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십성(十星)은 동양역학 중 명리학에서만 특화된 이론이자 사주 분석의 핵심이론임에도 불구하고 성명학의 한자 부문에서 십성의 활용에 관한 연구는 미비하였다. 본 연구는 명리학의 용신에 의한 성명학에서 한자자원오행과 명리학 십성의 융합적 연구를 시행하여 성명학의 학술적 영역을 확장하고 강화함을 목적으로 한다. 먼저 십성이론과 자원오행이론, 용신성명학의 핵심이론들을 개괄하고 이어서 한자자원오행의 음양(陰陽)과 십성(十星)과의 상응관계를 찾아 융합 연구를 시행하였다. 양목(陽木)인 갑(甲)에 상응하는 자원오행을 갖는 부수는 木, 음목(陰木)인 을(乙)에 상응하는 자원오행을 갖는 부수는 艸(艹)·禾, 양화(陽火)인 병(丙)에 상응하는 자원오행을 갖는 부수는 日, 음화(陰火)인정(丁)에 상응하는 자원오행을 갖는 부수는 火(灬)·赤, 양토(陽土)인 무(戊)에 상응하는 자원오행을 갖는 부수는 山, 음토(陰土)인 기(己)에 상응하는 자원오행을 갖는 부수는 土·田, 양금(陽金)인 경(庚)에 상응하는 자원오행을 갖는 부수는 金, 음금(陰金)인 신(辛)에 상응하는 자원오행을 갖는 부수는 石·玉, 양수(陽水)인 임(壬)에 상응하는 자원오행을 갖는 부수는 水(氵), 음수(陰水)인 계(癸)에 상응하는 자원오행을 갖는 부수는 雨라고 보았다. 음양과 오행성이 뚜렷한 한자자원오행을 사주 주인공이자 작명의 본명인(本名人)인 일간(日干)과 상응시키고, 정(正)·편(偏)을 가려서 십성을 정한 후 도표로 나타내었다. 다음으로 이름 한자 자원오행의 십성이 사주에서 용희신 여부에 따라 주는 영향의 해석에 대한 이론을 체계화하였다. 이어서 용신론에 의해 이름 한자 자원오행의 일간 기준 십성이 갖는 긍정·부정의 의미와 이름 한자의 본의(本意)를 종합하여 명의를 해석하는 원칙을 제안하였다. 이 논문은 용신성명학의 체계를 확립해 가는 과정 위에 있으므로 시사점과 한계점이 공존하며 추후 한자학·동양역학과 지속적인 학제 간 융합 연구가 필요하다. Although Sibseong(十星) is specialized theory and the core theory of Saju analysis only in Myeongri science among Oriental studies, it has been insufficient the study on the utilization of Sibseong in the part of Chinese characters of Naming science. The purpose of this study is to expand and strengthen the academic field of Naming science by conducting a convergence study of Five elements of Chinese characters (Hanja Jawon Ohaeng) and Sibseong in Yongsin Naming Science. First, it outlined the core theories of Sibseong. Five Elements of Chinese Characters, and Yongsin Naming Science, and then carried out a convergence study to find the corresponding relation between Yin-Yang of Five Elements of Chinese Characters and Sibseong. The radical having the Five Elements in Characters corresponding to Gapmok(甲木), Yang Wood(陽木), was considered to be Mok(木), the radical having the Five Elements in Characters corresponding to Eulmok(乙木), Yin Wood, was Cho (艸(艹)), and Hwa (禾), the radical having the Five Elements in Characters corresponding to Byeonghwa(丙火), Yang Fire(陽火), was Il (日), the radical having the Fivel Elements in Characters corresponding to Jeonghwa(丁火), Yin Fire(陰火), was Hwa (火(灬)), and Jeok (赤), the radical having the Five Elements in Characters corresponding to Muto(戊土), Yang Earth(陽土), was San (山), the radical having the Five Elements in Characters corresponding to Gito(己土), Yin Earth(陰土), was To (土) and Jeon (田), the radical having the Five Elements in Characters corresponding to Gyeonggeum(庚金), Yanggeum (陽金), was Geum (金), the radical having the Five Elements in Characters corresponding to Singeum(辛金), Yin Iron(陰金), was Seog(石) and Og(玉), the radical having the Five Elements in Characters corresponding to Imsu(壬水), Yang Water(陽水), was Su (水(氵)), and the radical having the Five Elements in Characters corresponding to Gyesu(癸水), Yin Water(陰水), was Woo (雨). Yin-Yang and Five Element Star made the distinct Five Elements in Chinese Characters to correspond with Ilgan(日干) that is a main character in Saju and a person with real name of naming, and schematized them after dividing Jeong(正) and Pyeon(偏) and setting Sibseong. Next, it systematized to allow the Sibseong of the Five Elements to interpret action of influence by Chinese character name depending on Yongheesin. Also, it suggested the principle to interpret the meaning of name by synthesizing the positive and negative meaning of Sibseong based on Days of the Five Elements in Chinese character name by Yongsin theory and the original meaning of Chinese characters name. In this thesis, its implications and limitations are coexisting since it"s in the process of establishing the system of Yongsin Naming Science, and it needs the interdisciplinary fusion study between Chinese characters science and the Oriental Studies continuously.
