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이 논문의 목적은 「秋水」의 ‘魚樂’에 대한 장자와 혜시의 대화에서 장자의 物에 연관한 知을 밝히는데 있다. 이를 위해 장자의 萬物齊同과 혜시의 ‘天地一體’라는 두 사상적 토대를 근간으로 知에 대한 고찰을 시작한다. 장자는 언어로 드러나는 分別智가 원래 하나였던 만물을 끝없이 분화시켜 결국 참된 知에 이르는 것을 방해한다고 보았다. 장자가 萬物齊同의 관점에서 언어의 한계를 지적하기 위해 상대주의를 취했다면, 혜시는 ‘공간적이거나 시간적 구분은 모순을 가진다’라는 관점에서 상대주의를 취했다. 따라서 ‘魚樂’의 대화는 物을 초월한 장자의 직관과 物에 매몰된 혜시의 분별적 태도를 보여준다. 혜시는 知가 분별과 시비를 통해 드러난다고 보았지만, 장자는 성인처럼, 설명만 할 뿐 분별하지 않는 것이 ‘참된 知’라고 주장한다. 나아가 장자는 하나 된 物의 배후에 ‘참된 知’인 道가 있다고 주장한다. The purpose of this paper is to contemplate Zhuangzi’s ‘knowing(知)’ in association with ‘the thing(物)’ in the episode of ‘The pleasure of fish(魚樂)’ in 「Autumn floods(秋水)」. In order to do that, this paper studies statements about ‘knowing(知)’ in 『Zhuangzi(莊子)』 based on Zhuangzi’s thought, ‘everything is organized and same(萬物齊同)’ and Huishi’s ‘wholeness of the heaven and the earth(天地一體)’. Zhuangzi argues that ‘discerning knowing(分別智)’ represented by language distracts the reaching of true knowing by dividing all things which were supposed to be one. While Zhuangzi takes perspective of relativism of ‘everything is organized and same(萬物齊同)’ to point out the limitation of language, Huishi takes perspective of relativism pointing out contradiction of the spatial and temporal division. Accordingly ‘The pleasure of fish’ in 「Autumn floods(秋水)」 shows Zhuangzi’s transcendental intuition and Huishi’s discerning knowing buried in the things. In their conversation Huishi finds that ‘knowing of the things’ is exposed by discerning the right or wrong while Zhuangzi, as an attitude of a holy man, implies the true knowing of transcendental dao. Zhuangzi’s ‘knowing(知)’ is an ‘absolute knowing’ transcendental from ‘discerning knowing’ so he tried to show the ‘dao’ above the ‘absolute knowing’.
In this paper, I have provided a description of some properties of the markedness of word order in English sentence in terms of FSP. In defining the markedness of word order, I followed Danes, who suggests that the marked word order of English sentence be analysed in terms of three levels : the grammatical, the semantic and the FSP level. Each level has the underlying word order pattern of its own : grammaticlly, SVO, semantically, Ag- Ac-G and in FSP way, theme-rheme. From the sentence that has the agreement in its three different levels, we get a neutral or unmarked word order. The disagreement of the word orders between the different levels is due to the hierarchy of levels : (1) theme-rhyme level. (2) semantic level, (3) grammatical level. The conflict between levels results in the marked word order. The means for solving conflicts are passive and fronting investigated here in this paper. On the other hand FSP is seen to be relevant to the text organization in that we select the utterance theme from the mass of information accumulated up to a certain point. The sequence of T-R in a series of sentences forms 5 different thematic progression types of Danes' : simple linear TP, TP with a continuous theme, TP with derived T's, Split Rheme and thematic jump. The authentic texts used in this paper shows that the marked orders of passive and fronting are useful devices to solve conflicts between the different levels not only in a sentence but also in the text.
