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      • Alcohol extract of Geum Chung Cho alleviates alcohol-induced short-term memory impairment in gerbils

        Han-Sam Cho,Tae-Woon Kim,Sang-Seo Park,Mal-Soon Shin,Jae-Min Lee,Eun-Sang Ji,Chang-Ju Kim 한국운동재활학회 2015 한국운동재활학회 학술대회 Vol.2015 No.10

        Chronic ethanol consumption leads to memory impairment and also induces brain damage. The hippocampus has been particularly regarded as a possible target organ of alcoholic intoxication, since this structure plays a prominent function in memory processes. Cordyceps has been used as a traditional medicine in Asian countries for a long time. Different types of Cordyceps extract were reported to have various pharmacological activities including anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and immune modulatory effects. Guem Chung Cho is an artificial cultivated Cordyceps, and was supplied from GCordy (Seoul, Korea). Ethanol extract of Cordycep (50 g) was made by rotary evaporate, and resulting powder 8.29 g was obtained (yield 17%). In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extract of Geum Chung Cho on short-term memory, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus of ethanol-treated gerbils. The gerbils were divided into 5 groups (n = 10 in each group): Control group, alcohol-treated group, alcohol-treated and 0.001 mg/kg Geum Chung Cho-applied group, alcohol-treated and 0.01 mg/kg Geum Chung Cho-applied group, and alcohol-treated and 0.1 mg/kg Geum Chung Cho-applied group. Gerbils in the alcohol-treated groups were orally administered ethanol (1 g/kg) once a day for 2 weeks. Gerbils in the Guem Chung Cho-applied groups were orally administered Guem Chung Cho extract at each dosage 1 hour before ethanol consumption. Our results revealed that consumption of alcohol for 2 weeks deteriorated short-term memory, induced apoptosis, and inhibited cell proliferation, and reduced expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB). However, Guem Chung Cho treatment alleviated alcohol-induced short-term memory impairment through enhancing cell proliferation and BDNF expression with inhibiting apoptosis in the hippocampus. Guem Chung Cho showed maximum effects at 0.1 mg/kg. Based on these results, alcohol extract of Guem Chung Cho may provide therapeutic value for the treatment of chronic alcohol-inducted brain injury. This study was supported by GCordy company.

      • KCI등재

        일제강점기 시대 '조선키네마'의 설립과 영화제작 활동에 관한 연구

        조희문(Cho Hee Moon) 한국영화학회 2006 영화연구 Vol.0 No.29

        Between the year of 1924 and 1943, 3 'Cho-sun Kinema' film companies has established and made each own Films. Firstly cho-sun kinema co. has opened in 1924 at Busan, the second big city of korea,. Joined by local big shots including a monk, a medical doctor, a gun shop owner. and that company made four films like 'the tragedy of the sea' 'the lover of the king' 'the make up of the God' Second one is cho-sun kinema production opened at seoul, the capital of korea. in 1926. The owner of company was a business man who runned 'the Yotoya', a hat shop. That company has made 6 films including 'Arirang' 'The Drifting Hero'. and soon became most popular and influential film company at that time, but internal conflict between Na woon gyu, the Star of the company, and other members. Third one was cho-sun kinema co. Known as another new company with cho-sun kinema production. Actually that company was same company of cho-sun kinema production. After several conflict between the Membersof that company, the company has changed system, a private owned to a joint stock company. so new cho-sun kinema co. is sequel of cho-sun kinema production.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Microbacterium rhizosphaerae sp. nov., isolated from a Ginseng field, South Korea

        Cho, S. J.,Lee, S. S. Springer Science + Business Media 2017 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Vol.110 No.1

