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Background : When local anesthetics for regional anesthesia is used, usually small amounts of bicar-bonate are added for rapid onset. This addition gives the mixed solution a more alkaline pH. The following result is an increased unionized form of the local anesthetic and rapid penetration of the drug into tiissue. Unfortunately, no data about adequate mixing volumes of domestic lidocaine and bicarbonate is available. Methods : We examined six mixing pairs of two kinds of 2% lidocaines and three kinds of 8.4% bicarbonates for minimum volumes of bicarbonate to cause a precipitation of 2% 20 ml lidocaine. Results : The mean volumes of bicarbonate to cause precipitation were 1.54 ml for Kwang-Myung lidocaine with Kwang-Myung bicarbonate, 2.90 ml for Kwang-Myung lidocaine with Dae-Won bicarbonate, 2.73 ml for Kwang-Myung lidocaine with Je-Il bicarbonate, 0.97 ml for Je-Il lidocaine with Kwang-Myung bicarbonate, 1.26ml for Je-Il lidocaine with Dae-Won bicarbonate and 1.39 ml for Je-Il lidocaine with Je-Il bicarbonate. Conclusions : We conclude that the Kwang-Myung lidocaine and the Je-Il lidocaine could cause precipitation when mixing with a smaller bicarbonate volume than foreign textbook recommended. (Korean J Anesthesiol 2000; 39: 726-729)
Kim, Ji-Hee,Lee, Kwang-Soon,Lee, Dong-Keon,Kim, Joohwan,Kwak, Su-Nam,Ha, Kwon-Soo,Choe, Jongseon,Won, Moo-Ho,Cho, Byung-Ryul,Jeoung, Dooil,Lee, Hansoo,Kwon, Young-Guen,Kim, Young-Myeong Mary Ann Liebert 2014 Antioxidants & redox signaling Vol.21 No.18
<P>Aims: Hypoxia induces expression of various genes and microRNAs (miRs) that regulate angiogenesis and vascular function. In this study, we investigated a new functional role of new hypoxia-responsive miR-101 in angiogenesis and its underlying mechanism for regulating heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Results: We found that hypoxia induced miR-101, which binds to the 3 ' untranslated region of cullin 3 (Cul3) and stabilizes nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) via inhibition of the proteasomal degradation pathway. miR-101 overexpression promoted Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, which was accompanied with increases in HO-1 induction, VEGF expression, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived nitric oxide (NO) production. The elevated NO-induced S-nitrosylation of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 and subsequent induction of Nrf2-dependent HO-1 lead to further elevation of VEGF production via a positive feedback loop between the Nrf2/HO-1 and VEGF/eNOS axes. Moreover, miR-101 promoted angiogenic signals and angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, and these events were attenuated by inhibiting the biological activity of HO-1, VEGF, or eNOS. Moreover, these effects were also observed in aortic rings from HO-1(+/-) and eNOS(-/-) mice. Local overexpression of miR-101 improved therapeutic angiogenesis and perfusion recovery in the ischemic mouse hindlimb, whereas antagomiR-101 diminished regional blood flow. Innovation: Hypoxia-responsive miR-101 stimulates angiogenesis by activating the HO-1/VEGF/eNOS axis via Cul3 targeting. Thus, miR-101 is a novel angiomir. Conclusion: Our results provide new mechanistic insights into a functional role of miR-101 as a potential therapeutic target in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2469-2482.</P>
배상훈 ( Sang Hoon Bae ),김동현 ( Dong Hyun Kim ),배영석 ( Young Seok Bae ),이광재 ( Kwang Jae Lee ),김동완 ( Dong Wan Kim ),윤정빈 ( Jeoung Bin Yoon ),홍준호 ( Joon Ho Hong ),김상현 ( Sang Hyun Kim ) 대한간학회 2010 Clinical and Molecular Hepatology(대한간학회지) Vol.16 No.2
Toxic hepatitis has been reported as a major cause of acute hepatitis, but its potential induction by herbal remedies and/or health foods is usually neglected. We experienced a case of toxic hepatitis associated with Polygoni multiflori, a Chinese herb commonly known as Ho-Shou-Wu. A 54-year-old woman consumed Ho-Shou-Wu for 1 month, after which she experienced fatigue and overall weakness. A diagnosis of toxic hepatitis was made based on her clinical history, the findings for viral markers and other laboratory data, and ultrasonography. Her condition improved considerably after she stopped taking Ho-Shou-Wu. However, she resumed taking Ho-Shou-Wu immediately after discharge from hospital, which aggravated her symptoms and liver function. She was immediately readmitted and stopped taking Ho-Shou-Wu. Her relapse into hepatitis immediate after resuming consumption of the herb is strongly indicative of the validity of Koch`s postulate in this case.