Background: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) not only functions as an intracellular energy sensor and regulator, but is also a general sensor of oxidative stress. Furthermore, there is recent evidence that it participates in limiting acute inflammatory reactions, apoptosis and cellular senescence. Thus, it may oppose the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: To investigate the role of AMPK in cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation and emphysema we first compared cigarette smoking and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]-induced lung inflammation and emphysema in AMPKa1-deficient (AMPKa1-HT) mice and wild-type mice of the same genetic background. We then investigated the role of AMPK in the induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in A549 cells. Results: Cigarette smoking and poly(I:C)-induced lung inflammation and emphysema were elevated in AMPKa1-HT compared to wild-type mice. CSE increased AMPK activation in a CSE concentration- and time-dependent manner. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-b-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an AMPK activator, decreased CSE-induced IL-8 production while Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, increased it, as did pretreatment with an AMPKa1-specific small interfering RNA. Conclusion: AMPKa1-deficient mice have increased susceptibility to lung inflammation and emphysema when exposed to cigarette smoke, and AMPK appears to reduce lung inflammation and emphysema by lowering IL-8 production.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, is an important causeof morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to summarize the findings from clinically important publications over the last year in the area of VTE. In this review, we discuss 11 randomized controlled trials published from March 2013 to April 2014. The COAG and the EU-PACT trials indicate that pharmacogenetic testing has either no usefulness inthe initial dosing of vitamin K antagonists or marginal usefulness in the Caucasian population. Recent clinical trials withnovel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have demonstrated that the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, and dabigatran are not inferior to those of conventional anticoagulants for the treatment of VTE. The PEITHO and ULTIMA trials suggested that rescue thrombolysis or catheter-directed thrombolysis may maximize the clinical benefitsand minimize the bleeding risk. Lastly, riociguat has a proven efficacy in treating chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. In the future, NOACs, riociguat, and catheter-directed thrombolysis have the potential to revolutionize themanagement of patients with VTE.
The present study was carried out to present a method to analyze extravasation quantitativelyby measuring the computed tomography (CT) number after determining the region of interest(ROI) in the CT images obtained from patients suspected of extravasation induced by contrastmedium auto-injection. To achieve this, we divided the study subjects into a group of patientswho incurred extravasation and a group of patients who underwent routine scans without incurringextravasation. The CT numbers at IV sites were obtained as reference values, and CT numbers atextravasation sites and hepatic portal veins, respectively, were obtained as relative values. Thereupon,the predicted time for extravasation (TEP ) and the predicted ratio for extravasation (REP )of an extravasation site were obtained and analyzed quantitatively. In the case of extravasationinduced by a dual auto-injector, the values of the CT numbers were confirmed to be lower and theextravasation site to be enlarged when compared to the extravasation induced by a single autoinjector. This is because the physiological saline introduced after the injection of the contrast agentdiluted the concentration of the extravasated contrast agent. Additionally, the TEP caused by theauto-injector was about 40 seconds, and we could perform a precise quantitative assessment of thesite suspected of extravasation. In conclusion, the dual auto-injection method, despite its advantageof reducing the volume of contrast agent and improving the quality of images for patients withgood vascular integrity, was judged to be likely to increase the risk of extravasation and aggravateoutcomes for patients with poor vascular integrity by enlarging extravasation sites.
In this Review, we discuss representative studies of recent advances in the development of nanoparticle-based protein detection methods, with a focus on the properties and functionalization of nanoparticle probes, as well as their use in detection schemes. We have focused on functionalized nanoparticle probes because they offer a number of advantages over conventional assays and because their use for detecting protein targets for diagnostic purposed has been demonstrated. In this report, we discuss nanoparticle probes classified by material type (gold, silver, silica, semiconductor, carbon, and virus) and surface functionality (antibody, aptamer, and DNA), which play a critical role in enhancing the sensitivity, selectivity, and efficiency of the detection systems. In particular, the synergistic function of each component of the nanoparticle probe is emphasized in terms of specific chemical and physical properties. This research area is in its early stages with many milestones to reach before nanoparticle probes are successfully applied in the field; however, the substantial ongoing efforts of researchers underline the great promise offered by nanoparticlebased probes for future applications.