        <P>A novel Gram-stain positive, aerobic, short rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, designated strain CHO1(T), was isolated from rhizosphere soil from a ginseng agriculture field. Strain CHO1(T) was observed to form yellow colonies on R2A agar medium. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain alanine, glycine, glutamic acid, d-ornithine and serine. The cell wall sugars were identified as galactose, mannose, rhamnose and ribose. Strain CHO1(T) was found to contain MK-11, MK-12, MK-13 as the predominant menaquinones and anteiso-C-15:0, iso-C-16:0, and anteiso-C-17:0 as the major fatty acids. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoglycolipid, an unidentified phospholipid and three unidentified glycolipids were found to be present in strain CHO1(T). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CHO1(T) was found to be closely related to Microbacterium mangrovi DSM 28240(T) (97.81 % similarity), Microbacterium immunditiarum JCM 14034(T) (97.45 %), Microbacterium oryzae JCM 16837(T) (97.33 %) and Microbacterium ulmi KCTC 19363(T) (97.10 %) and to other species of the genus Microbacterium. The DNA G+C content of CHO1(T) was determined to be 70.1 mol %. The DNA-DNA hybridization values of CHO1(T) with M. mangrovi DSM 28240(T), M. immunditiarum JCM 14034(T), M. oryzae JCM 16837(T) and M. ulmi KCTC 19363(T) were 46.7 +/- 2, 32.4 +/- 2, 32.0 +/- 2 and 29.2 +/- 2 %, respectively. On the basis of genotypic, phenotypic and phylogenetic properties, it is concluded that strain CHO1(T) represents a novel species within the genus Microbacterium, for which the name Microbacterium rhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of M. rhizosphaerae is CHO1(T) (= KEMB 7306-513(T) = JCM 31396(T)).</P>

      • KCI등재

        A Study on Wholistic Mission in Sharing Love and Happiness Foundation Ministry of Youngsan Dr. Yonggi Cho

        ( Cho Gwi Sam ) 한세대학교 영산신학연구소 2011 영산신학저널 Vol.22 No.-

        The ministry of Yonggi Cho, which he began after his retirement, offers important lessons in the context of the modern mission. He work as the wholistic mission is recommended by both traditional and progressive parties. According to this trend, the Sharing of Love and Happiness Foundation can be considered as an example of the wholistic mission, which carries the Great Commission of God by the church. Thus, the writer wants to study the motivation, methods, and influence of “Sharing of Love and Happiness” of Yonggi Cho which belongs to a wholistic mission. The content of this paper is wholistic mission of NGO and “Sharing of Love and Happiness” in the ministry of Yonggi Cho. He made the Three-fold Blessing from the gospel of Jesus. It is a message which confirms that humans have a right to share in salvation of souls, all other matters, and in the well-being of their bodies. The ministry of Cho’s wholistic mission structure is also to change the frame of old traditional dogmatics. He constructed the shape of wholistic mission through three-fold blessings and proved it, through Good People which is a NGO. The writer evaluates that the Sharing of Love and Happiness Foundation is a model of the wholistic mission, presenting the future ministry of the Korean Church.

      • KCI등재

        < 강도몽유록(江都夢遊綠) > 연구

        조혜란 한국고소설학회 2001 古小說 硏究 Vol.11 No.1

        'Mong-yu-rok(夢遊錄)' is a historical genre of Cho-sun(朝鮮) Dynasty. Most works of this genre were written in the Chinese characters, and produced especially in the hard times of the nation - for example, Cho-sun vs. Japan War[Hideyoshis Invasion of Korea in 1592], Cho-sun vs. Ching War[the Mandch Invasion of Korea in 1636], or the time just before the Japanese annexation of Korea. The stories included in Mong-yu-rok works are about the experience in dream and have the 'beginning of dream-experience during dreaming-awakening from sleeping' structure. <Gang-do-mong-yu-rok(江都夢遊錄)> is based on the experience of war in Gang-hwa-do(江華島, Gang-hwa island) during Cho-sun vs. Ching War. It is also written in the Chinese characters and its author is unknown. This work begins with a story about a monk who had a chance of watching the women's meeting in a dream. As he was a man of compassion, he arrived Yeon-mi-jung(燕尾亭, Yeon-mi pavilion) in Gang-hwa island to bury the bodies that had been neglected after the war. At night he was led to a certain place by women's various weeping, laughing, and crying sounds, and that meant he was already in dreaming. When the War broke out, the king and the ministers took refuge in Nam-han-san-seong(南漢山城, Nam-han mountain fortress) and the women of noble class including royal family took refuge in Gang-hwa island. However, all the high-ranking officials who took charge of defending the island ran away before the fights started, and the fortress was helplessly surrendered. And those countless women who took refuge in Gang-hwa island had committed suicides for keeping their dignity as a human being. They readily chose a suicide for their honor, because Cho-sun society rigidly called upon women to keep the chastity. Therefore those women in this work were the ghosts, that were not alive. Their appearances were horrible, which showed their tragic death. All those 14 women ghost characters came from the noble families except one woman. They poured out their words of rebukes, resentments, and sorrows. After all, it is the officials that they severely criticized in turn, who couldn't fulfill their responsibility during the war. The officials could be their own husbands, sons or fathers-in-law, in fact. This work very impressively used the sound image: at the last scene of women's meeting, the meeting place was filled with all women's wail. And which was effective enough to remind us a tutti in a symphony. <Gang-do-mong-yu-rok> reported the sufferings of women who had to take refuge in Gang-hwa island at the wartime. It would be hard to find a work which reflected the experience of women in war as realistic as this work, although many literary works about war were written after Cho-sun vs. Japan war & Cho-sun vs. Ching war. It is the literary works that were concerned about the concrete aspects of those women's death as a human even though they had to choose honorable suicide, while the historical documents briefly praised those women's death in formal manner and rhetoric. <Gang-do-mong-yu-rok> successfully described the miserable aspect of Cho-sun vs. Ching war and the women's voices in it became the fierce criticism about the failure of policy and the fall of the ideology at that time.

