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        귄터 쿠네르트의 작품에 나타난 반(反)유토피아적 미래상

        권세훈 한국독어독문학회 2001 獨逸文學 Vol.77 No.-

        Gu¨nter Kunert, der aus Ost-Berlin kommt, dru¨ckte in seiner fru¨hen literarischen Schaffensphase den Glauben an den geschichtlichen Fortschritt durch den Sozialismus aus. Aber er verabschiedet sich allma¨hlich von jeder teleologischen Geschichtsauffassungen. Stattdessen konstatiert er ab Mitte der siebziger Jahre eine katastrophale Situation auf der Erde, die aus der Ignoranz gegenu¨ber den Wamungen aus der Zukunft resultiert. Diese literarische Tendenz zeigt, dass die Menschen keine utopische Zukunft mehr erwaRen ko¨nnen, wenn sie heute den Irrtum der Geschichte nicht erkennen und korrigieren. Dabei handelt es sich vor allem um die technische Entwicklung, die keine Grenze kennt und die Zersto¨rung der Umwelt verursacht. Die technische Entwicklung und ihre o¨kologischen Folgen sind also das Hauptthema in den Werken Kunerts wie z. B. Wunschkind, Flarschenpost und Adam und Evam. In Wunschkind fu¨ht Kunert die Denkweise des antiken Mythos ein, um die Katastophe der Erde als ein unerho¨rtes Ereignis sichtbar zu machen. Das archaische Bewußtsein erlaubt ihm, die Grenze zwischen Gegenwart und Zukunft aufzuheben. Das Zukunftsbild, das in Flaschenpost dargestellt wird, ist ebenfalls schrecklich. Hier ist sogar der menschliche Ko¨rper die wichtigste Enegiequelle, weil die fru¨heren Generationen alles verbraucht haben. In Adam und Evam wird der Alptraum schon vergegenwa¨rtigt. Zwei Astronauten sind die einzigen U¨berlebenden. Sie wollen eine neue Scho¨pfungsgeschichte schreiben, indem einer davon ku¨nstlich zur Frau wird. Damit hoffen sie, der Ursprung eines neuen Geschlechts zu werden. Aber das Projekt bleibt erfolglos, weil sie kinderlos sind. Hier geht es um einen unkalkulierbaren Kardinalfehler, der sich in jedem Scho¨pfungsakt verbirgt.

      • 플라즈마 원자층 증착법을 이용한 하이브리드 기능성 Ru-TiN 히터 박막의 합성 및 특성 평가

        권세훈,정성준,정영근,강명창,김광호 한국표면공학회 2009 한국표면공학회 학술발표회 초록집 Vol.2009 No.-

        플라즈마 원자층 증착법을 이용하여 Ru-TiN 박막을 합성하였다. 박막 내 Ru의 함량은 Ru의 unit-cycle의 수에 따라 선형적으로 증가하였으며, Ru 함량이 증가함에 따라 박막의 비저항을 3700 μΩㆍ㎝에서 190 μΩㆍ㎝까지 자유롭게 조절할 수 있었다. Ru의 함량이 0.40 이상인 경우, Ru과 TiN 두물질이 교차 증착되어 서로의 결정 성장을 충분히 억제함으로서, 비정질구조를 가짐을 확인할 수 있었다. 또한, O₂ 분위기에서 열처리를 진행한 결과, Ru의 조성비가 0.40이상인 경우 700 ℃까지 면저항의 변화가 거의 없음을 확인할 수 있었다.

