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The Pharmaco-Constituents of the Pulsatilla Koreana Roots, of which roots and rhizomes have been used for the treatment of evil heat, malaria, chill, fever, epistaxis and internal hemorrhoids etc. in Korean folk remedies. From the Ether extract of Roots, two triterpenoidal sapogenins were isolated and elucidated as ursolic acid and oleanolic acid based on their physico-chemical data and IR, EI-MS, ^13C-NMR, and ^1H-NMR analysis with authentics, respectively.
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is a disease characterized by thrombocytopenia in peripheral blood with positive anti-platelet antibody titer, no splenomegaly, the presence of megakarocyte. The causes of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura were usually related to autoimmune disease, infection and drugs. A 46-years-old man was admitted for evaluation of abdominal mass. He has many cafe-au-lait spots and nodules in almost skin for 30 years. Several years ago, he palpated mass in Lt. inguinal area. hIe has known the abdominal mass after checking abdomen CT in local clinic and visited our hospital for evaluation of abdominal mass. At admission, laboratory tests showed hemoglobin 12.5 g/dL, hematocrit 38.4 %, WBC 5,460 /㎣ (neutrophil 64.5%, lymphocyte 21.7%, monocyte 4.1%, eosinophil 5.4%), reticulocyte 0.7%, Platelet 52,000 /㎣, total protein 6.51 g/dL, albumin 3.80 g/dL, alkaline pohsphatase 161 IU/L, AST 110.7 IU/L, ALT 64.9 IU/L, total bilirubin 0.44 ㎎/dL, BUN 18.4 ㎎/dL, creatinine 0.79 ㎎/dL. Peripheral blood smear showed normocytic normochromic anemia, thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration smear showed normoplastic myeloid and erythroid precursor. The bone marrow biopsy section shows normocellular marrow (35%) for his age and mildly increasing myeloid cell lineage. We have experienced a case of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in a patient being in neurofibromatosis and therefore reporting it with documentary records. 저자들은 신경섬유종증 환자에서 특별한 원인을 발견할 수 없었음에도 특발성 혈소판 감소증이 발생한 1예를 경험하였기에 문헌고찰과 함께 보고하는 바이다.
To simple the manufacturing process of rotary screen, this study was adopted electroforming technology and produced silicon rubber mandrel. Furthermore, to indicate the optimal condition for the acquisition of high-qualified rotary screen product, the experiment was executed with pH, time, sulfamate nickel solution according to density which were the main factors to decide the condition, then compared it with the product made by original "S" Company in Holland. As a result, the figure of Hole was more obvious and correct. Also the open size increased more than 2-3%.
대퇴골 간부 골절시 교합성 골수강내 금속정을 이용한 견고한 고정은 조기 관절 운동과 조기 체중부하가 가능한 보편적인 수술적 치료방법으로 그 사용이 증가하고 있다. 그리고 최근에는 골수강내 금속정이 대퇴골 간부 골절 뿐만 아니라 대퇴골의 근위부나 원위부에 치우친 골절이나 청소년기의 대퇴골 간부 골절의 치료에도 확대되고 있다. 본 논문은 대퇴골 골절 환자 54례를 대상으로 금속정 삽입술의 적응증의 확대와 그에 수반되는 문제점에 관하여 증례 분석 및 결과를 문헌 고찰과 함께 보고하고자 한다. The rigid internal fixation of femur shaft fracture with intramedullary nailing enables early joint motion and weight bearing. This procedure has been used with wide popularity because it is possible simultaneously to preserve the range of motion and to obtain the bone union. But in the proximal and distal femur fracture, the interlocking screws are too close to the fracture site, the rigid fixation cannot be achieved and when early weight bearing is permitted, failure of the metal is possible. Also, when femur fractures in the adolescence be treated with traction followed by casting, sometimes angular deformity and shortening may develope. These problems have solved to the use by intramedullary nailing. The authors reviewed and analyzed 54 cases of the fractures of femur treated by interlocking nails at Sang-Gye Paik Hospital from August 1989 to July 1992. The results were as follows ; 1.Among the 54 patients, male were 42 and female were 12. 2.The mean time of bone union was 19.3 weeks. 3.The authors usually used the closed locked nailing technique to fix the mid-shaft fracture of femur. In cases such as mid-shaft fracture combined wish proximal or distal femoral fracture, for the stability of fracture and the early mobilization, a reconstruction nail or modified nailing technique was used and an excellent bone union was obtained without any complication. 4.In a mid-shaft fractures of the femur in adolescents or young adult, the authors used interlocking nails of proper length or diameter by cutting-off the distal portion of the nail or by over-reaming of the too narrow medullary canal, and the outcome was favorable.
본 논문에서는 파장 분할 WDM-PON 구조를 제안하였으며, CW source를 가지고 Fabry-Perot laser에 injection 시키는 방법을 사용하여 4 channel 155Mbps를 20km upstream 전송하여 분석해 보았다. 제안된 WDM-PON 시스템에서의 이 injection locking 방법은 약 -7dBm ∼ -4dBm 정도의 높은 출력 파워를 제공하였고, 155Mbps 전송시 BER=10-9에서 receiver sensitivity 는 -38dBm정도를 유지하였다. 또한 제안된 구조에서 CW source로 파장 분할된 LED와 FP laser를 사용하여 각각에 대한 시스템에서의 성능을 비교 분석해 보았다. In this paper, we propose a spectrally sliced WDM-PON architecture and analyze the upstream transmission of 4 channels 155Mbps signals by 25km using an injection locking method of Fabry-Perot laser as a CW source. For a proposed WDM-PON system, This injection locking method provides high output power of -7dBm ∼ -4dBm and satisfies receiver sensitivity -38dBm for 10-9 Bit Error Rate for 155Mbps transmission. Also, we compare performances using spectrum-sliced LED and FP laser respectively as CW source for a proposed WDM-FON system.