      • Cytogenetic Characteristics of Chinese Hamster Ovarian Cell CHO-K1

        Sohn, Sea-Hwan,Cho, Eun-Jung,Jang, In-Surk The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2006 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.30 No.4

        The Chinese Hamster Ovarian cells CHO-K1 are one of the most extensively used cells for the evaluation of gene expression and toxicology. However, these cells are frequently used for biomedical research without consideration of their cytogenetic characteristics. Therefore, we carried out to investigate the karyologic profiles, the frequency and type of chromosome aberration, and the distribution of telomeric DNA on chromosomes of the CHO-K1 cells. The GTG banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization on CHO-K1 cells were performed to characterize the karyotype and the distribution of telomeric DNA The present study revealed that the chromosome modal number of CHO-K1 cells was 2n=20; eight chromosomes appeared to be identical with those of the normal Chinese hamster, whereas the remaining 12 chromosomes were shown to be translocated, deleted, inversed, or rearranged from Chinese hamster chromosomes. The telomeric DNA on CHO-K1 chromosomes was intensively distributed at the centromeres rather than the ends of chromosomes. In addition, three chromosomes had interstitial telomeres and one marker chromosome entirely consisted of telomeric DNAs. The frequency and type of chromosome aberrations in CHO-K1 cells were examined. Of the 822 metaphase spreads, 68 (8.3%) cells resulted in chromosome aberrations of which the chromosome breakage was the most frequently occurred.

      • KCI등재

        환학당(喚鶴堂) 조여심(曺汝諶)의 교유시(交遊詩) 연구(硏究)

