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부산지역 설사환자에서 분리한 Campylobacter jejuni 의항균제 감수성과 유전자형 분석부산광역시 보건환경연구원 감염병연구부 미생물팀박선희, 김병준, 권영희, 황인영, 성경혜, 박은희, 진성현배경: Campylobacter는 식품매개질환의 중요한 원인균으로, 본 연구에서는 부산지역 설사환자에서 분리한 Campylobacterjejuni의 분리경향, 항균제 내성률, 유전자형 분석에 대해 조사하였다. 방법: 2014년부터 2017년 9월까지 급성설사질환 감시사업 및 5건의 식중독 사례에서 97주의 Campylobacter jejuni를 분리하였다. 항균제 감수성 검사는 9종류의 항균제(ciprofloxacin (CIP), nalidixic acid (NAL), tetracycline (TET), chloramphenicol,azithromycin (AZI), erythromycin (ERY), streptomycin (STR), gentamicin, telithromycin)에 대하여 액체배지미량희석법으로 실시하였고, 유전자형은 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)로 분석하였다. 결과: Campylobacter jejuni의 4년간 평균 분리율은 2.0%였으며 해마다 분리율은 증가하였다. 항균제 내성률은 NAL90.9%, CIP 89.4%, TET 13.6%, AZI와 ERY 각 3.0%, STR 1.5% 순이었고, 다제내성률은 18.2%였으며 다제내성균주 모두quinolone계 항균제(CIP-NAL)를 포함하고 있었다. SmaI 제한효소로 처리한 PFGE 패턴은 모두 17개 cluster로 분류되었으며 이 중 cluster 11이 부산지역에서 분리되는 Campylobacter의 주요 유전자형 패턴이었다. 결론: 본 연구는 적절한 항균제 사용과 항균제 내성 관리를 위한 유용한 자료를 제시하며, 향후 증가가 예상되는Campylobacter로 인한 식중독의 역학 조사를 위한 자료 축적에 도움이 될 것이다. Background: Campylobacter jejuni is an importantfood-borne pathogen that causes human gastroenteritis. This study was conducted to investigate theincidence of isolation, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern,and C. jejuni genotype from diarrhea patients inBusan, Korea. Methods: A total of 97 C. jejuni were isolated fromdiarrhea patients during five food-borne outbreaksfrom 2014 to September 2017. Antimicrobial susceptibilitytests were carried out by the broth microdilutionmethod for ciprofloxacin (CIP), nalidixic acid(NAL), tetracycline (TET), chloramphenicol, azithromycin(AZI), erythromycin (ERY), streptomycin(STR), gentamicin, and telithromycin. To investigateC. jejuni genotypes, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis(PFGE) profile analysis was performed. Results: The isolation rate of C. jejuni was 2.0% forthe last 4 years and increased annually. Antimicrobialresistance rates of C. jejuni were shown to be in theorder of NAL (90.9%), CIP (89.4%), TET (13.6%),AZI (3.0%), ERY (3.0%), and STR (1.5%). The proportionof multidrug-resistance was 18.2%, and theycommonly contained quinolones (CIP-NAL). Analysisof PFGE patterns of SmaI-restricted DNA of C. jejuniisolates showed 17 clusters; cluster 11 was the majorgenotype pattern. Conclusion: This study will provide useful data forthe proper use of antimicrobials and the managementof resistant C. jejuni. Also it will help to providedata for the epidemiological investigation of foodbornediseases caused by C. jejuni, which is expectedto increase in the future.
Hyperphosphatemia, one complication of the end stage renal disease (ESRD), maylead to bone disorders and cardiovascular complications (CVD). The management of hyperphosphatemiatreatment needs dietary restrictions and the initiation of oral phosphate binders. Moststudies have evaluated the degrees of vascular calcification (VC) by examining the changes inserum calcium levels and also the ability to control serum mineral levels between the calciumbasedphosphate binders and non calcium-based ones in dialysis patients. The goal of this studyis to compare the clinical results after administering three oral phosphate binders such as calciumacetate, sevelamer hydrochloride, and lanthanum carbonate. We have retrospectively examined100 out of 222 dialysis patients with electronic medical record (EMR) from 2005 to 2012based on the inclusion criteria. The EMR data consist of mineral levels, bone and cardiovascular bio-markers from the baseline to 12 weeks. According to our results, all phosphate binders havesignificantly decreased serum phosphorus levels after 12 weeks (p<0.05). The serum calcium levelsassociated with VC are not statistically significant differences in each of the three groups(p>0.05). The concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) associated with bone disorders haveincreased, although not statistically significant, during the sevelamer and lanthanum treatment. In the sevelamer treated group, the total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein concentrationshave decreased significantly (p<0.05). Larger and prospective studies associated with the preventionsof CVD in dialysis patients are necessary in the future.