      • KCI등재

        Ru(EtCp)<sub>2</sub> 전구체를 이용한 PEALD Ru 공정 최적화에 관한 연구

        권세훈,정영근,Kwon, Se-Hun,Jeong, Young-Keun 한국분말야금학회 2013 한국분말야금학회지 Vol.20 No.1

        Ru films were successfully prepared by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) using $Ru(EtCp)_2$ and $NH_3$ plasma. To optimize Ru PEALD process, the effect of growth temperature, $NH_3$ plasma power and $NH_3$ plasma time on the growth rate and preferred orientation of the deposited film was systemically investigated. At a growth temperature of $270^{\circ}C$ and $NH_3$ plasma power of 100W, the saturated growth rate of 0.038 nm/cycle was obtained on the flat $SiO_2$/Si substrate when the $Ru(EtCp)_2$ and $NH_3$ plasma time was 7 and 10 sec, respectively. When the growth temperature was decreased, however, an increased $NH_3$ plasma time was required to obtain a saturated growth rate of 0.038 nm/cycle. Also, $NH_3$ plasma power higher than 40 W was required to obtain a saturated growth rate of 0.038 nm/cycle even at a growth temperature of $270^{\circ}C$. However, (002) preferred orientation of Ru film was only observed at higher plasma power than 100W. Moreover, the saturation condition obtained on the flat $SiO_2$/Si substrate resulted in poor step coverage of Ru on the trench pattern with an aspect ratio of 8:1, and longer $NH_3$ plasma time improved the step coverage.

      • KCI등재

        전기장 특성과 전극 형상이 다중벽 탄소나노튜브 정렬에 미치는 영향

        권세훈,정영근,정창식,강명창,이형우 한국분말야금학회 2010 한국분말야금학회지 Vol.17 No.4

        In this paper, the effect of electrical characteristics and electrode shape on the alignment and attachment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) has been studied. The attraction and alignment of MWNTs between the gaps has been investigated by applying electric field which is called electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis. According to the frequency of electric field, positive or negative dielectrophoretic force can be determined. The concentration of MWNTs solution was , and a droplet of was dropped between two electrodes. Through the repeated experiments, the optimal electrical conditions for aligning and attaching MWNTs in the desired places were obtained. Since the frequency range of 100 kHz~10 MHz generated positive dielectrophoretic force, MWNTs were attracted and aligned between the gaps with this frequency range. For generating enough force to attract MWNTs, the appropriate voltage range was . Furthermore, the effect of electrode shape on the alignment of MWNTs was investigated. A single MWNT attachment was accomplished on the round shaped with 70% yield.

      • KCI등재

        지방분권과 교육자치의 실현을 위한 법적 과제

        권세훈 한국지방자치법학회 2015 지방자치법연구(地方自治法硏究) Vol.15 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

