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Our study was desinged to observe the ACTH response to ovine CRF in healthy men and to observe the effect of bromocriptine or cyproheptine on ACTH and cortisol response induced by ovine CRF in healthy men. We have hypothesis that if hromocriptine or cyproheptatine inhibits the secretion of ACTH induced by ovine CRF, they decrease the secretion of ACTH in the pituitary level. The result were followings: 1) Plasma ACTH reached a peak of 1.5 and 1.6 times the basal level in response to ovine CRF at 10 min, and 30 min, respectively and decreased to the basal level at 90 min. 2) Cyproheptadine or bromocriptine did not inhibit the response of ACTH to ovine CRF. 3) We suggest that cyproheptadine or bromocriptine does not inhibit the ACTH secretion in the normal pituitary gland.
The purpose of this study was to obtain the soft tissue cephalometric norms of normal Korean adult female group. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 50 female students in the Dental school of Chonnal National University with normal occlusion and pleasing profile were taken for this investigation. The results were as follows : 1. The soft tissue thickness in N-N' Me-Me' Gn-Gn' is relatively thin and the soft tissue thickness in upper and lower lip area is comparatively thick. 2. The nasolabial angle in this study was 90.69˚. This angle is smaller than Caucasians and the protrusion of upper and lower lip is larger than the Caucasians. 3. Nasal convexity angle was 19.11˚and nasal height was 16.33mm. 4. The distance between the upper lip and upper incisor edge was 2.19mm and it's similar with other study.
We have seen two cases of Edwards syndrome, one is the female neonate who was born to a 22-year-old mother and a 30-year-old father at Dong-guk university Kyung-ju hospital and the other is the male neonate who was born beteeen a 38-year-old mother and a 40-year-old father at Dong-guk university Kyung-ju hospital and had a healthy 7-year-old sister. They had the multiple anomalies that were charaterized by intrauterine growth retardation, microcephalic skull with flat occiput, microphthalmia, low-set and malformed ears, micrognathia, shield chest & webbed neck, flexion deformity of fingers, simian crease, narrow pelvis, and rocker-bottom feet with short and big toes. Chromosomal analysis revealed 47,XX,+18 and 47,XX, + 18 respectively in these cases. A brief review of relevant literatures is made briefly.
By the results of studying the factors promoting some psychological ergogenic aids those factors are used as a means being advantageous to the emediate activities. Actually, some have a reasonable scientific basis, others are bounded to logic, and all are usually controversial as to proposed merit. In the case of a placebo, its influence on behavior is well-estabished. an inert substance or contrived situation can affecy psychological disposition and behavior, if the person believes in it. overload effect will improve physical charcteristics that might contribute to increased performance potential. but the learning of skills is most effective when the learning experiences are such that the same motor units and movement petterns will be activited and training in the way required under testing conditions. The value of hypnosis in motor learning and performance seems to be rather limited, on the basis of current reasearch findings. Relaxation programs, including medition, biofeedback, progressive relaxation exercises, and anxiety-reduction techniques may also have value;however, much depends on individual receptivity for a particular program, personal problems, and test and situational demands. The appropriat emotional-motivational level in preparing to learning contributes to a more meaningful learning experience.
The purpose of this investigation was to study the behaviors of sport consumtion among basketball. More specifically, the study examine types and characteristics of sport consumtiom which basketball spectators represent in the context of sport events. Data collected from a questionnaire designed for this study consisted of forced-choice response to item constructed to represent the operational definitions for each variable. The inventory was administered to six hundred and twenty-six visited basketball competitions. To data analysis, statistics employed this study was Chi-square test. Based upon the result of this study, the following conclustion appear warranted. Behaviors of sport consumtion among basketball spectators is influenced with such demographic and economic factors as sex, age, educational level, and marital status, and also represented in different patterns according to characteristics of each factor.
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Generally, the doctrines of Cult are very bizzare and difficult to be accepted by ordinary people with common sense. But there have many people who are engaged in cult and had many problems. So understanding the psychological process of engaging in cult is essential to understand cult. Several factors which influence people to cult are known. Confronting problems which can not be solved with previous perspectire and ability, people have cognitive discordance and emotional distress. At that time, people open their mind to NRM. And the positive, warm and intense human relationship in cult press the people to be engaged in cult. And some unfamiliar and supernatural experiences in cult make them be engaged in cult. Brain washing seems to be different from conversion in cult, because there is no compulsive physical and psychological restraint in cult which is essential in traditional brain washing. So people seemed to be engaged in cult, consciously, unconsciously, voluntarily. Traditionally, conversion religion has been regarded as very passive things. But, in these days, the active role of human n religious conversion is emphasized. The fact that cult has the charicteristics of charismatic group is important to understand cult. In order to study cult, charismatic group should be studied too. As cult has not only a religious aspect but also social, psychological, familial and cultural aspects, a comprehensive view to cult can be one way to study human inner world.