        조희창 ( Hea Chang Cho ) 한국한문고전학회(구 성신한문학회) 2015 漢文古典硏究 Vol.30 No.1

        喚鶴堂 曺汝諶은 1518년 (中宗 13년, 戊寅)에 태어나고 1594년(宣祖 27년, 甲午) 77세에 卒한 호남의 대유학자이며 시인이었다. 字는 常仲 또는 誠仲이며 호는 喚鶴으로 自號한 것이다. 그는 號처럼 학과같이 살다 간 전형적인 선비였다. 중종, 穆陵盛世의 호남시단에서 송순, 임억령 등과 같은 시대에 살면서 그들과 詩友로서 교유하고 선비정신을 견지하면서 處士로 청정한 일생을 보냈던 환학당 조여심에 대한 조명은 아직껏 이루어지지 않았다. 그의 「行狀」을 쓴 서파 오도일이 “聲韻이 淸絶하고 色澤이 朗潤하여 근세의 문필가가 미칠 바 아니었다.”는 詩評을 하였고 그의 정자인 환학정의 騷客들 중 문장의 출중함에 감탄하지 않는 이가 없었으며 오랜 세월동안 일대에 ‘鶴仙’으로 전설처럼 불리고 있었음에도 그에 대한 정비된 문집이나 연구 자료가 일천 한 것은 안타까운 일이다. 그의 많은 전적들이 선조들의 遺文과 함께 書庫에 불이나 소실된 이유 때문에 세상에 드러나지 못하였다. 다행히 그의 정자인 환학정 편액들과, 흩어진 遺文들을 모아 후손들이 편집한 유일한 작품집인 『喚鶴堂遺稿』가 있고, 당시 환학정을 중심으로 교유했던 林億齡, 蘇世讓, 高敬命, 奇大升, 鄭澈 등의 문집에 자료가 다소 散在되어 있으며, 창평 鄕校 등에 그의 行錄이 남아있어 이를 취합하여 환학당 조여심을 세상에 알리게 된 것이다. 조여심은 종형인 觀水亭 曺汝忠과는 翫水亭을 共遊하면서 우애가 각별하였고, 종매형인 양곡 소세양은 그의 資稟을 각별히 자애하였다. 특히 指呼之間에 위치한 ‘息影亭’의 石川 林億齡과는 깊은 친교를 유지하며 그의 사상과 문학을 수렴하였다. 조여심의 시풍이 만년의 석천시와 닮아있음은 그의 영향을 받은 것이며 석천은 무려 20여수의 山居詩를 조여심에게 주었다. 그의 문집 『환학당유고』에는 환학정 「原韻」을 비롯한 수편의 교유시가 수록되어 있어 교유작가들의 문집에 남아있는 시들을 함께 취합하여 분석 자료로 삼았다. 삶의 志向이 陶淵明, 석만경, 엄자릉 등을 추종하였으며, 작품 전반에 흐르는 시의 성향은 守拙하고 平易하며 과장하지 않는 자연주의적 특징이 있다. 그의 律詩에서는 禪 사상과 道家思想의 여운이 감지되며 그의 山居詩 전반에서 느껴지는 것은 현실세계가 그의 포부를 수용해주지 못하는 屈原의 비애를 느낄 수 있고, 이를 엄자릉과 석만경과 같은 隱者的 삶과 도가사상에 기대어 독자적으로 아픔을 극복하려 했다고 볼 수 있다. 또한 그가 중건했던 三峰書舍[學求堂]를 통하여 교육에 끼친 업적과 당시 지방 私學 기관으로의 기능과 배출된 인사 등에 대하여 살펴보았다. 본 연구를 통하여 16세기 호남 문단의 方外作家로 남아 있었던 조여심을 조명함으로써 그의 작품세계와 그를 통한 交遊詩人 간의 인간관계와 시 성향, 문화 풍토 등이 점검되는 계기가 될 것으로 믿는다. Cho Yeo-sim(曺汝諶), who was the great Confucian scholar and poet, with the pen name called Hwan-Hak-Dang was born in the year of 1518, when is in the 13th year of King Jung-Jong(the year of Moon-In), and was died in 1594 at the age of 77, when is in the 27th year of King Sun-Jo(the year of Gab-O). His writing style was Sang-Jung or Sung-Jun and his pen name was titled for him self. He is atypical schol arlikea crane. Having made friends with them as a poetical friend and kept the classical scholar mind and lived righteously, while having lived in the same age as Song Sun, Lim Uk-ryung and others in the Honam world of poetry, he was not highlighted yet to the world. Do-Il Oh with the pen name of Soe Pa, who wrote ‘Haeng Jang’, commented “Nobody in the recent ages can be beyond his rhythm transparent and integral and color bright and shiny.” It is regrettable there is no information on the literature or valuable material although every poet in Hwan-Hak-Jung, which is a pavilion, admired his prominence and he was called a legend as a traditional scholar like a crane. In the meantime, it turned out many of his literary work were burned down together with many other historic literatures of his ancestors. It is fortunate to be able to disclose his excellent reputation to the world since some frames of Hwan-Hak-Jung and scattered posthumous writings collected by his descendants were recreated as a posthumous work named ‘Hwan-Hak-Dang’ and some parts of his work were described in the materials from Lim Uk-ryung, So Se-yang, Ko Kyung-myung, Ki Dae-seung and Jung Chul, and also some other parts of his work remained in the Confucian called Chang Pyung. Cho Yeo-sim made substantial communications with Song Sun[면仰亭], Ko Kyung-myung[霽峰], Ki Dae-seung[高峯], Jung Chul[ Jung[松江] in the center of Hwan Hak Jung and made a special friendship with Cho Yeo-choong[KwanSu-Jung, elder cousin] and his younger cousin, So Se-yang [陽谷] loved his work with a special interest. He also made a special relationship with Lim Uk-ryung[石川] from ‘Sik-Young-Jung’ located nearby and digested his though and literature. That is why Cho Yeo-sim’s poetical style is similar to that of poet Suk Chun(Nyun Man), who granted as many as about 20 poetry to Cho. Some original poetry including ‘Won Woon’ poetry in his anthology named ‘Hwan Hak Dang’ posthumous work and some other additional poetry were used in this analysis work. In addition, the impact of his accomplishments on the education through Sam Bong Seo Sa(Hak Goo Dang) he established and the functions as a provincial private institute and its people were also examined. It is believed and expected that this study is the excellent chance to rethink of his world of literature works and the relationship among his social poets by reviewing Cho Yeo-sim, who remained as an outside poet in the Ho Nam province in the 16th Century.

