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The miniature pig is a very suitable donor species in xenotransplantation of human organs. Intestine ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis has been associated with the onset of diverse diseases. Thus, we examined the effect of intestine I/R on the expression of ER stress and apotptosis related molecules. In the present study, I/R induced phosphorylation of protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), IRE, and ATF-4. I/R also increased the expression of the proapoptotic transcription factor CAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). In addition, I/R decreased the expression of Bcl-2, but increased the expression of Bax, cleaved PARP, and cleaved caspase-3. Moreover, I/R increased splicing form of XBP-1 mRNA and the expression of caspase-6 and caspase-3 mRNA. In conclusion, intestine I/R induced ER stress and apoptosis in miniature pig.
The effects of application of gypsum and fresh cattle manure on the yield of forage crop were investigated in Hwaong reclaimed land in Korea for 3 years from 2011 to 2013. This study was conducted to develop the practical application method of livestock manure as a fertilization source and a soil physico-chemical ameliorator for the cultivation of forage crop Sorghum×Sudangrass hybrid in newly reclaimed tidal land soil. Treatments with six applications were established with three replications; chemical fertilizer (CF), gypsum (G) 20 Mg ha<SUP>-1</SUP>, G+fresh cattle manure (FCM) 100%, G+FCM 200%, G+FCM 300% and FCM 100% which referred to the application rate equivalent to the recommended amount of phosphate fertilization by soil test. The combined treatments of G+FCM increased soil organic matter, Av.P2O5 and exchangeable Ca<SUP>2+</SUP> contents while decreased exchangeable Na<SUP>+</SUP> and Mg<SUP>2+</SUP>. The soil bulk density, soil hardness and soil aggregate formation were improved by G+FCM treatments. The dry matter yields of Sorghum×Sudangrass hybrid were significantly increased in proportion to the application rate of FCM. The phosphorus use efficiency showed the highest in the application level of G+FCM 100%, which seemed to be the results of reduced nutrient use efficiency by nutrient immobilization, leaching etc. when applied excessive amount of fresh animal manure.
To improve the poor SO2 absorption rate of CeFeMgTi sorbent with high sulfur removal capacity and fast regeneration, a new sorbent, CeFeMgTi-sol was prepared by the modified co-precipitation method and tested in a packed bed reactor at RFCC conditions (sulfation of MgO to MgSO4 in the presence of low concentration of SO2 at 973 K, regeneration of MgSO4 to MgO and H2S in the presence of H2 at 803 K). The CeFeMgTi-sol sorbent showed excellent SO2 absorption and sulfur removal capacity (46.2 sulfur g/g absorbent×100). It was found that the SO2 absorption rates were related to the structure of the Mg and Ti and the textural properties such as surface area and pore volume. In the case of the fresh state of CeFeMgTi sorbent, CeO2, MgO and MgTiO3 structures were observed. But the new CeFeMgTisol sorbent before SO2 absorption, showed a separated MgO and TiO2 peak only. These differences in the sorption rates were discussed by the difference in the XRD pattern, surface area and pore volume.
( Jae Won Byun ), ( Kyung Hyun Lee ), ( Ha Young Kim ), ( Soon Seek Yoon ), ( Ji Youl Jung1 ), ( Woo Seog Jeong1 ), ( Jae Ku Oem ), ( Jong Soo Lim ), ( Myoung Heon Lee ), ( You Chan Bae ) 한국예방수의학회(구 한국수의공중보건학회) 2013 예방수의학회지 Vol.37 No.1
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Nine cattle among 18 in a native Korean herd died or were euthanized within 3 days. The affected cattle showed cowshed. The pigs and dogs had been fed leftover food originating from nearby restaurants, and the cattle could presumably reach the contaminated food in the pig troughs. Necropsy revealed a few chicken bones and red pepper pieces as well as large amounts of grain and rice straw hay mixed in the rumen. Botulism type D was isolated in the ruminal contents of one of the cattle. We speculated that the outbreak was associated with the cattle incidentally eating presumably contaminated leftover food from the pig trough.