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      • Effect of a microwave warming of cell culture media on cell viability and confluence rate

        Yoon, J. K.,Sim, W. Y.,Xu, F.,Lee, W. G. Springer Science + Business Media 2016 Microsystem Technologies Vol.22 No.9

        <P>Here we present a method for rapidly and stably warming up a small volume of cell culture media that can maintain cell viability and confluence rate. This method uses microwave radiation for warming without any direct contact with water, preventing the potential issue of contamination induced by the use of a water bath. To demonstrate the proof of concept validation, we used a conventional microwave oven for warming cell culture media. In our experiments, it took only 10 s to warm a 50 mL-media tube (mostly proper volume for the use of microfluidic cell culture experiments) up to 37 degrees C. Multiple tubes can also be used to increase the volume of cell culture media by placing them in a plastic support within the oven at the same time in a scalable manner. The results show that there was no jump discontinuity to a higher temperature than 37 degrees C within 10 s. Both apoptosis and necrosis were monitored and examined to confirm whether the new method can affect cell viability and metabolism. The proposed method is fast, easy and user-friendly in conventional cell culture process, even scalable for the use of large media volume, and free of biological contamination due to water contact occurred by use of conventional water baths. We urthermore believe that this approach can be potentially helpful for advancing on-chip cell culture process that may require a small volume of cell culture media often used in microfluidic devices.</P>

      • SCIESCOPUS

        Beacon-based active media control interface in indoor ubiquitous computing environment

        Springer Science + Business Media 2016 CLUSTER COMPUTING Vol.19 No.1

        <P>In ubiquitous computing, diverse media technologies have recently been extensively researched and applied to various fields. The goal of media technologies is to improve our daily lives by enabling us to control activemedia devices such as smart phones, tablets, and TVs. The locations of users are important to providing a variety of services to users. In addition, given that all devices cannot be simultaneously utilized, and only one device is sometimes being used, the location information can be utilized to help determine one of the core active media devices at a specific instant in time. This paper proposes an active media-control interface that is based on location recognition methods using beacons in indoor ubiquitous computing. In the proposed environment, users have a beacon that denotes the location of each user. The one that is the nearest from the beacon is selected from among multiple active media devices for servicing. In the experiments, four access points and one beacon was used to validate the proposed method. The advantage of the proposed method is that it enables us to apply active media technology to indoor environments. By recognizing user locations in indoor environments, several kinds of active media services become available.</P>

      • Topic category analysis on twitter via cross-media strategy

        Springer Science + Business Media 2016 MULTIMEDIA TOOLS AND APPLICATIONS Vol.75 No.20

        <P>The growing popularity of social media provides a huge volume of social data including Tweets. These collections of social data can be potentially useful, but the extent of meaningful data in these collections has not been sufficiently researched, especially in South Korea Twitter data. In general, the South Korea Twitter data has been researched as a source of political media. Nonetheless, previous research on South Korea Twitter data has not adequately covered what kind of trend Twitter represents in terms of major topic categories such as politics, economics, or sports. In this paper, we present a cross-media approach to define the nature of South Korea Tweets by inferring the topic category distribution through short-text categorization. We select newspapers as cross-media, examine the categorization of news articles from major newspapers, and then train our classifier based on the features from each topic category. In addition, for grafting news topics onto South Korea Tweets, we propose a word clustering and filtering approach to exclude those words that do not provide semantic content for the topic categories. Based on the proposed procedures, we analyze the South Korea Tweets to determine the primary topic category focus of Twitter users. We observe the special behaviors of the South Korea Twitter users based on various parameters such as date, time slot, and day of the week. Because our research includes a macroscopic analysis of Twitter data using a cross-media strategy, our research can provide useful resources for other social media analysis as well.</P>

      • Amelioration of Horticultural Growing Media Properties Through Rice Hull Biochar Incorporation

        Kim, H. S.,Kim, K. R.,Yang, J. E.,Ok, Y. S.,Kim, W. I.,Kunhikrishnan, A.,Kim, K. H. Springer Science + Business Media 2017 Waste and biomass valorization Vol.8 No.2