      • KCI등재

        純祖代 呈才 創作樣相 : 중국 문헌의 수용을 중심으로

        조경아 한국음악사학회 2003 韓國音樂史學報 Vol.31 No.-

        The aim of this study is to investigate an aspect of receive Chinese literature on cho˘ngjae 呈才 invention in the reign of King Sunjo. This study is based upon such aource materials a government office document called Muja chinjak U˘igwe 『戊子進爵儀軌』(1828) and Kich'uk chinch'an U˘igwe 『己丑進饌儀軌』(1829). The first case, it receive of cho˘ngjae movement are Kainjo˘nmoktan 佳人剪牧丹, Mangso˘nmun 望仙門, Ch'unaengjo˘n 春鶯??, and Ho˘nch'o˘nhwa 獻天花. The second case, it receive of cho˘ngjae composition element are Yo˘nhwamu 蓮花舞, Yo˘ngji 影池, Ch'undae okch'ok 春臺玉燭, Ch'imhyangch'un 沈香春, Musanhyang 舞山香, Pakcho˘p 撲蝶, and Koguryo˘ 高句麗. The third case, it received with established cho˘ngjae element are Mansumu 萬壽舞, Posangmu 寶相舞, Hyangryo˘ng 響鈴, and Kongmangmu 公莫舞. The fourth case, it receive of cho˘ngjae name are Kyo˘ngp'ungdo 慶豊圖, Changsaeng poyo˘njimu 長生寶宴之舞, Chesuch'ang 帝壽昌, Ch'oehwamu 催花舞, and Ch'ungwangho 春光好. The fifth case, it non-receive are Saso˘nmu 四仙舞, Yo˘nbaekpokchimu 演百福之舞, and Ch'o˘psu˘ng 疊勝.

      • KCI등재

        3T Multi Voxel Spectroscopy에서 SENSE와 NEX 변화에 따른 정상인 뇌 대사물질 변화 분석

        성열훈,임재동,이재현,조성봉,우동철,최보영,Seong, Yeol-Hun,Rhim, Jae-Dong,Lee, Jae-Hyun,Cho, Sung-Bong,Woo, Dong-Chul,Choe, Bo-Young 한국의학물리학회 2008 의학물리 Vol.19 No.4