이 연구의 목적은 운동강도 차이에 의한 대장조직이 Heme oxygenase-1(HO-1)의 mRNA 발현에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지 규명하기 위해, Sprage-Dawley계 흰쥐를 대상으로 통제그룹(CON)과 저강도 운동그룹(LIE), 고강도 운동그룹(HIE)으로 구분하여 4주 동안 트레드밀운동 후 48시간 이후에 High through-put microarray analysis방법으로 다음과 같은 실험을 실시하였다. 본 실험은 Rat ABI oligo chip 26,857 개의 유전자 중 filtering을 통하여 12.079개 유전지를 선택하였고, 이 중 유의성 있는(p<.05) 유전자 12,072개를 선별하였으며, clustering분석 방법과 면역조직화학염색법에서도 HO-l이 운동강도에 따라 유의하게 발현하였다(p<.05). Microarray분석 후 RT-PCR로 확인한 결과 HO-I의 유전자 발현양상이 일치하는 결과를 얻었다. 이 실험의 결과로서 운동이 대장에서 HO-1 발현에 영향을 주는 것을 알 수 있었다. 운동이 대장에서의 mRNA 발현이 저강도 운동그룹(LIE)보다 고강도 운동그룹(HIE)에서 더 많이 발현되어지는 것으로 보아 고강도 운동에 의해 발생되는 산소라디칼을 HO-l의 유도를 통하여 적절히 제거함으로써 스스로 항상성을 유지하고 있는 것으로 생각되어진다. The purpose of this study is to identify how large intestine tissue effects to mRNA expression in Heme oxygenase-l (HO-1) due to differences in exercise intensity. To perform this experiment we divided Sprage-Dawley rats into 3 groups (control group (CON). low-intensity exercise group (LIE) and high-intensity exercise group (HIE)), and in 48 hours after 4 weeks treadmill exercise. the following experiment was performed with "High through-put micro array analysis methods" . 12,079 genes were chosen by filtering of the Rat ASI oligo chip 26.857 genes in this experiment Among 12.079 genes, we selected significant genes (p<.05) that were also expressed in the ways of clustering analysis and immunohistochemistry. With results of RT-PCR confirming and microarray analyzing, we derived that gene expression profiles of HO-l had been consistent. As a result of this experiment, we certainly identified that exercise effects to HQ-l expression in large intestine. mRNA expression was more expressed in high-intensity exercise group CHIE) than low-intensity exercise group (LIE), it seems that homeostasis maintains itself by properly removing oxygen radical. caused by high intensity exercise. through reduction of HO-l.
Background: This study was designed to analyze the current emergency department(ED) medical records of teaching hospitals in Korea. Methods: The five-item questionnaires were mailed to the EDs of 40 hospitals. Among them, 27 questionnaires and 35 ED medical records were returned for reply rates of 67.5% and 87.5%, respectively. Results: 1) The actual number of data elements in the ED medical records used by each hospital varies widely. It ranges from 1 to 15 data elements with an average of 7.5 data elements. 2) Thirteen data elements, signature of nurse, checklist style in review of systems, checklist style in physical examination, neurologic examination, figure of face, Glasgow coma scale, trauma scale, treatment plan, mode of transfer, condition on transfer, documents sent with patient, condition on discharge or discharge instruction, use of pediatric chart and vaccination history are used by less than 50% of the medical records examined. 3) There was no difference in the total number of data elements or in redesign and computerization of ED medical record based on the location of the hospital, the type of hospital administration, or the number of years since the start of EM residency program. 4) There was a statistically increased number of data elements in redesigned medical records. 5) In the survey, 89% of the residents replied that medical records needed to be redesigned. With respect to uniformity, 58% of the residents disagreed. A well-designed checklist chart rather than a descriptive chart was preferred by 89% of the residents. Conclusion: The currently used ED medical records have much room for improvement. The age of the ED had little impact on the quality of ED medical records. More attention and effort in this field are needed. In addition, The Korean Society of Emergency Medicine should provide guidelines for ED medical records.