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Due to their historical, geographical and cultural specificities, South Korea and European countries have different perspectives on international relations and cooperation. The approach of South Korea on regional interdependence can therefore appear dual and somewhat conflicting from a European perspective. This article first takes stock of the extensive European integration theory and isolate three dimensions(regime, polity, economic performance) of regional cooperation. It then gives an overview of Korea’s international relations foundations and uniqueness in the complex Eat-Asian modern history, as well as the remaining Cold War paradigm. It finally confronts the classic regional integration to the double view that South Korea has on regional cooperation: territorial and identity-led with regards to North Korea; functional and economically-led with regards to rest of the world. By analyzing some concrete cooperation examples (Six-party Talks, FTAs, ASEAN Plus Three), it highlights the absence of a true regional integration design and the contrast with European construction.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
인동과에 속하는 인동덩굴(Lonicera japonica Thunb., LJ) 추출물이 활성산소의 일종인 glucose oxidase(GO)에 미치는 영향을 배양 C6 glioma 세포를 재료로 알아보았으며, 또한 LJ 추출물의 항산화 효과를 전자공여능(DPPH-radical scavenging activity)을 비롯하여 항산화 효소의 하나인 SOD의 활성과 비슷한 superoxide dismutase(SOD)-유사활성(SOD-like activity), 지질과산화 억제능(lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity) 및 lactate dehydrogenase(DH) 활성에 의하여 조사하였다. 본 연구에서 GO는 처리 농도 의존적으로 대조군에 비하여 배양 C6 glioma 세포의 생존율을 유의하게 감소시킴으로서 세포독성을 나타냈으며(P<0.01), 이 때 XTT_(50)값은 35 mU·mL^(-1)에서 나타났다. 또한, LJ 추출물은 GO에 의하여 감소된 세포생존율을 유의하게 증가시킴으로써 GO의 세포독성을 방어하였다. 한편, LJ 추출물은 전자공여능을 비롯한 SOD-유사활성, 지질과산화 억제능 및 LDH의 활성 감소를 보임으로서 항산화 효과를 나타냈다. 이상의 결과로부터 LJ 추출물은 항산화 효과에 의하여 GO의 세포독성을 유효하게 방어한 것으로 나타났다. To evaluate the protective effect of Lonicera japonica Thunb.(LJ) extract on glucose oxidase(GO)-mediated cytotoxicity in cultured C6 glioma cells, and the antioxidative effect of LJ extract, colorimetric assays such as the cell viability, DPPH-radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutase(SOD)-like activity, lipid peroxidation(LP) inhibitory activity and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) activity were performed. For this study, C6 glioma cells were treated with the media containing 15∼35 mU․mL^(-1) GO for 4 hours, respectively. In this study, GO significantly decreased cell viability in dose-dependent manner, and the XTT_(50) value was measured at 40 mU․mL^(-1) GO . In the effect of LJ extract on GO-mediated cytotoxicity, LJ extract significantly increased the cell viability which was decreased by GO. In the antioxidative effects, LJ extract showed the DPPH-radical scavenging activity, SOD-like activity, the inhibitory activity of LP and the decrease of LDH activity. From these results, it is suggested that the GO showed cytotoxicity on cultured C6 glioma cells by the decrease of cell viability, and LJ extract was effective in the protection of GO-mediated cell injury by antioxidative effect.
By looking at Old Joseon’s clothing style from what the archaeologists have excavated, it is very fancy and modern. It is known that a wide variety of patterns and materials used as decorations along with pieces of cloths used as part of Old Joseon’s clothing has been excavated from the Korean Peninsula and Manchuria. Through this they were able to distinguish that people during the Old Joseon era have decorated their clothings.a The people from Old Joseon era have prepared a fixed set of style starting from their hats to outer and inner clothing, lower clothing, belts and shoes. Through this decorative method they have expressed a lively model. Their clothes were usually made with leather, woolen cloth, hemp cloth, cotton and other fabrics and with the use of bones, horns, jade, bronze, steel, gold and silver and glass to as decorations, they have standardized the colorful yet fancy clothing style. Out of all the materials they have used for decorations, the buttons made of bronze have been used the most. This button has shown us that it is used as a very fancy decorative method along with creativity and characteristics. The size, shape, design and usage of the bronze buttons are all different therefore it possesses a characteristic in which it can be assembled with ease. This shows that the people from Old Joseon era were free and creative. Not only did the Old Joseon have techniques for decorative and weaving techniques for clothing but also possessed scientific techniques for dyeing as well. From the New Stone Age era, they have obtained dye from natural resources and with it they have drawn on walls and added colors to their clothes. Painting and dyeing has been a way of life. The people who were living in the Old Joseon era have used the dyeing and weaving techniques for all their clothes from their hats to their shoes adding beautiful color schemes to their clothes. On top of that they have raised the artistic achievements by using decorative buttons and marbles etc. This thesis will show the shape of Old Joseon’s clothing distinct characteristics and furthermore we are trying to provide clear evidence to amend the opinions in which people believe that the Korean clothing style is from China or Northern Chinese garment system. Additionally we are trying to play a part in recovering the contradictions towards Old Joseon's clothing pattern by recovering the accurate clothing models in the museums and historical dramas.
