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This study aims to investigate the relationship among English proficiency and abilities to comprehend Korean metaphor expressions and English metaphor expressions under the framework of conceptual metaphor theory. Eighty-five college English learners participated in the study. One-way ANOVA and independent t-test analyses were used for analysis. Results showed that the higher English proficiency was, the higher the ability to comprehend English metaphor expressions, and that the higher the ability to comprehend Korean metaphor expressions, the higher the ability to comprehend English metaphor expressions. However, results also showed that when the source or the target domain of English metaphor expressions differed from those of Korean metaphor expressions, both English proficiency and the ability to comprehend Korean metaphor expressions did not have an impact on the ability to comprehend English metaphor expressions. Directions of further studies and pedagogical implications were provided.
The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that are associated with heterotopic pregnancy (HP) following in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer (ET) and to demonstrate the outcomes of HP after the surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancies. Forty-eight patients from a single center, who were diagnosed with HP between 1998 and 2012 were included. All of the patients had received infertility treatments, such as Clomid with timed coitus (n = 1, 2.1%), superovulation with intrauterine insemination (n = 7, 14.6%), fresh non-donor IVF-ET (n = 33, 68.8%), and frozen-thawed cycles (n = 7, 14.6%). Eighty-four additional patients were randomly selected as controls from the IVF registry database. HP was diagnosed at 7.5 ± 1.2 weeks (range 5.4-10.3) gestational age. In six cases (12.5%), the diagnosis was made three weeks after the patients underwent treatment for abortion. There were significant differences in the history of ectopic pregnancy (22.5% vs. 3.6%, P = 0.002). There were no significant differences in either group between the rates of first trimester intrauterine fetal loss (15.0% vs. 13.1%) or live birth (80.0% vs. 84.1%) after the surgical treatment for ectopic pregnancy. The risk factors for HP include a history of ectopic pregnancy (OR 7.191 [1.591-32.513], P = 0.010), abortion (OR 3.948 [1.574- 9.902], P = 0.003), and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) (OR 10.773 [2.415- 48.060], P = 0.002). In patients undergoing IVF-ET, history of ectopic pregnancy, abortion, and OHSS may be risk factors for HP as compared to the control group of other IVF patients. The surgical treatment of HP does not appear to affect the rates of first trimester fetal loss or live birth.
Objective To develop and test the validity and reliability of a new instrument for measuring the thigh-foot angle (TFA) for the patients with in-toeing and out-toeing gait.Methods The new instrument (Thigh-Foot Supporter [TFS]) was developed by measuring the TFA during regular examination of the tibial torsional status. The study included 40 children who presented with in-toeing and out-toeing gaits. We took a picture of each case to measure photographic-TFA (P-TFA) in the proper position and to establish a criterion. Study participants were examined by three independent physicians (A, B, and C) who had one, three and ten years of experience in the field, respectively. Each examiner conducted a separate classical physical examination (CPE) of every participant using a gait goniometer followed by a TFA assessment of each pediatric patient with or without the TFS. Thirty minutes later, repeated in the same way was measured.Results Less experienced examiner A showed significant differences between the TFA values depending on whether TFS used (left p=0.003 and right p=0.008). However, experienced examiners B and C did not show significant differences. Using TFS, less experienced examiner A showed a high validity and all examiner’s inter-test and the inter-personal reliabilities increased. Conclusion TFS may increase validity and reliability in measuring tibial torsion in patients who has a rotational problem in lower extremities. It would be more useful in less experienced examiners.
최근 교육부는 4차 산업혁명에 대비한 창의인재 양성을 위한 다양한 교육 개혁을 추진하고 있다. 본 연구에서 는 인포그래픽과 3D모델링을 활용하여 창의적 문제해결력 향상을 위한 STEAM 프로그램을 개발하였다. 개발된 STEAM 프로그램을 활용하여 서울시 OO초등학교 6학년 2개 학급을 대상으로 적용한 결과 본 프로그램에 참여 한 모든 학생들의 창의적 문제해결력이 향상되는 결과를 보였으며, 특히 창의적 문제해결력 요소 중에서 동기적 사고가 가장 큰 향상을 보였다. 본 연구 결과를 통하여 초등학교 현장에서 인포그래픽과 3D모델링을 활용한 다 양한 STEAM 프로그램을 개발하여 적용함으로써, 미래 사회를 대비한 창의적 사고력을 갖춘 인재를 양성할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다. Recently, the Ministry of Education is pursuing various educational reforms for the cultivation of creative talent in preparation for the fourth industrial revolution. In this study, we developed STEAM program using the infographic and 3D modeling. As a result of applying the developed STEAM program to 2 classes of 6 grade in OO elementary school in Seoul, it showed that creative problem solving ability of all students participating in the program has improved. Particularly, Motivational component has shown the greatest improvement among the creative problem solving ability elements. Through the results of this study, it is expected that various STEAM programs using the infographic and 3D modeling will be developed and applied in the field of elementary school for the cultivation of creative talent with creative thinking ability in preparation for future society.
Background: Tinea unguium is a common problem seen in clinical practice. Considering the many differential diagnoses of dystrophic nails, it is important to make a definitive diagnosis of dermatophyte infection before the initiation of antifungal therapy. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation and fungal culture, which are commonly used in the diagnosis of these infections, often yield false-negative results. Recent reports have suggested that nail plate biopsy (Bx) using periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) (Bx/PAS) stain may be a very sensitive technique for the diagnosis of tinea unguium. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of PAS and Grocott's methenamine silver (GMS) staining of nail specimen in the diagnosis of tinea unguium as a standard method. Methods: We evaluated 75 nail specimens from suspected tinea unguium using KOH preparation, biopsy using periodic acid-Schiff stain, and Grocott's methenamine silver stain. Results: Of the 75 nails which were negative on potassium hydroxide mounting, 43 and 39 cases were tested positive respectively on periodic acid-Schiff stain and Grocott's methenamine silver stain. Conclusion: Bx/PAS and Bx/GMS are the sensitive methods for the diagnosis of tinea unguium. They are indicated if clinical suspicion of onychomycosis is high and KOH preparation shows no fungal elements.
X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a rare congenital muscle disorder, caused by mutations in the MTM1 gene. Affected male infants present severe hypotonia,and generalized muscle weakness, and the disorder is most often complicated by respiratory failure. Herein, we describe a family with 2 infants with XLMTM which was diagnosed by gene analysis and muscle biopsy. In both cases, histological findings of muscle showed severely hypoplastic muscle fibers with centrally placed nuclei. From the family gene analysis, the Arg486STOP mutation in the MTM1 gene was confirmed.