In recent years, community mental health and medical welfare programs have been gradually emphasized. Accordingly shortage of man power in psychiatric profession becomes an important issue. As an effort for resolution of it, psychiatric rating scales have been developed to provide the time saving device for psychiatric practice. Symptom Checklist-90, a self-report psychiatric rating scale, has been proved to be not only an efficient but also reliable and valid diagnostic tool in psychiatric practice. This scale, developed by Derogatis and his colleagues, consists of 90 symptomatic items which reflect 9 symptom dimensions; somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism dimension. The purposes of this study are to provide Korean version of the SCL-90 and investigate normal response characteristics for it's standardization in Korea. The scales were administered to 199 urban subjects from Seoul and 221 rural subjects from 2 villages of Kyung-Buk and Chun-Buk provinces. Data of 420 subjects were divided into dichotomous subgroups in respect to sex, age (30year and over, and under 30 years), education (6th grade and under, 12th grade and upper), and residency(Seoul and rural) respectively. Each pair of dichotomous subgroups was compared for scale scores by analysis of variance. The results were as follows; 1. Considering sex difference, female subjects revealed significantly higher scores on all scales except hostility scale. 2. In subgroup, dichotomized by education, signjficant differences are seen 6 scales as somatization, obsessive compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, hostility and paranoid ideation. Somatization score is higher in lower educated group, whereas 5 other scales scores are higher in high educated group. 3. There were no significant difference between age subgroups except somatization scale, in that older group obtained higher scores than the younger. 4. In regional comparison, Seoul subjects obtained significantly higher scores on 7 scales except anxiety phobia and psychoticism scales. The results have been discussed and the authors suggest to separate sex norms for standardization of SCL-90. Further detailed research for preperation of several norms differred by educational and regional backgrounds is recommended.
이 연구는 학습자가 독해 과제를 수행하는 동안 자신의 생각을 말로 표현하게 함으로써 학습자의 독해 양상을 알아보는 연구로, 필자의 선행 연구(「思考口述을 통한 漢文科 讀解 樣相 硏究」)에 이어지는 것이다. 즉, 필자가 선행 연구에서 제시한 후속 과제 가운데 특히 ‘학생의 독해수행 양상’에 주목한 것이다. 한문 독해를 하는 동안 학습자의 사고 과정에서 발생하는 학습 경험을 알아보고, 사고구술이 한문 독해에 어떠한 영향을 주었는지 파악하고자 한다. 이를 위해 선행 연구에 참여했던 대학생 학습자 가운데 3명을 대상으로 그들의 回想을 통해 사고구술을 실시한 경험을 분석하고자 한다. 선행 연구에 이어지는 본 연구는 이러한 과정을 거친 학습자들이 사고구술을 하는 동안 어떤 학습 경험을 했는지를 내러티브 분석 방법(narrative analysis)을 활용하되, 경험을 되살릴 수 있는 ‘回想’(reminiscence)을 통해 분석하고자 한다. 이 연구는 1) 學習者는 思考口述 活動을 통한 漢文 讀解 學習에서 어떠한 經驗을 하는가? 2) 漢文 讀解 思考口述 活動은 學習者의 漢文 讀解 能力에 어떠한 影響을 미치는가? 하는 의문에서 시작한다. 이러한 연구 문제를 해결하기 위해 사고구술을 하며 한문을 독해할 때 가장 어려운 점과 흥미로운 점, 사고구술 활동을 통한 한문 독해 후 달라진 점과 향상된 점 등을 질문했다. 大學生 學習者의 漢文 讀解 學習 經驗을 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1) 이들이 한문을 독해할 때 느끼는 어려운 점은 처음 보는 한자에 대한 답답함이며, 사고구술 활동의 어려운 점은 글자를 낱낱이 풀이해야 하는 점이다. 2) 사고구술 한문 독해의 흥미로운 점은 머릿속에서 생각했던 것을 자신의 목소리로 표현하는 방법에서 찾을 수 있다. 3) 사고구술 활동을 통해 한문 독해를 한 후 달라진 점은 그러한 경험을 통해 하나하나의 뜻을 모두 새기는 방법에 익숙해져서 讀解 方法이 肯定的으로 변화했다는 점이다. 4) 독해 능력을 신장시키는 데 가장 필요한 요소로 들 수 있는 것은 많은 양의 한자를 알되, 해당 한자가 문장에서 어떤 뜻으로 쓰이는지를 정확히 파악하는 것과, 독해 학습 초기에 사고구술을 하듯이 글자 하나하나를 풀이해 가는 훈련이다. 한문 과목이 “한문 독해와 언어생활에 활용하는 데 필요한 도구 교과”로 규정되어 한문 독해의 중요성이 새삼 강조된 시점에서, 사고구술을 통한 한문 독해 학습 방법은 他律에 의하지 않고 自律的으로 독해 능력을 배양할 수 있다는 점에서 좋은 학습 방법이라 할 수 있다. 