is a chronic active gastritis, which develops into atrophic gastritis. It is well established that atrophic gastritis is one of the major risk factors of intestinal gastric cancer. Thus, severe long-lasting gastritis induced by H. pylori infection is considered for treatment to prevent gastric cancer. We experienced a case of dramatic eradication of H. pylori using a fifth-line salvage therapy in a patient with H. pylori-induced active gastritis during four years of follow-up.
A 73-year-old man with a history of hypertension and ascending aortic dissection was hospitalized for aggravated abdominal pain and general ache for 3 months. Follow-up CT showed aggravated abdominal aortic hematoma with aneurysm, atherosclerotic periaortitis and bilateral hydronephrosis. An initial laboratory finding showed elevated levels of inflammatory markers and renal dysfunction. Positron emission tomography-CT showed an increased standardized uptake values level in the aortic arch, descending thoracic aorta, major branch, abdominal aorta, and common iliac artery. For bilateral hydronephrosis, a double J catheter insertion was performed. Tissue speci-mens obtained from previous surgery on the aorta indicated the infiltration of lympho-plasma cells without granuloma formation in the aortic wall. After a combined therapy of high dose steroid therapy with azathioprine, the patient’s initial complaints of abdominal pain,weakness and azotemia improved. This case was diagnosed as chronic periaortitis based on aortic inflammation at biopsy, which was complicated with retroperitoneal fibrosis and ureteric obstruction.
The main aim of the present paper is to investigate the effects of individual online feedback on learners’ cognitive and emotional factors. The data were collected from 41 college students who had enrolled in English writing course throughout two semesters. The participants completed five genres of English writing (free writing, cover letter, curriculum vitae, TOEFL, summary) and received online feedback individually. The result of the study demonstrated that the learners preferred online feedback because it provided emotional comforts. Furthermore, other merits of online feedback that were mentioned included promptness, accuracy and record. In addition, 10% high ranking students showed strong preference toward online feedback and this was an interesting finding. Those who preferred offline feedback placed greater emphasis on interactions with professors and peers, and this is why they showed stronger inclination toward offline feedback rather than online feedback. The results of the present study can be interpreted in the following manner: a systematic individual online feedback can play a positive role in learners’ affective and cognitive factors.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of cine-literacy education through a case study. This study was motivated by the H's University's necessity of considering the appropriate teaching method before starting its Liber Education program, titled "Watching movie". Considering literature review, empathy theory is related in cine-literacy education in fact. H University 16 students participated in this study. 16 students wrote report and discuss their feelings of movie 'The Truman Show'. The result showed many kinds of cognitive, emotional, and aesthetic aspects from the student's report. Through the discussion, moreover, students came to realize the fact that some of their peers shared the same feelings whreras others did not. This broaden students' eye scopes, consequently, allowed them to view the movie from different perspectives. Through this, students came to become more creative and more reasoning. 본 연구는 영화 리터러시 교육이 공감능력에 영향을 미치는지를 사례연구를 통하여 분석하였다. 연구의 시작은 H대학에서 실시하는 “영화 상영” 열린 강좌에 앞서 영화를 어떻게 교육과 연결하여 운영할 것인지에 대한 논의에서 시작되었다. 이론적 고찰을 통하여 영화 리터러시 교육이 공감능력과 관련성이 있음을 살펴보았다. 연구방법으로는 대학 재학생 16명을 대상으로 ‘트루먼 쇼’ 영화를 보여주고 감상문을 제출하게 한 후, 네 명씩 한 그룹으로 나누어 느낀 점을 자유롭게 이야기하도록 하였다. 연구 결과 첫째, 학생들은 인지적, 정서적, 심미적 관점에서 다양한 형태로 영화내용을 기술하였다. 둘째, 학생들은 자신의 생각과 비슷한 동료 그리고 다른 생각을 가진 동료와 소통을 하면서 새로운 시각으로 영화를 재해석할 수 있었다. 영화를 보면서 혼자 깨닫지 못한 부분을 동료의 이야기를 통해 새롭게 깨닫게 되었다. 뿐만 아니라 상상력, 추론 능력도 증가하게 되었다.