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Issues concerning competition law and policy are among the issues recently being discussed in the WTO. Established in 1995, WTO and its members has removed trade barriers as well as non-trade barriers to achieve the goal of a more free and fair trade. However, anti-competitive practices of multinational companies, corporate mergers, international cartels and sometimes even state practices have resulted in bringing up a new barrier to trade. Impediment of market access and anti-competitive market conditions have somewhat resulted in offsetting the positive achievements of the WTO. Until recently, competition law and policy, which provides effective market access and a fair competitive environment, has been dealt mostly in the domestic level. Recent changes in the international economic environment have caused states to apply their competition law extraterritorially, some of which lead to jurisdiction disputes between states. In regulating international anti-competitive practices, states met limitations and begin to feel the necessity of international cooperation in this area. Bilateral and multilateral cooperation have been seen as a part of such progress. WTO also established a Working Group on the Interaction between Trade and Competition Policy (hereinafter WGTCP) to deal with the issues in this area. Among the anti-competitive practices, this paper focuses on hardcore cartels. Provisions for regulating hardcore cartels have been discussed by the WGTCP as well as by the OECD, UNCTAD and other major states. It seems that states have somewhat formed a consensus that hardcore cartels are in nature very anti-competitive and cause more harm than other anti-competitive practices being discussed. Therefore, this paper shed light on general issues concerning hardcore cartels such as the definition of hardcore cartels, the harm they cause and their current status in the international market, After the general overview, how states regulate hardcore cartels in the domestic level and their opinion about regulating hardcore cartels in the international level have been dealt in the paper. Even though states show strong will to regulate such anti-competitive practices, they face limitation due to the confidential and international character of global hardcore cartels. Such circumstances calls for international cooperation in the field of competition law and policy, especially concerning hardcore cartels. Efforts to bring international cooperation was mainly started by the initiative of the United States and the United States have reached bilateral agreement with a few states. Such efforts had also seen results in UNCTAD and OECD. These developments have also been focused in this paper. Finally, discussions being made at the W GTCP and the progresses made at WGTCP have been analyzed This paper does not aim at providing a dear and a straightforward answer for regulating hardcore cartels in the global level Instead by evaluating the past efforts to regulate hardcore cartels domestically and internationally, this paper hopes to provide a guideline for further cooperation in this area. Such will not only be of benefit to regulating hardcore cartels in the international level but also benefit to the current discussions being made in the field of competition law and policy.
Introduction : The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Samul-Tang and Samul-Tang Gagambang aqua-acupuncture according to the manufacturing method of aqua-acupuncture solution. Method and Materials : Samul-Tang(Sample-A) and Samul-Tang Gagabang(Sample-B) aqua-acupuncture solution were manufactured by water-alcohol method(Sample-A1, Sample-B1) and steam distillation method(Sample-A2, Sample-B2). Each sample solution injected into Kwsnwon(CV4) of the mice and rate those had DIC, acute inflammation, anemia pain, and hypnotic state. Result : 1. Sample-A1 group showed significant increase of platelet count and fibrinogen content, and significant decrease of PT and aPTT on endotoxin-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation. Sample-B1 group showed significant decrease of PT. 2. All experimental groups showed significant decrease of edema on carageenin-induced edema and all experimental groups except Sample-A1 group showed significant decrease of edema on histamin-induced edema. 3. All experimental groups showed significant decrease on the increased vascular permeability induced by histamine 4. Sample-Al group and Sample-131 group showed significant analgegic effect on acetic acid method and all experimental groups except Sample-Al group showed significant analgegic effect heat plate method. 5. All experimental groups except Sample-A2 group showed significant prolongation on the hypnotic duration induced by pentobarbital-Na. 6. Sample-Al group showed significant increase of WBC count, RBC count, hematocrit value, hemoglobin content and platelet count and signifcant decrease of serum Fe content, Sample-B1 group showed significant increase of WBC count, hematocrit value, hemoglobin content and platelet count. Sample-A2 group and Sample-B2 group showed significant increase of WBC count and hematocrit value on the anemia induced by phenylhydrazine HCl . Conclusion: It was found that Samul-Tang and Samul-Tang Gagambang aqua-acupuncture had anti-thrombotic effect, anti-inflammatory effect, inhibitory effect to CNS, anti-anemic effect.
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이에 따라 契丹部를 중심으로한 ‘古八部'란 部族聯盟의 형성된 원인이 그 西隣의 庫莫奚에서의 部族聯盟社會로의 發展의 그것과 같이 北燕 및 北魏와의 활발한 交易에 의한 經濟的인 發展 및 中國先進文物의 輸入을 통한 契丹部의 政治的인 成長 에 따른 결과라고 보고, 먼저 ‘古八部'가 형성 된 시기까지의 契丹部는 물론 그 周渴의 諸鄧族 과 北燕 및 北魏와의 交易의 賣相울 살펴보고 이어 交易의 影響으로 형성된 ' 古八部'란 部族聯盟의 賣相가 무엇인가에 대하여 규명해보고자 한다. 다음으로, ‘古八部' 聯盟이 해체된 직접적인 원인이 479년 高句麗와 柔?의 地豆于瓜分謀議와 그에 따른 高句麗의 契丹 침입이라고 상정하고, 당시 高句麗와 柔?이 왜 地豆于를 瓜分하려했고 契丹을 침입했는가 하는 배경을 구명하고 이어 ‘古八部' 聯盟이 해체된 이후의 契丹 諸鄧族 의 상태를 밝혀보고자 한다.