      • KCI등재

        파산법원의 기업회생 게임

        권세훈 한국재무학회 2011 財務硏究 Vol.24 No.1

        본 논문은 게임이론 모형을 통해 파산법원의 경제적 역할을 설명하였다. 기존의 많은 연구는 채권자와 채무자간 협상 및 이에 영향을 미치는 최적 파산법규에 논의를 집중 하고 있으며, 법원은 법규 집행의 절차적 기능만을 담당한다고 간주하는 경향이 있 다. 본 논문은 법원이 사법적 재량을 발휘하여 파산기업의 회생절차 신청유인을 조정 하는 전략적 효과를 분석함으로써 다음과 같은 결론을 도출하였다. 회생절차 신청 기업의 회생가치와 청산가치의 차이가 클수록 법원의 전략적 의사결 정이 중요하다. 특히 심각한 불경기 상황에서는 우량기업도 다수 도산하여 평균적인 회생가치가 증가하는 반면, 자산시장 위축으로 청산가치는 감소하게 되어 파산법원 의 역할이 더욱 중요해진다. 한편, 파산법규가 친-채무자적일수록 부실기업의 회생 절차 신청 유인이 증가하므로, 법원이 적절한 사법적 재량을 발휘하여 부실기업의 신 청 유인을 억제하는 것이 필요하다. 궁극적으로 법원의 정보능력이 향상되어 회생가 능기업과 부실기업을 분리하는 경우가 많아질수록 사회적 후생이 증가한다. What is the economic role of the bankruptcy court(judge)? The general answer is that it serves to play key roles in valuation, distribution, and procedure. Yet, the bankruptcy courts are often considered passive and procedural participants in bankruptcy game literature. Indeed, the mainstream themes are more often focused on the optimal bankruptcy law than the court’s strategic role with primary emphasis on the workout negotiation game between the debtor firm and its creditors in the shadow of the bankruptcy law. This paper, therefore, examines the game between the bankruptcy court and the firms that file for bankruptcy protection (Chapter 11). The adopted model is a dynamic game under incomplete information. The perfect Bayesian equilibrium concept is used to refine the resulting equilibriums. By doing so, we construct that the player’s movement is determined according to the sequential rationality and the Bayesian consistency, thereby disallowing empty threats in the process. In this paper, for simplicity, the creditors are assumed to be made of only one class of passive participants; when the firm is liquidated, they receive the proceeds first, and when the firm is reorganized, they are given new equity. The debtor firm chooses between self-liquidation and filing for bankruptcy protection. The self-liquidation leaves something for the debtor firms, but the ex-post liquidation leaves nothing because of bankruptcy costs which reduce the liquidation value. The bankruptcy court maximizes the social welfare which is the sum of the debtor firm’s and the group of creditors’ gains. The court is assumed to have the authority to set the recovery ratio and to reject the petition. Here, the recovery ratio means the ratio between the original debt amount and the value of new equity that is paid to the creditors when the firm is reorganized. In the case of rejection, the firms are assumed to be liquidated(Chapter 7). The judicial intervention or discretion means the strategic decision of the court in the corporate bankruptcy game. There are two types of firms: good firms and bad firms. Good firms’ going concern value is higher than the liquidation value; vice versa for bad firms. The proportion of the two types of firms is determined by nature. The firms know their own type but that information is not verifiable to a the third party. The court only knows the ex-ante probability distribution of the firm types. Therefore, there is a possibility that the two types are pooled, and the court cannot distinguish between them, which leads to the pooling equilibrium. Sometimes, however, the bankruptcy court has strategic measures to prevent the bad firms from filing for bankruptcy protection, which leads to the separated equilibrium. Based on the recovery ratio set by the bankruptcy court, which subsequently becomes common knowledge, the bankrupt firms decide whether to file for bankruptcy protection. Sometimes, the firm type can be publicly revealed as a good or bad one before the court decision is made. In that case, generally good firms are reorganized and bad ones are liquidated. The court can also decide whether to reorganize the firm or reject the petition. If rejected, the firm is liquidated, and the proceeds are paid to the creditors. Because of the bankruptcy costs, the ex-post liquidation leaves nothing for the debtor firms. Reorganization means the debt-equity swap, i.e., the new equity claim, claim is given to the creditors according to the preset recovery ratio. Using the above game structure, this paper provides the following implications. First, the bigger the difference between the expected going-concern value and the liquidation value, the more important the strategic role of bankruptcy court becomes. On the contrary, when the expected going concern value and the liquidation value are the same (or similar), the strategic role of the bankruptcy court does not make any difference. In that case, it does not matter whether the firm is reorganized or liquidated. Second, when the going-concern value is higher, the court decision should be made favorable to the reorganization. This policy implication is especially important when systemic bankruptcy occurs. In that case, many good firms could go bankrupt due to the externality of macroeconomic shocks. Third, when the liquidation value is higher, the court should set the recovery ratio higher and take more selective approach when reviewing the petitions. These measures could help discern the opportunistic behaviors of bad firms. Fourth, when the bankruptcy law is pro-debtor, the strategic role of bankruptcy court gains more importance. In this paper, we can interpret the lower recovery ratio as the proxy for the pro-debtor law. When the recovery ratio is deemed low, the court should reject the petition more often than when the ratio is high. Fifth, the better the court’s information capability is, the higher the social welfare becomes. This result suggests that the court and judges should improve their expertise. This also implies that any legal uncertainties can produce significant impacts on the overall process of corporate bankruptcy.