Total integration is the most ethical and humanistic way of teaching exceptional children. The purpose of this study were 1) to examine the problems in special education, 2) to investigate the reasons for being unable to integrate exceptional children with their non-handicapped peers, and 3) to obtain suggestions to accentuate total integration recommended by special education teachers. Thirty-seven elementary school special education teachers participated in this study. Problems in special education practice pointed by special education teachers vary from the lack of perceptions of educational leaders, teachers, students, and students to the education of quality special education teachers. Reasons for being unable to integrate exceptional children with their non-handicapped peers were also related to the problems in current special education culture. Special education teachers suggested various ways to accentuate total integration.
목적 : 지금까지 병원성 살모넬라를 확인하기 위해 분자량이 큰 플라스미드의 존재 유무를 확인하여 왔으나 살모넬라 혈청형 및 검출 방법에 따라 양성율에 큰 차이를 보이고 있고, 일부 병원성 살모넬라 분리주에서 병원성 플라스미드가 관찰되지 않아 spv 유전자들의 유무에 대한 아른 확인방법이 필요하다. 본 실험은 국내 동물 유래 주요 살모넬라 혈청형에서 spvR 유전자의 분포를 알아보고, 병원성 살모넬라 분자진단을 위한 분자표지로써의 가치를 평가하기 위해 실행하였다. 재료 및 방법 : 국내 가축 유래 S. lyphimurium (ST, 26주), S. enteritidis (SE, 10주), S. pullorum (SP, 40주), S. gallinarum (SG, 53주)에 대해 GenBank에 등록된 ST, SE, SP의 spvR 유전자를 비교하여 ST와 SE 간에 차이를 보이는 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, 625번 뉴클레오티드)을 포함하도록 시발자를 합성하여 집락-PCR을 수행하였다. 증폭 산물(194bp)은 자동 염기서열장치를 이용하여 염기서열을 결정하였고, 제한효소인 MseI을 사용하여 PCR-RFLP를 실시하였다. 결과 : 집락-중합효소연쇄반응 결과 SP, SG, SE의 모든 (100%) 분리주에서 특이 증폭산물이 검출되었으나 ST의 경우 19주(73%)에서만 증폭되었다. 특히 병원성 관련 플라스미드가 관찰되지 않았던 SP 4주에서 특이적인 증폭산물이 검출되었다. 염기서열 분석결과 SE, SG, SP는 625번 뉴클레오티드에 아데닌을, ST는 구아닌을 가지고 있어 PCR-RFLP를 이용하여 쉽게 구분할 수 있었다. 결 론 : spvR에 대한 집락-중합효소연쇄 반응법은 병원성 플라스미드 검출법보다 SE, SP, SG 병원성 주를 신속하게 검출하는데 유용하고, 625번 뉴클레오티드의 SNP는 ST와 SE, SG, SP를 구분하는 분자표지로 사용될 수 있을 것으로 기대되며, ST에 비해 SE는 진화적으로 SG와 SP에 가까운 것으로 생각되었다. Background : The Salmonella virulence plasmid (spv) genes (spvR, A, B, C and D) on the large virulence plasmids of pathogenic Salmonella serotypes can replace the virulence of the whole plasmid. Recently, virulence plasmid-negative pathogenic Salmonella isolates were isolated. However, positive rates of spv genes among Korean Salmonella serotypes have been obscure. spv genes are conserved in compared to other virulence genes but there are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) conserved in only certain serotype. Such SNPs are useful for differentiation and understanding evolution of certain serotypes. Materials and Methods : Salmonella serotypes isolated from live stocks [Salmonella typhimurium (ST, 26), S. enteritidis (SE, 10), S. gallinarum (SG, 40) and S. pullorum (SP, 53)] were used for colony-PCR. A primer set covering single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at 625th nucleotide of spvR was designed. The nucleotide sequences of amplicons were determined by cyclic sequencing method and RFLP was performed by using MseI. Results : All isolates of SE, SG and SP, including four plasmid-negative isolates, showed specific amplicons but not all of ST (19/26, 73%) were positive to spvR. Based on the nucleotide sequence of 625th nucleotide and PCR-RFLP, SE, SG and SP [A(625)] and ST [G(625)] could be differentiated. Conclusion : spvR can be used as a molecular marker to detect virulent SE, SG, SP and the SNP may be useful for differentiation of SE, SG, SP and ST. According to the SNP study SE may be evolutionarily closer to SG and SP than ST.
Bainite spheroidal graphite cast iron specimens of 0∼0.054wt % residual Mg were casted into a green sand mold, 25 mm thickness Y-block. The microstuctures of the castings were studied for mechanical properties and abrasion characteristics. The results obtained from this study are summerized as follows: 1) Under the present expermental conditions, the relation between the abrasion speed and the abraded amount are; 0.5m/sec for 1^st abrasive wear and 2.38m/sec for 2^nd abrasive wear. 2) Increasing the residual Mg, the first abrasion speed for 2nd abrasive wear moved to the low abrasion speed. 3) The maximum amount of abraded material during 2^nd abrasive wear decreases with the increasing residual Mg content, and moves to the high abrasion speed as the residual Mg is increased over 0.042 wt %. 4) The amount of abraded materials increases with the decreasing residual Mg at abrasion speed 2.38 m/sec and with the increasing residual Mg at abrasion speed 0.62∼1.14 m/sec. 5) Increasing the abrasion speed, abrasion mechanisms are as follows; ⓐ 1^st abrasive wear ⓑ 1^st corrosive wear ⓒ 2^nd abrasive wear ⓓ 2^nd corrosive wear. But, Under the present expermental condition the adhesive wear mechanism didn't appear.