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본 연구는 남한에 들어와 살고 있는 탈북자들의 남한 사회 적응 지원 및 신변보호를 2년간 담당한 경찰관들을 대상으로 그들의 활동 속에서 경험한 지원상의 어려움, 인간 관계, 관계 개선을 위한 노력 등을 분석함으로써 향후 탈북자 지원 업무를 담당할 경찰관들과 자원봉사자들, 관련 공무원들을 활동을 더욱 효과적으로 하는데 목적이 있다. 방법: 과거 탈북자 보호 업무를 2년간 담당하였던 전국의 경찰관 전원을 대상으로 경찰청의 도움을 받아 설문조사를 실시하였다. 결과: 총 172명의 경찰관이 설문에 답하였다. 탈북자들의 성별, 연령, 학력에 따른 인간관계 평균점수에는 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 없었다. 그러나 인민학교 출신 탈북자들은 유일하게 시간이 지남에 따라 인간 관계가 더 나빠지는 것으로 나왔다. 또한 인간관계 유형도 연령대에 따라 다르게 나왔다. 탈북 경로에 있어 북한에서 직접 남한으로 들어온 사람들이 러시아, 중국 등을 경유하여 들어온 사람들보다 인간관계 평균점수가 통계적으로 유의하게 더 좋게 나왔다. 경찰관들의 연령대에 따른 인간관계 평균점수의 차이는 없었으나 관계 유형에는 차이가 있었다. 경찰관들이 탈북자들의 문제를 직접 해결을 하려고 나섰을 경우보다 교육행동적인 태도를 가지고 있었을 때 인간관계 평균점수가 통계적으로 더 유의하게 좋게 나왔다. 적응 초기에는 불안과 불신, 사회 부적응 등이 인간 관계에 문제가 되었으나 후기에는 자립의지 부족, 이기주의, 돌출행동 등이 문제가 되었다. 결론: 본 연구는 보호경찰관들과 탈북자들간의 인간관계가 그들의 인구학적 특징, 탈출 경로 등에 따라 다르게 나타남을 보여주었다. 또한 인간 관계를 좋게 하기 위한 노력의 방법이나 지원 방법에 따라 인간관계가 다르게 나타남을 보였다. 이것은 탈북자들을 지원함에 있어 과학적인 지침이 요구됨을 보여주는 것이었다. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze the experience of South Korean police-men who are in charge of supporting the North Korean defectors' adaption to South Korean society for 2 years. Method: Written-form survey questionnaire were sent to all policemen who were in charge of defectors with the help of the National police bureau. Results: 172 policemen answered to survey questionnaire. There was no difference of human relationship score according to the defectors' sex, age, academic career. But defectors with low academic career showed bad human relationship as time went by. The type of human relationship change were different according to the defectors' age. Defectors who entered to South Korea directly from North Korea in short period had a better relationship in comparison with those who escaped to China or other third countries and stayed there for a long time to get a chance to enter to South Korea. As the policemen are younger, the relationship scores were better. But when some problem occurred in their relationship, younger policemen were less successful in solving the problem. There were many kind of efforts of policemen to improve the human relationship and it showed that the education-oriented effort is more effective and successful than direct problem-solving effort. Conclusions: This study showed that the human relationship of defectors and policemen in charge are affected by some demographic factors and defection routes and the types of efforts of policemen to improve the human relationship. It was suggested that the role of policemen in charge of defectors should be more well-defined, and NGO(Non Government Organization) need to have more continuos and specified program to help defectors' adaptation. Finally, the importance of continuing scientific researches about defectors' adaptation was emphasized.
Objectives: Since 1994, the number of North Korean defectors, escaping North Korea and entering South Korea, has increased rapidly.As the number of defectors has increased the role of non-governmental organizations(NGOs) in assisting the defectors' adaptation to their new society has become more important.To increase the successfulness and effectiveness of NGO activities, their experiences were surveyed and analyzed. Methods: Representatives or acting staffs of 11 NGOs presently supporting North Korean defectors' adaptation to South Korean society were interviewed by researchers between June 21 and October 14, 2000.And one focus group discussion meeting with 26 NGO personnel from 13 NGOs was held on November 4, 2000. Results: As for their stated purpose of activity; to help defectors become good citizens (7), to transform defectors into mediate personnel between North and South Korea (5), to protect the human rights of the North Korean people (3), and th advocate their religions (3).Out of the 11 organizations, only 5 had their own educational program for volunteers.The contents of the NGO's support for volunteers were as follows; counseling (7), introduction of employment and job education (6), direct financial support (5), creation of one-to-one relationships (4), assistance for their religious life (2), assistance with English study and mathematics (1), and medical service (1).NGOs listed the following difficulties; financial (7), human relationship with defectors (6), lack of volunteers and management of them (4), problems in the relationship with the South Korean government (3).NGOs stated a need for close cooperation with other NGOs, involving the activation of NGOs Association (5), and co-operative joint actions (4).Conclusion: Firstly, NGOs need to specialize in their field of activity.Their lack of specialized areas and of ability is the man obstacles to NGOs intercooperation and a major impediment on their effective operation.Secondly, NGOs should be careful in their direct financial support to defectors, because such a form of support has many serious governmental cooperation.The government also needs to have a more open mind in its dealings with NGOs.Fourthly, NGOs should cooperate, especially in areas of joint concern such as volunteer education program.Fifthly, NGOs should pay attention to their volunteers' personnel management and development.Sixthly, NGOs need to increase the degree of activeness with which defectors seek support from NGOs.Usually, it is the NGOs, which play an active role in the support process, so that defectors become passive and dependent leading to many problems.
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In this paper, the ethical issues in psychiatry are reviewed and some suggestions are made. Ethical issues discussed here are the degree of effects of mental disorders to human behavior and subjecthood, which is known as the "brain-mind discussion": the differing standpoints of teleological theory and deontological theory with respect to involuntary treatment: the problem of diagnosis of mental disorder and the problem of confidentiality. Also discussed are, some issues behind the ethical topics, such as the idea that more disscussion makes for more problems than solutions. This author also consider who should deal with the medical ethics whether doctor or, say, ethicist: the relationship between medical ethics and public finance: current medical ethics codes. Some suggestions for answers to questions and problems are made. First, one must recognize that ethical issues are not abstract things which are remote from reality. Second, it is necessary to clarify psychiatry`s own value system. Third, recognizing that there cannot be easy solutions to all ethical issues, we should not hastily abandon our effort to solve the difficult questions, because serious and sincere efforts made by those holding opposing viewpoints will balance and reduce defect on both sides and for a more developed solution.