      • KCI등재

        국내 중소기업 펀딩 갭 및 금융신청 기각 요인에 관한 연구

        권세훈,한상범 한국재무학회 2013 財務硏究 Vol.26 No.2

        본 논문은 중소기업 금융과 관련하여, “자금 공급이 부족한가?” 그리고 “신용차별이 존재하는가”의 두 가지 질문을 제기하고, 중소기업 펀딩 갭에 관한 국내외 실무적․이론적 논의들에 대한 개관과 국내 중소기업 자료를 이용한 실증분석을 실시한다. 먼저 중소기업진흥공단 지원금융 기각률 결정요인을 로짓(logit) 분석한 결과, 신용변수와 대부분의 차별변수들이 통계적으로 유의하였다. 특히 업력이 짧을수록 기각률이 높으나, 신생기업은 상대적으로 기각률이 낮았다. 한편 모형 설정에 따라 대도시 지역 및 대표자 나이가 적은 기업의 기각률이 높은 현상이 나타나기도 한다. 그러나 여성 대표자 변수는 통계적 유의성을 발견할 수 없었다. 이러한 결과는 중소기업 전반에 대한 신용차별이라기 보다는 중소기업 지원정책의 특성이 반영된 결과로 판단된다. 외부감사대상 중소기업을, 자산규모와 산업분류에 따라 12개 그룹으로 구분하여, 기업의 성장에 기인하는 펀딩 갭 규모 및 비율을 추정한 결과, 계산 가능 기업 중 약 70%가 자금부족 상태인 것으로 나타났다. 한편 자금부족 표본에 대해, 자산대비 펀딩 갭 비율을 계산한 결과, 자산규모 상위 표본과 전자/IT 산업 표본의 펀딩 갭 비율이 높은 것으로 판단된다. In the small-and-medium-enterprise (SME) financing market, due to asymmetric information to which those smaller companies fall victims, the market failure frequently occurs. Accordingly, this paper raises two salient questions: one is on the credit discrimination that exists in the Korean SME financing market and the other is on whether the current financing supply is good enough to ensure the sustainable operation and growth of SMEs. Before answering these questions, we overview the practical and theoretical basis concerning the concepts and its categorization of the funding gap for SMEs. We also look into the SME financing policies and the effects they have on both in domestic and international context. With respect to the funding gap concepts, there are mainly two approaches (Cressy, 2002): positive and normative definitions. Positive definition argues that the funding gap is an equilibrium of an imperfect market, in which lending volume is below the level that would emerge in a perfect market. Normative definition argues that it is a market failure, for which appropriate policy response should be an increase in lending volume. However, this concept classification does not make any difference to the conclusion of this paper. We also introduce another categorization of the debt funding gap(Equinox Management Consultants, 2002): the size gap, the risk gap, the flexibility gap, and the knowledge gap. A size gap asserts that, for the small-and-medium sized firms, the demanded amounts of the debt funding are usually too small to be of interest to the institutional lenders such as large banks. A risk gap entails that lenders do not necessarily price loans solely based on potential risks. Rather, they reject loan applications if estimated risk exceeds a pre-specified cut-off rate or particular standards or if the available collateral is not sufficient. A flexibility gap postulates that according to some SME owners, financial institutions do not provide flexible terms and conditions tailored to their specific loan demands. Finally, a knowledge gap claims that the financial institutions do not understand knowledge-based businesses. We analyze the determinants of the turn down ratio of ‘Small & Medium Business Corporation of Korea’ loan applications, using the logit model. We use the loan application data which also contains some firm characteristic information including who applies for the ‘Small & Medium Business Corporation of Korea’lending and records of guarantee projects between 1999 and 2011. The logit regression outcomes show that the coefficients of the credit-related variables and most of the discrimination-related control variables are statistically significant. In particular, the shorter firm age leads to the higher rejection rate, but start-up companies have relatively lower rate of rejection. Depending on the model specification, the firm location and the age of CEO have some effects on the result; metropolitan companies and those with younger CEOs show relatively higher turn-down ratios. As for the female CEO dummy variables, we did not find any statistical significance. We argue that these empirical results should not be interpreted as the credit discrimination evidences for the Korean small-and-medium sized firms. Instead, these results could reflect the characteristics of the ‘Small and Medium Business Corporation of Korea’ policies. We estimate the size and proportion of the funding gap caused by the company's growth for the Korean SMEs which are mandated to be externally audited. In this paper, we use the model of Canovi and Venturelli (2008), which predict SMEs’ latent funding demand on the basis of growth speed. The firm’s growth speed is proxied by its sales growth rate, which in turn drives its financial debt demand. The funding gap reflects this difference that exists between the estimated financial debt funding demands and the real supplies of the financial debt. Our methods consider long-term growth driven funding demand while excluding the one-time capital-investment-driven funding demand. In addition, the estimated parameters are very sensitive with the cross-section and the time-series observations. Therefore, we averaged out each individual firm’s parameter estimates across the whole periods. We hope that future researches can resolve these limitations of our methods. We divided our pool of samples into 12 groups according to their asset sizes and industry classifications. The results show that about 70% of the companies considered in the sample is estimated to be lack of funds. For these fund-seeking companies, the group median values of the funding gap lie between 5% and 12% of the asset size. And these funding gap ratios are higher for the large asset groups and the electronic and IT (information and technology) industry group than those of the rest. These results seem to suggest that the firm size and the industry are critical factors that require serious consideration when devising a supporting policy for SMEs.

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