        자기공명분광법(magnetic resonance spectroscopy: MRS)은 인체내 대사물질을 정량분석하여 병변의 조기진단 및 정밀진단에 도움을 주고 있으며, 최근 임상에 이용되고 있는 자기공명분광법은 single voxel spectroscopy (SVS) 기법과 multi voxel spectroscopy (MVS) 기법이 있다. 본 연구에서는 SENSE와 NEX를 변화시킨 multi voxel spectroscopy (MVS)의 데이터와 기존 single voxel spectroscopy (SVS)의 데이터를 비교 분석하여, 각각의 데이터의 유의성 차이를 평가하고자 하였다. 정상 성인 지원자 13명(남자: 5명, 여자: 8명, 평균 41세, 표준편차 11.65세)을 대상으로 chemical shift image (CSI)를 이용한 MVS검사를 시행하였다. 장비는 3.0T Achieva Release Version 2.1 (Philips Medical System, Netherland)을 이용하였고, 8 channel head coil을 사용하여 brain thalamus 부위에서 CSI spectrum을 1 slice 획득하였다. Scan parameter로는 FOV (field of view): $230{\times}184mm^2$, TR (time to repetition): 2000 msec, TE (time to echo): 288 msec, matrix: $15{\times}12$, VOI(view of interest): $110{\times}110mm^2$, voxel size: $15{\times}15{\times}15mm^3$로 하였다. SENSE factor (S)와 NEX (N)는 S1*N1, S2*N1, S2*N2, S3*N2로 변화하여 스펙트럼을 획득하였고, 각 scan time은 5분 54초, 3분 32초, 6분 20초, 4분 20초였다. 얻은 모든 MRS 데이터는 jMRUI 3.0 Version 프로그램에서 분석하였고, SENSE factor와 NEX를 변화시켜 얻은 MVS data 그룹들이 정상 성인 뇌 대사물질의 변화에 영향을 주는지 검증하기 위해 그룹 간에 ANOVA분석을 실행하여 P 값이 0.05보다 크게 나오면 그룹들 사이에 유의한 차이가 없다고 분석하였다. NAA/Cr과 Cho/Cr의 상대적 비율은 MV와 SVS사이에서는 유의한 차이가 없었다. 즉, SENSE factor와 NEX를 변화시켜 얻은 MVS data에서 정상 성인 뇌조직의 대사물질의 변화를 관찰한 결과, S1*N1의 NAA/Cr은 $1.45{\pm}0.03$, Cho/Cr은 $0.88{\pm}0.03$이고, S2*N1의 NAA/Cr은 $1.44{\pm}0.03$, Cho/Cr은 $0.87{\pm}0.05$, S2*N2의 NAA/Cr은 $1.43{\pm}0.02$, Cho/Cr은 $0.87{\pm}0.04$이며, S3*N2의 NAA/Cr은 $1.45{\pm}0.03$, Cho/Cr은 $0.87{\pm}0.03$으로 나타났다(F-value : 1.37, D.F : 3, P-value : 0.262). 그러나 데이터의 질을 측정하기 위한 MVS 데이터의 NAA Peak line-width는 SVS 데이터의 NAA Peak line-width 보다 약 3배 정도 넓었다. 본 연구에서는 MVS에서 SENSE factor와 NEX 값을 다양하게 변화시킨 MVS의 데이터와 SVS의 데이터가 큰 차이가 없음을 확인하였다. 즉, 어는 특정 부위의 뇌 조직의 대사물질은 MVS와 SVS 기법 모두 큰 차이가 없음을 확인할 수 있었다. 그러므로 MVS는 SVS보다 광범한 부위를 짧은 시간 안에 검사할 수 있으므로 매우 유용한 방법이라고 사료된다. To evaluate the metabolic changes in normal adult brains due to alterations SENSE and NEX (number of excitation) by multi voxel MR Spectroscopy at 3.0 Tesla. The study group was composed of normal volunteers (5 men and 8 women) with a mean ($\pm$ standard deviation) age of 41 (${\pm}11.65$). Their ages ranged from 28 to 61 years. MR Spectroscopy was performed with a 3.0T Achieva Release Version 2.0 (Philips Medical System-Netherlands). The 8 channel head coil was employed for MRS acquisition. The 13 volunteers underwent multi voxel spectroscopy (MVS) and single voxel spectroscopy (SVS) on the thalamus area with normally gray matter. Spectral parameters were as follows: 15 mm of thickness; 230 mm of FOV (field of view); 2000 msecs of repetition time (TR); 288 msecs of echo time (TE); $110{\times}110$ mm of VOI (view of interest); $15{\times}15{\times}15$ mm of voxel size. Multi voxel spectral parameters were made using specially in alteration of SENSE factor (1~3) and 1~2 of NEX. All MRS data were processed by the jMRUI 3.0 Version. There was no significant difference in NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratio between MVS and SVS likewise the previous results by Ross and coworkers in 1994. In addition, despite the alterations of SENSE factor and NEX in MVS, the metabolite ratios were not changed (F-value : 1.37, D.F : 3, P-value : 0.262). However, line-width of NAA peak in MVS was 3 times bigger than that in SVS. In the present study, we demonstrated that the alterations of SENSE factor and NEX were not critically affective to the result of metabolic ratios in the normal brain tissue.

