로 삼학도공원의 이용과 만족도 조사를 시민과 관광객을 대상으로 실시한 결과로는 첫째, 삼학도공원은 주말을 이용해서 가족 및 친구와 함께 여가를 즐기기 위한 공간으로서 근린공원의 특징을 보이고 있는데, 이는 시민들이 삼학도공원을 근린공원의 이미지로 인식하는 것과 맥락을 같이 하고 있다. 둘째, 삼학도공원을 찾는 관광객들은 전남지역에 거주하는 사람들이 많았고, 연령층은 시민과 비슷하게 40대와 50대가 가장 높은 것으로 나타났고, 이들은 가족과 함께 관광목적으로 방문한 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 시민과 관광객 모두 삼학도공원의 이용 및 시설에 대해서는 대체로 만족하는 것으로 나타났으며, 시민은 그 이유로 편안한 쉼터와 좋은 자연환경이라고 응답하였다. 넷째, 시민과 관광객 모두 삼학도공원 이용 시 관리실, 화장실, 매점 등 안내 및 편의시설의 부족하다는 문제점을 제기하고 있으며, 삼학도에 새롭게 만들어졌으면 하는 시설과 사업에 대해시민과 관광객들은 섬의 정체성을 나타내기 위해 특색 없는 다리를 대신하여 육지와 삼학도를 이어주는 가동교 설치를 원하는 것으로 나타났다. 이용자간 만족도를 고려한 공원 공간개선 방향은 정리하면, 첫째 매립지의 기존 공원Zone(A)은 현재 공원시설을 최대한 활용함을 원칙으로 하고 이용측면에서 제기된 문제점을 개선하면서 지역 정체성을 살리고 최근의 트렌드에 맞는 새로운 아이템을 도입하는 방향으로 설계한다. 둘째, 삼학도 활용 Zone(B)은 복원된 삼학도를 적극적으로 활용하는 방향으로 설계한다. 셋째, 공원입구 Zone(C)는 공원의 위치 등 인지도 향상을 위한 안내 홍보 및 가동교 등 랜드마크 설치, 동선 유도책 등이 필요하다. 넷째, 목포내항 삼학도 해안 Zone(D)는 우수한 조망점이라는 특징을 적극 활용하고, 내륙과 내항측에서 접근이 용이한 동선 및 시선 유도계획 방향으로 설계한다. 본 연구의 결과를 통해 섬을 활용한 공원을 조성할 시 시설이용도 및 이용자 만족도를 높이 기 위해 일반적인 근린공원으로 그 역할을 제안하는 것보다는 해당 공원을 통해 지역의 문화와 정서를 담고 섬만의 정체성을 살리는 전략과 계획이 필요하며, 이러한 방식이 섬을 활용한 공원의 지속가능성을 보장할 수 있을 것이다. In this study, the author analyzed satisfaction with Samhak Island Park among park users with an aim to provide basic data essential to be applied in the planning and design phases in a way that enhances their satisfaction in the process of setting up the reorganization plan of this park entailing both the history and culture of Mokpo City. As a first step, the author first examined the characteristics of this park in terms of history and closely looked into the organization and features of park facilities. Secondly, the direction of space improvement plans was proposed based on the findings of the survey on satisfaction among residents and visitors at Samhak Island Park. To summarize the ways to improve park space considering satisfaction among park users, the current park Zone(A) at Mokpo landfill should be designed to address problems in terms of visiting, uphold the local identity, and introduce popular and trendy items, while maintaining the principle of making the best use of the present park facilities. Second, Zone(B) should be designed in a way that takes greater advantages of the restored Samhak Island. Third, Zone(C) representing an entrance requires tasks such as promotional activities to make public its location, landmark installments such as a movable bridge, and improved path guidance. Fourth, Zone(D) by the ocean of this island at the inner harbor should be designed to reflect its outstanding view point in the way that the users are allowed to have easier access from land as well as from the inner harbor as part of its view-attracting plan. The findings revealed that when it comes to building new parks using existing islands, strategies and plans to maintain its identity as an island while upholding its culture and feeling are needed rather than proposing its role as an ordinary neighborhood park to boost facility use and user satisfaction. This way is expected to successfully ensure sustainability related to parks using existing islands.
朴洪甲(Park, Hong-Gab) 백산학회 2004 白山學報 Vol.- No.70
Since the early Chosun, the Milyang Park’s(밀양박씨) had lived in Cheongdo. It is not discovered yet how Park Gun(朴乾), who had moved first to Cheongdo, had lived. Therefore, I want to explain how Milyang Park’s settled down there and adjusted to it. Park Ik(朴翊), Park Gun’s grandfather, was raised in the native Milyang Park’s family, and held the post of Yea-Jo-Pan-Seo(예조판서). However he retired to this hometown against the foundation of Chosun Dynasty. His four sons were not in the government services, but they held government offices thanks to the will of Park Ik, who died in 1398. The first son, Park Yung(朴融), passed the classical examination and held the post of the governor of KyoungsangDosa(慶尙都事), and this made him closely connected with Cheongdo. As a result, he had his son, Park Gun, marry the daughter of Kim Cheol-sung(金哲誠). This led Park Gun move to Cheongdo where his wife’s family lived. After that, Park Seung-won(朴承元), the son of Park Gun, became Ha Suk-pu’s son in law. At that time, Ha Suk-pu(河叔溥) was the richest person in Cheongdo. However he didn’t have any sons to leave his great estate and slaves to, so Park Seung-won inherited all those estate and slaves. This made the Park’s become stable economically. Both Park Gun’s father and grandfather passed the classical examinations, and both he and his only son, Park Seung-won, passed the military service examinations. Being in the central government services helped them to make the field of their business wider in their hometown. Furthermore, it was a strong backing for the descendants to become Sa-lim(士林), the representatives of that area. At that time, the same families lived together in one village. This story shows how the Milyang Park’s village became the biggest ever.