        <P>The current study was conducted in order to examine the applicability of rice hull derived biochar (BC) to improve the properties of growing media (GM). Biochar was incorporated into a growing media composed of coir dust, perlite and vermiculite at 0, 1, 2 and 5 % (w/w). Subsequently, the physicochemical properties of the GM-BC mixtures were determined in the cultivation of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) for 25 days through the observation of the plant growth response. During kale cultivation in the GM-BC mixtures, the leachates were collected and analyzed to determine the changes in nutrient levels due to BC amendment. Application of rice hull-derived BC increased the retention of nutrients in the growing media due to a biochar-induced increase in cation exchange capacity, in addition to the biochar nutrient supply such as potassium and phosphorus. Furthermore, a higher water content of the growing media was observed when BC was used as an amendment, mainly due to the increased proportion of pore space available for water storage. The growth rate of kale was also increased as the biochar incorporation rate was increased. For example, the dry weight of the kale shoots was 150 % higher when grown in media containing 5 % GM-BC mixture than with the control growing media (with no biochar). From these results, it can be concluded that the rice hull-derived biochar would be a practically applicable amendment to improve the properties of the growing media.</P>

      • Uncovering stakeholders in public–private relations on social media: a case study of the 2015 Volkswagen scandal

        Jung, K.,Chilton, K.,Valero, J. N. Springer Science + Business Media 2017 Quality & quantity Vol.51 No.3

        <P>While researchers have focused on the nature of interpersonal communication on social media, few have investigated the patterns and structures of interactions among stakeholders engaged in an unexpected event. On September 18, 2015, the United States Environmental Protection Agency issued a notice of violation of the U.S. Clean Air Act to Volkswagen Group of America, Inc., citing Volkswagen's inappropriate software that circumvented the United States' emission standards. This research is systemically designed to examine the evolutionary structures of interpersonal issue networks on social media by focusing on the 2015 Volkswagen scandal on social media. The interpersonal network emerged and evolved to build a discourse on issues by stakeholders after the event. By using longitudinal data collected from the Volkswagen USA's Facebook page between September 17 and 20, 2015, this research tests four hypothesized network structures, which are reciprocity, transitivity, popularity, and activity, which assess the evolution of interpersonal issue networks. The results of exponential random graph models, analyzing 4131 stakeholders, show that interpersonal issue networks on social media have evolved overtime into a set of reciprocal relations and stakeholders transmitting critical information to bystanders. The findings imply that stakeholders who have Volkswagen's cars and stocks play a critical role in placating the scandal by mutually interacting with diverse bystanders on social media.</P>

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Human-centric storage resource mechanism for big data on cloud service architecture

        Kim, H. W.,Park, J. H.,Jeong, Y. S. Springer Science + Business Media 2016 The Journal of supercomputing Vol.72 No.7

        <P>With the rapid advancement of information technology in recent years, significant research addressing the efficient storage of big data has been conducted. Traditionally, big data with media-driven service have simply implied extensive amounts of data. However, this definition has evolved to include the extraction of values, analysis, and the prediction of results from a vast volume of unstructured and varied datasets. Because of the explosive growth of computer processing technologies, the creation of big data has originated from unstructured data, text data, image data, and location data created by a variety of digital devices. Classically, the storage of big data has been administered by companies that provide storage services or by specialized storage companies. Significant cost is incurred to store big data efficiently and maintain sufficient storage requirements, which increase continuously. In this paper, a human-centric Resource-Integrated System for Big Data (RISBD) is proposed that utilizes the resources of legacy desktop computers for big data storage to future communication. This is advantageous in terms of the cost of implementing a new storage system. Furthermore, it provides high storage scalability because it is an XML-based standard storage integration system developed using software.</P>

      • Mesoporous architecture of TiO2 microspheres via controlled template assisted route and their photoelectrochemical properties

        Bhat, T. S.,Mali, S. S.,Korade, S. D.,Shaikh, J. S.,Karanjkar, M. M.,Hong, C. K.,Kim, J. H.,Patil, P. S. Springer Science + Business Media 2017 Journal of materials science. Materials in electro Vol.28 No.1

        <P>Anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) microspheres were successfully synthesized via a controlled chemical route using carbon spheres as sacrificial templates. The morphology has been controlled by varying the deposition time of carbonaceous (c) spheres from 4 to 16 h with the interval of 4 h, which affect the size of TiO2 spheres. The structural, morphological, optical, compositional and photoelectrochemical properties of the TiO2 thin films were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms the formation of anatase TiO2 with the tetragonal crystal structure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the synthesized anatase TiO2 microspheres has average diameter of similar to 330-510 nm. The blueshift in optical absorption is observed due to Mie scattering. The indirect optical band gap energy of TiO2 was varied over 3.05-3.16 eV, with the increase in deposition time. The HRTEM and SAED results show the polycrystalline nature of the sample which is in good agreement with the XRD. The anatase TiO2 hollow spheres with mesoporous walls and high specific surface area i.e. 41 m(2) g(-1) was obtained using this simple method. The films were photoelectrochemically active with maximum current density 531 mu A/cm(2) under 100 mW/cm(2) illuminations.</P>