      • KCI등재

        만주ㆍ대중소설ㆍ동아시아론

        조성면(Cho, Sung-Myeon) 만주학회 2012 만주연구 Vol.- No.14

        조흔파의 『만주국』(1970)은 ‘만주국’에 관한 이야기 곧 푸이를 중심으로 동아시아 현대사의 주요 인물과 정치적 사건을 그린 장편 실록소설이다. 작품의 완성도를 떠나 한국소설사에서 베르톨루치의 영화 「마지막 황제」보다 18년이나 앞서 푸이를 본격적으로 다루었으며, 동아시아를 뒤흔든 주요 인물과 사건을 그리고 있다는 것은 주목할 만한 일이다. 그러나 『만주국』은 제목만 ‘만주국’일뿐 실제로는 동아시아에서 일어난 정지척 사건과 인물들을 다룬 대중소설이다. ‘실록소설’이란 타이틀을 내걸었지만, 실제로는 성인 남성 독자들의 관심을 끌만한 정치 야사와 미확인 비사 (秘事)들을 다루고 푸이를 가십(gossip)성 인물로 전유함으로써 『만주국』은 저널리즘의 요구에 부응하는 대중소설로 떨어지고 말았다. 작품 발표 시기가 제 3공화국 말기라는 특수상황 때문이었는지 만주군관 학교 출신인 박정희와 정권 실세들의 이야기를 철저하게 배제하고, 항일무장투쟁에 대해서는 거의 다루고 있지 않는 등의 한계를 보이고 있다. 『만주국』의 가장 큰 문제점은 실증적인 오류와 함께 동아시아 현대사의 축도라 할 푸이를 통속적으로 해석하고 있으며, ‘만주국‘이 갖는 다양하고 중층적인 의미를 간과한 채 성인 남성 독자의 취향에 영합하고 있다는 점이다. 『만주국』은 이와 같이 많은 문제와 한계를 지니고 있지만, 망명문학과 이민문학이 주류를 이루는 이른바 한국 ‘만주문학’의 한계에서 벗어나 동아시아에서 ‘만주’의 현재성과 당대성을 강력하게 환기하고 있다는 점에서 또 이념이자 방법으로서 동아시아론의 현실성을 가늠해볼 대상이라는 점에서 매우 유의미한 작품으로 평가할 수 있다. Cho Heun Pa’s Mall(滿洲國, 1970) is a kind of faction dealing with the Puppet nation Manchuria, the last emperor of Ching Aix?njueluo P?yi, and the modern history of East Asia from 1908 to 1945. It is noteworthy that Cho wrote and published these story 18 years earlier than Bernardo Bertolucci’s famous film The Last Emperor, regardless of the quality of the work to have principal political events and figures of modern East Asia during the 1st and 2nd World War. However, Cho’s Manchukuo could not be defined exactly Manchu story. Because it is title only-not Manchuria’s story but the East Asia’s politic and historical mishaps. Despite its title Manchukuo, the faction eventually would become popular fiction to meet the needs of adult male readers and monthly journalism through substituting and appropriating a gossip story for Aix?njueluo P?yi & Manchuria. Above all, we think the biggest problem of the novel to avoid the stories related to the tyrant president Park Jong Hee himself & his staffs of the regime from the Military Academy of Manchukuo and to prelude the anti-Japanese armed struggle of the korean leftists in chinese East Asia. There are three problems with ellis novel-that is empirical error, arbitrary interpretation, and pandering to the tastes of readers. But this novel has meant to represent Manchuria as the introspective object of the East Asian countries and to bring light P?yi as the epitome of modern East Asian history, depart from the limits of Korean modern novels to be tied with the feature of immigration’s and refugees’ literature.

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