In this paper, I have provided a description of some properties of there-existential sentence in terms of FSP. First of all, I have argued that the there in existential sentence can play the role of theme in that it has the properties of week syllable, closed-class lexical item and thematizer. These properties are the devices by which we lead our hearer or reader to recognize the place of information that we see as the high point of our message. Secondly,. I have shown that the properties and restrictions in the more important additional types of existential sentence and the existential sentence with verbs other than be. The verbs other than be denoting 'existence' or 'emergence' are of lower communicative importance than the person, thing, event, whose emergence on the scene is being asserted. Finally, I have analyzed in terms of definitensess the NP of the existential in the LEARN LOB Corpus. The data show that the proportion of the occurrence of indfinite NP at the post-verbal position is very high.
A planar Bi-Sb multijunction thermal converter for the precise measurements of ac voltage and current has been fabricated and its characteristics was discussed. In order to convert ac power into heat, a bifilar thin film Pt-heater, which could cancel its Thomson and Peltier effects, was prepared on the Si_(3)N_(4)/SiO_(2)/Si_(3)N_(4) diaphragm for the thermal isolation between heater and silicon substrate. To convert the temperature or the heat generated by the heater into dc voltage and current, hot and cold junctions of the Bi-Sb thermopile, which has a large difference in Seebeck coefficients, were formed on the dielectric diaphragm and the silicon substrate, respectively. The respective thermal sensitivity of the thermal converter with a bifilar heater was about 10.1 mV/mW and 14.8 mV/mW in the air and vacuum, which is about eight times higher than that of commercial 3-dimensional thermal converter. In the case of ac 2 V-input voltage, the ac-dc voltage transfer difference was about ±2.0 ppm, and in the case of ac 10 mA-input current, the ac-dc current transfer difference was about ± 0.6 ppm, in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 10 kHz.
This paper presents digital hearing aids signal processing system in WT(wavelet transform) domain. For implementation of hearing aids in WT domain, the gain in frequency domain is approximated in WT domain. We also present the gain selection algorithm to deal with the change of input signal power. Most transform methods produce blocking effect, and this effect degrades the convergence rate of feedback canceller. As a solution, we proposed wavelet transform bascd feedback canceller. To evaluate the performance, we compared it with LOT (lapped orthogonal transform) method in the frequency domain. This system has not shown the blocking effect, and improves convergence rate as compared with the LOT based feedback canceller.
Recently, a study on reducing the weight of the robot arm, which enables a high-speed operation and enables reducing the energy consumption has been actively carried out. A lightweight robot arm is hard to control because it behaves like a flexible body rather than a rigid body. This paper proposes a controller which combines a PID controller and a fuzzy logic controller for control the position and vibration of the flexible robot arm. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller, MSC.ADAMS computational model which incorporates the finite element flexible robot arm model is developed, and is used for performing simulations. Simulations are carried out with two reference inputs, and three end masses. Simulation results show that the proposed controller controls the position and vibration of the flexible robot arm adaptively without being affected by the reference input and the end mass.