향후 漢文 讀解에 대한 다양한 접근과 그 적용에 대한 漢文科 硏究가 더욱 활발해지길 기대한다. This study is materials that learners think-aloud their opinions during their performing comprehension tasks and connected to the previous study of the author which grasped classical Chinese comprehension aspects. The author especially paid attention to 'Performance aspects of students performing comprehension' among follow-up tasks proposed in the previous studies. For that, this study aims to analyze the experience of the three among college students who participated in the previous studies in practicing think-aloud through their reminiscence. This study begins with questions of 1) what kind of experience do the students have in classical Chinese comprehension learning through think-aloud activities, and 2) what effects do think-aloud activities have on classical Chinese comprehension ability. To solve such a study problem, the author asked about the most difficult and interesting point when reading classical Chinese thinking aloud, the changed and advanced point after reading classical Chinese through think-aloud activities, etc. As a result of analysis, classical Chinese through think-aloud is considered a good learning method in that it is able to autonomously cultivate reading comprehension. It is expected that a Chinese writing subject study on various approaches to classical Chinese comprehension and its application becomes more active in the future.
The grammatical sum does not form a coherent semantic identity. In the arrangement of the prefinal ending, the following elements add the grammatical and semantic meanings to the preceding elements. In conclusion, the arrangement of the prefinal ending of the estimation-confirmation is composed of the functions of estimation and confirmation and adds the semantic qualities of the information to the assumed element, and the confirmation-estimation undermines grammatical structure by less emphasizing the significance of confirmation. The ‘-리어-’ of the estimationconfirmation and the ‘-어리-’ of the confirmation-estimation have different syntactic structures, leading to different semantic qualities in terms of [±Confirmation]. This is accompanied by a change in the semantic elements of the estimation according to the meaning of the confirmation that precedes to or follows after the ‘-리-’, which is realized in the same form. Specifically, the form of estimation-confirmation carries the semantic element of simple assumption, while functioning to deliver the information. Therefore, the meaning unit of confirmation is not clearly distinguished. On the other hand, confirmation-estimation takes a form of rhetorical questionand therefore conveys the opposite meaning. It strengthens the role of confirmation, by placing the semantic element of the confirmation after the prefinal ending. The sentence of the confirmation-estimation often takes a form of “interrogative -려” (or “interrogative -리어-”) in front of the final ending. On the other hand, confirmation-estimation is associated with ‘-아- + -리 - + -아 (< 가)’. The grammatical arrangement and placement determines different semantic roles. If ‘-리-’ is realized in the form of estimation, it can be used to express the semantic differences determined byaccording to the order of arrangement. However, as a result, this research shows that ‘-리₁-’, which is settled in the form of estimation-confirmation, and ‘-리₂-’, is realized in a form of the confirmation-estimation, and the both are originally different grammatical elements. In a historical sense, there is no precedent to ‘-리₁-’ coming before the prefinal endings of ‘-거/어-아-’, except for ‘-리₂-’. ‘★’ and ‘★’ in Sǒktok kugyǒl during the Koryǒ period, which reveals the historical trajectory of the grammar functions corresponding to ‘ - 리₁-’ and ‘- 리₂-’ of the 15th century Korea, respectively. For example, ‘★’ functions as the prefinal ending and ‘★’ functions as the interrogative ending in combination with interrogative auxiliary element. In the 15th century, ‘-리₁-’ and ‘-리₂-’ show different grammatical categorization, as the ‘-리-’ element was originally a combination of two or more morphemes, not a single morpheme, deriving from other grammatical elements. The element was drawn from a combination of a gerund ending and a copula, but ‘리₁-’ and ‘-리₂-’ were differentiated by which prefinal ending the element is being combined with. The two forms derived from the grammaticalization process of the interrogative endings and formed new grammar categories. Although they contain different semantic compositions, their properties indicates that they share the semantic function of the estimation.