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‘JI-’ having a meaning of desire, was used in the composition of ‘V JI-’, ‘V EOJI-’, ‘V GOJI-’ in the medieval language, ‘-JYEO’ in ‘V JYEO’, which is a component of ‘V JI-’, was transformed to ‘-JA’ in the contemporary language. ‘V JYEO HA’, an extensive form of ‘V JI-’, was abbreviated with ‘HA’ and integrated with ending behind ‘HA’, which formed ‘-JAMYEON’, ‘-JANI’ and ‘-JAGO’ in the contemporary languages. ‘V EOJI-’ disappeared. ‘v GOJI-’ is generally used as an extension. Among extension forms, ‘V GOJEO HAYA’ in ‘V GOJEO HA’ composition was abbreviated with ‘HA’ and transformed to ‘-GOJA’ in the contemporary language. ‘V GOJYEO SIB-’ composition was abbreviated to ‘-GO SIP-’ in the contemporary language and is also used as ‘-GOP’ with the more abbreviated form. This component is used as dialect in some areas in the form of ‘-GOJEOB/GOJEOP-’.
We aimed to investigate ginsenoside pharmacokineticsin mice and rats following the repeated oraladministration of red ginseng extract (RGE) (2 g/kg/day for7 days). In mouse plasma, seven protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides (20(S)-ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd,Rg3, 20(S)-compound K, and 20(S)-PPD) and one protopanaxatriol(PPT)-type 20(S)-ginsenoside Re were detected,whereas 20(S)-ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, 20(S)-PPD,and 20(S)-PPT were detected in rat plasma. The tetra- ortri-glycosylated PPD-type ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, andRd, high content ginsenosides in RGE, showed high plasmaexposure, a short absorption time (Tmax), and a long eliminationtime (T1/2) among the ginsenosides detected in bothspecies. Among the deglycosylated metabolites existing inthe feces, 20(S)-compound K and 20(S)-PPD in mice and20(S)-PPD and 20(S)-PPT in rats were found in the plasmasamples. In addition to the differences in the ginsenosidesdetected in mice and rats, the Tmax and T1/2 of 20(S)-PPDand 20(S)-PPT in rats were greater than those in mice, suggestingthe species-dependent difference in the gut metabolismand absorption of ginsenosides in the pathway from20(S)-ginsenoside Rd to 20(S)-PPD and from 20(S)-ginsenosideRe to 20(S)-PPT. In conclusion, the choice of animalmodel should be the subject of careful consideration whenexploring the pharmacology of RGE with specific focus onthe plasma profile of an individual ginsenoside.
본고는 김수영 시에 나타난 ‘죽음’의 문제를 시적 생명의 발현과정으로 보고 김수영시에 내재한 죽음의 문제를 고찰하였다. 김수영시에 나타난 ‘죽음’은 새로운 생명을 획득하는 변증법적 과정을 거치면서 시적 해탈과 새로움의 시간을 획득한다. 본고에서는 김수영 시에 나타난 ‘죽음’의 문제와 관련하여 5·60년대의 억압적인 반공이데올로기에 갇힌 작가적 현실을 시인의 죽음으로 파악하고 김수영 시인의 순교자적 죽음의식을 고찰하였다. 또 김수영의 초기시에서부터 시작된 일련의 죽음의식이 자양분으로 받아들인 책 속에서 죽고 그 자신이 창작한 시 속에서 다시 한 번 죽음으로써 시의 죽음과 죽음의 현재적 시간을 획득함을 블랑쇼의 글쓰기와 관련시켜 논의하였다. 더불어 장자의 생사관과 불교의 ‘해탈’과 같은 동양사상에 내재한 전통을 혁신함으로써 ‘새로움’의 시학을 보여준 김수영 시의 죽음의식은 생명에대한 미래적 회귀의식을 보여준다. 김수영시에 나타난 ‘죽음’의 문제는 5·60년대의 정치·사회적 상황과 긴밀한 연관을 지닌 것으로 김수영은 죽음의식을 통해 시적 ‘새로움’과 ‘자유’의 생명을 획득하는 시적 성취를 이룩한다. 김수영의 시의식이 본질을 향해 나아가는 과정에서 추구하였던 ‘죽음’을 시적고통과 순교자적 대결의식, 죽음의 시간과 시의 죽음, ‘새로움’과 ‘해탈’의 미래적 회귀로 파악하고 이를 작품 분석을 통해 고찰하였다. This study examined ‘the poetics of death’ inherent in Kim Su?yeong’s poems, assuming that the ‘death’ problem in Kim Su?yeong’s poems is the process of manifesting a poetic life. For this, we analyzed his works based on the understanding that ‘death’ pursued by Kim Su?yeong in the course that his poetic consciousness moved toward the essence was the content of poetic pain, martyrdom consciousness of confrontation, the death of the author and books, Zen?style liberation, and the revolution of ‘newness.’ The discussions of this study are summarized as follows. First, for Kim Su?yeong who promoted poetic completeness comparable with contemporary world literature, the division of the country and the curbed realities suppressing literary freedom were equivalent to death. Although an utterance about the division system could lead him to severe risk and even death, Kim Su?yeong wrote poems containing such utterances. This poetic spirit can be regarded as martyrdom consciousness of confrontation toward poetic freedom. Second, with regard to the ‘death’ problem in Kim Su?yeong’s poems, we discussed it in connection to Blanchot’s concepts of writing and death. A series of death consciousness beginning from Kim Su?yeong’s early poem ‘Confucius’ Hard Living’ achieved the death of poetry and the poet’s death through a death in books read for nutrition and another death in poems written by himself. Third, Kim Su?yeong read the depth of newness in poems containing ‘the music of death.’ Accordingly, the death problem in Kim Su?yeong’s poems became the point where ‘newness’ and freedom are attained. In his prose ‘Lying Zen,’ he revealed through lying Zen the absolute state of ‘perfect oblivion’ leaving no trace of the corpse, the remains of death. Thus, we can say that the death problem in Kim Su?yeong’s poems is his search of ‘newness’ and his will toward freedom so desperate that he tried to pass through death and leave no trace of the dead body behind.
The optimum conditions of loess dyeing were investigated to improve the color fastness and antibacteria properties of wool fabric dyed with the loess at various conditions such as loess, H_2SO_4. Na_2SO_4, concentration, time and temperature. With the increase in concentrations of loess and H_2SO_4, the dyeing temperature, and the dyeing time, the K/S values of the samples increased. But with the increase in concentration of Na_2SO_4, used as a retarder, the K/S values of the samples decreased. It was found that the optimum conditions of loess dyeing in order to give the color fastness to dry cleaning were loess 3∼5 % o.w.f., H_2SO_4 2∼3 %(v/v), Na_2SO_4, 5 % o.w.f., dyeing temperature 90℃, and dyeing time over 35 minutes. The results of antibacteria tests suggested that the antibiosis of wool fabric dyed with the loess is better than that of the undyed.
The objective of this study is to investigate male college student's nutrition knowledge level and food habits and their correlation. The questionnaires answered by 378 male college students were analyzed for nutrition knowledge, food habits and their correlation. The subjects had a high level of perceived knowledge(85% ), that is the knowledge that each subject believed he had, but the accuracy of that knowledge was 71%. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 12 out of a possible 20 points, and habit score was 4.4 out of 10 points. Therefore most of the subjects had a high level of nutrition knowledge but belonged to the "Fair" food habit group, which is considered to be relatively poor. There was a Positive correlation between nutrition knowledge score and food habit score of the subjects. Furthermore with increasing monthly income and level of education of their parents, the food habit scores also increased. There was a positive correlation between nutrition knowledge score ad their mother's employment status. Meanwhile, the food habits of male college students show that the consumption level of fruits, milk and sea weed is relatively low, but vegetables consumption was normal and they ate breakfast everyday. Meals were never missed for reducing weigth. Seventy-nine percentage of the subjects have not been educated in nutrition. Most of the male students have mainly obtained nutritional information( knowledge) from mass media.