There is a mention from the perspective of Zhōuyì about Taiji(太極) in 『Yuānhǎizipíng(淵海子平)』 . From the point of philosophical history, people may say 『Yuānhǎizipíng(淵海子平)』 is just a book of superstition, but I would like to study this book with two great significances. First, you can look at a section of Chinese philosophy based on the principle of 『Zhōuyì』 in a large category. Second, it is to look at the differences between state-led and private-sector 『Yì(易)』. 『Zipíngyuānhǎiyīnyìxiángzhù(子平淵海音義詳註)』 was compiled by Xúshēng(徐升), and reinforced by Yángzōng(楊宗), Zhútíng(竹亭) of the Míng Dynasty. At the beginning of this book, the order of the Cosmology, generation from Tàiyì(太易) to Taiji(太極) is described in the order of ‘Tàiyì → Tàichū(太初) → Tàishĭ(太始) → Tàisù(太素) → Taiji’, which is also a process of change of ‘qì(氣, 太初) → xíng(形, 太始) → zhì(質, 太素) → xíng․tǐ(形․體, 太極). What I question is the use of ’tǐ(體)’ in xíngtǐ. 『Yuānhǎizipíng(淵海子平)』’s assertion about wǔyùn(五運) is somewhat different from 「Qiánzáodù(乾鑿度)」 or 「Qiánkūnzáodù(乾坤鑿度)」 of 『Yìwěi (易緯)』 or 『Xiàojīng, Gōumìngjué(孝經緯․鉤命訣)』 in the Han Dynasty, when the mention of Taiji began. It is also different from the arguments of Wangbi(王弼) of Wei Dynasty in the middle period or those of Kǒng Yǐngdá(孔穎達) of the Tang Dynasty. In addition, as a condition that must be preceded to solve this problem, it was to clarify which dimension of 『Yuānhǎizipíng(淵海子平)』’s Taiji between ‘yǒu(有)’ and ‘wú(無). Therefore, I compared and analyzed their Taiji(Han dynasty, Wangbi, Kǒng Yǐngdá) and 『Yuānhǎizipíng(淵海子平)』. Through this study, I carefully inferred that the meaning of the ’tǐ’ of the ‘xíng․tǐ’ in 『Yuānhǎizipíng』 refers to ‘tǐ’ as a ‘principle’ or ‘cause’ that produces ‘qiánkūn(乾坤)’, not a ‘xíng’ or a ‘zhì’. Second, I found that the system of 『Yì(易)』 organized by the state and that organized voluntarily by the private sector is similar in a large frame. 『淵海子平』에서는 태극에 대한 역학적 언급이 있다. 철학사적 관점에서 『淵海子平』을 한낱 迷信書에 불과하다고 말할지 모르지만, 필자는 두 가지 큰 의의를 가지고 이 책을 연구하고자 한다. 첫째 큰 범주에서 『주역』에 기초한 중국철학의 한 단면을 살펴볼 수 있다는 점이며, 둘째 중국의 『역』 철학에 있어 국가가 주도하여 정리한 『역』의 체계와 민간이 필요에 의해 자발적으로 정리한 『역』의 체계가 어떤 차이를 드러내는지를 살펴볼 수 있다는 점이다. 흔히 『淵海子平』이라고 알려진 『子平淵海音義詳註』는 南宋 말기 자가 東齋인 徐大升이 편찬하였고 明代의 竹亭 楊淙이 增校하였다. 이 책의 서두에는 태역에서 태극까지 이르는 우주발생론의 순서를 ‘태역→태초→태시→태소→태극’ 순으로 기술하고 있는데, 이러한 五運의 변화는 곧 ‘氣(태초)→形(태시)→質(태소)→形․體(태극)’의 변화과정이기도 하다. 그런데 필자의 갖는 의문은 태극에서의 形體 중 ‘體’의 쓰임이다. 『淵海子平』의 오운에 대한 주장은 태역에 대한 언급이 시작된 漢代의 『易緯』 의 「乾鑿度」나 「乾坤鑿度」 또는 『孝經緯』 「鉤命訣」과 다소 차이가 있으며, 宋代로 이어지는 중간 시기의 魏나라 王弼이나 唐代의 孔穎達의 주장과도 또한 차이가 있다. 따라서 필자는 한대의 태극, 왕필의 태극, 공영달의 태극 등을 『淵海子平』의 태극과 비교 분석하였다. 이 연구를 통해 첫째 『淵海子平』에서의 ‘形體’ 중 體가 뜻하는 의미는 形이나 質이 아닌 乾坤을 낳는 ‘근거’나 ‘까닭’으로서의 體를 말한다는 결론에 이르렀으며, 둘째 필자는 국가가 주도하여 정리한 『역』의 체계와 민간이 술수서로서 자발적으로 정리한 『역』의 체계가 큰 틀에서 닮아있다는 점을 발견하였다.