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Strategies for Hot Electron-Mediated Catalytic Reactions: Catalytronics

        Park, J. Y.,Lee, S. W.,Lee, C.,Lee, H. Springer Science + Business Media 2017 Catalysis letters Vol.147 No.8

        <P>A pulse of high kinetic energy electrons can be generated after deposition of external energy to a metallic surface, such as the absorption of light or exothermic chemical processes. These energetic electrons are not at thermal equilibrium with the phonons of the metal atoms and are called 'hot electrons'. The detection of hot electrons on the surface of a catalyst is an active subject in the field of surface science. More significantly, it has been found that surface processes, including desorption, diffusion, and chemical rearrangement of atomic and molecular species, are driven by the flow of hot electrons on the surface. The strong correlation between hot electron generation and surface phenomena suggests that hot electrons can be used to control surface chemical reactions, which is known as hot electron chemistry. In this Perspective, research strategies for electronic control of catalytic reactions by engineering metal-oxide interfaces and manipulating hot electron flux are discussed. Catalytic nanodiodes consisting of a metal catalyst film, semiconductor layers, and Ohmic contact pads have revealed a strong correlation between the hot electron flux (chemicurrent) and catalytic activity under CO oxidation and hydrogen oxidation. We highlight recent results on new architecture for hot electron collection, including a Au/TiO2 nanodiode and a graphene/TiO2 nanodiode, that show that hot electrons can be used for quantitative measurement of catalytic activity. We show that the direct conversion of photon energy to hot electron flows can be achieved in metal-semiconductor nanodiodes. Hot electrons and surface plasmons can be used to change the catalytic activity using metal-oxide nanocatalysts. This strategy requires an understanding of both the electronic and chemical properties of metal-oxide interfaces, as well as the combined measurement of electronic and chemical signals on nanoscale electronic devices during catalytic reactions, and therefore can be referred to as 'catalytronics', which is the combination of catalysis and electronics.</P>

      • A computational model of transmedia ecosystem for story-based contents

        Springer Science + Business Media 2017 MULTIMEDIA TOOLS AND APPLICATIONS Vol.76 No.8

        <P>Story-based contents (e.g., novel, movies, and computer games) have been dynamically transformed into various media. In this environment, the contents are not complete in themselves, but closely connected with each other. Also, they are not simply transformed form a medium to other media, but expanding their stories. It is called as a transmedia storytelling, and a group of contents following it is called as a transmedia ecosystem. Since the contents are highly connected in terms of the story in the transmedia ecosystem, the existing content analysis methods are hard to extract relationships between the contents. Therefore, a proper content analysis method is needed with considering expansions of the story. The aim of this work is to understand how (and why) such contents are transformed by i) defining the main features of the transmedia storytelling and ii) building the taxonomy among the transmedia patterns. More importantly, computational transmedia ecosystem is designed to process a large number of the contents, and to support high understandability of the complex transmedia patterns.</P>

      • Reduction of ammonia and lactate through the coupling of glutamine synthetase selection and downregulation of lactate dehydrogenase-A in CHO cells

        Noh, S. M.,Park, J. H.,Lim, M. S.,Kim, J. W.,Lee, G. M. Springer Science + Business Media 2017 Applied microbiology and biotechnology Vol.101 No.3

        <P>Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultivation for production of therapeutic proteins is accompanied by production of metabolic wastes, mostly ammonia and lactate. To reduce ammonia production, the glutamine synthetase (GS) system was used to develop therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb)-producing CHO cells (SM-0.025). Additionally, the lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) was downregulated with shRNA to reduce lactate production in SM-0.025. The resulting mAb-producing cell lines (#2, #46, and #52) produced less ammonia than the host cell line during the exponential phase due to GS protein overexpression. LDH-A downregulation in SM-0.025 not only reduced lactate production but also further reduced ammonia production. Among the three LDH-A-downregulated clones, clone #2 had the highest mAb production along with significantly reduced specific lactate and ammonia production rates compared to those in SM-0.025. Waste reduction increased the galactosylation level of N-glycosylation, which improved mAb quality. LDH-A downregulation was also successfully applied to the host cell lines (CHO K1 and GS knockout CHO-K1). However, LDH-A downregulated host cells could not survive the pool-selection process wherein glutamine was excluded and methionine sulfoximine was added to the media. Taken together, LDH-A downregulation in the mAb-producing cell line generated with the GS system successfully reduced both ammonia and lactate levels, improving mAb galactosylation. However, LDH-A downregulation could not be applied to host cell lines because it hampered the selection process of the GS system.</P>

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