The purpose of this study was to compare the geometric displacement between the lateral cephalometric radiograph and photograph. For the present study, 52 subjects with Angle Class I occlusion and no severe skeletal discrepancy were selected. The Head Posture Aligner and the standardized camera set up were adopted to obtain photographs and radiographs in a standardized manner. Six metal markers were placed on the subject's right side face representing Glabella (G), Zygoma (Zy), Philtrum (Ph), Soft tissue Gonion (Go'), Soft tissue Pogonion (Pog'), Soft tissue Menton (Me') before taking the lateral cephalometric radiograph and photograph. The 14 linear, 28 angular, and 5 area differences were measured after superimposition of the radiograph and photograph using nose and upper lip as a reference on the Image Analyzer. The paired t-test and the percentage of differences were used to compare the geometric displacement of metal markers between the lateral cephalometric radiograph and photograph. Through the statistical analysis, the following results were obtained. 1. When the linear measurements were compared between the lateral photograph and radiograph, the measurements related to Zy and Go' except Zy-Me' and Go'-Ph showed significant differences on both images. 2. On the angular comparison, the overall measurements except Me'-Ph-Pog', Ph-Pog'-Me', Ph-Me'-Pog', G-Me'-Ph, Me'-G-Ph. Ph-Go'-Pog', Go'-Zy-Me' and G-Go'-Me' showed significant differences on both images and especially the measurements related to Zy showed greater difference. 3. In area measurements, the overall measurements except G-Zy-Go' showed enlargement of the radiograph. 4. On the superimposition of the radiograph and photograph, the measurements related to the profile tended to be well matched. However, Zy on the lateral radiograph tended to be displaced downward and backward more than Zy on the photograph. Furthermore Go' on the lateral radiograph tended to be displaced upward and backward more than Go' on the photograph. The results suggested that the precise superimposition between the lateral cephalometric radiograph and photograph was not feasible due to differences in enlargement.
목적: 간흡충증에서 초음파검사의 진단적 가치를 알아보기 위하여 본 연구를 시행하였다. 대상 및 방법: 1996년 5월 한달 동안 간흡충의 농후유행지인 형산강 유역 포항지역의 436명의 자원자를 대상르로 초음파검사, 피내반응검사, 대변검사를 시행하였다. 이후 대변검사를 기준(gold standard)으로하여 초음파검사의 민감도, 특이도, 양성예측도 및 음성예측도를 알아보았다. 결과: 간내담관의 확장 및 담관주위 에코를 양성 소견으로 하였을 경우 초음파검사의 민감도 65.5%, 특이도는 64.6%, 양성예측도는 38.2%, 음성예측도는 84.3% 이었다. 결론: 초음파검사는 피내반응검사보다 민감하지는 못하나 특이적이었다. 그리고 피내반응검사 양성자에게 초음파 검사를 시행하는 것은 진단기준의 특이도를 높여 주는 효과가 있었다. Objectives: In this study we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of sonography on clonorchiasis. Subjectives and Methods: During a month, May 1996 sonographic examination, skin test, and stool examination were performed to 436 volunteers of Pohang which is located along the Hyong-San-Gang river and is one of well known endemic areas. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value(PPV), and negative predictive value(NPV) of sonography were determined while stool examination was assumed as a gold standard. Results: The sensitivity of sonography was 65.5%; specificity, 63.2%; PPV 38.2%; NPV, 84.3% if both intrahepatic duct dilatation and periductal echogenicity were assumed as positive findings. Conclusions: Sonography was less sensitive but more specific than skin test. And sonographic examination perfomed to skin test positive subjects could increase the specificity of diagnostic criteria.
이 연구의 목적은 all-in-one adhesive인 Adper Prompt L-pop과 Xeno(R) III를 우식이환 상아질에 다층 적용했을 때의 효과를 미세인장결합강도의 측정과 주사전자현미경을 이용한 파절양상의 관찰을 통해 알아보는데 있다. 교합면 우식이 있는 21개의 치아에서 편평한 상아질 면이 노출되도록 하여 감염 상아질을 제거한 후 3개씩 7개의 군으로 분류하였다. SM 군은 Scotehbonnd Multi-purpose를 적용하였다. LP1 군, LP2 군, LP3 군은 Adper Prompt L-POP을 각각 단층, 2층, 3층으로 적용하였다. XN1 군, XN2 군, XN3 군은 Xeno(R)$ III를 각각 단층, 2층. 3층으로 적용하였다. 각각의 상아질 접착제 처리 후, 광중합레진인 Filter Z-250을 10mm 높이로 적층 충전하였다. 각 치아는 가로와 세로의 길이가 각각 1 mm인 막대 모양의 절편이 되도록 수직으로 절단하였다. 그 후 미세인장결합강도를 측정하였다. 측정 후 파절된 시편을 주사전자현미경을 이용하여 파절양상을 살펴보았다. 각 군의 미세인장결합강도를 one-way ANOVA와 신뢰도의 Scheffe's Test를 이용하여 분석하였다. 이 연구의 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 미세인장결합강도를 측정한 결과, SM 군은 14.38±2.01$ MPa, LP1군, LP2 군, LP3 군은 각각 9.15±1.81 MPa, 14.08±1.75 MPa, 14.06±1.45 MPa로 측정되었고, XN1 군, XN2 군, XN3 군은 각각 13.65±1.95 MPa, 13.98±1.60 MPa, 13.88±1.66 MPA로 측정되었다. LP1 군은 다른 모든 군에 비해 낮은 미세인장결합강도를 나타내었고 (p < 0.05). LP1 군을 제외한 다른 모든 군 사이에는 유의한 차이가 없었다 (p > 0.05). 2. 파절양상을 관찰한 결과, LP1 군에서는 접착성 파절이 우세하게 나타났고, LP1 군을 제외한 다른 모든 군에서는 혼합형 파절이 주로 일어났다. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of multiple application of all-in-one dentin adhesive system on microtensile bond strength to caries-affected dentin. Twenty one extracted human molars with occlusal caries extending into mid-dentin were prepared by grinding the occlusal surface flat. The carious lesions were excavated with the aid of caries detector dye. The following adhesives were applied to caries-affected dentin according to manufacturer s directions; Scotchbond Multi-Purpose in 8M group. Adper Prompt L-POp 1 coat in LP1 group, 2 coats in LP2 group. 3 coats inLP3 group, Xeno Ⅲ 1 coat in XNl group, 2 coats in XN2 group, and 3 coats in XN3 group. After application of the adhesives. a cylinder of resin-based composite was built up on the occlusal surface. Each tooth was sectioned vertically to obtain the 1 x 1 mm² sticks. The microtensile bond strength was determined. Each specimen was observed under SEM to examine the failure mode. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA. The results of this study were as follows; 1. The microtensile bond strength values were: 8M <14.38 ± 2.01 MPa) , LP1 (9.15 ± 1.81 MPa). LP2 04.08 ± 1.75 MPa). LP3 04.06 ± 1.45 MPa) , XN1 03.65 ± 1.95 MPa). XN2 03.98 ± 1.60 MPa). XN3 (13.88 ± 1.66 MPa). LP1 was significantly lower than the other groups in bond strength (p <0.05). All groups except LPI were not significantly different in bond strength (p ) 0.05). 2. In LPI. there were a higher number of specimens showing adhesive failure. Most specimens of all groups except LPI showed mixed failure.
This study is that examine ana readjust cause - pathology, symptom, treatment, clinical reports recorded in western medicine, successive literature of oriental medicine and recent literatures and journals of chinese medicine about Paralysis agitans. The results was followed ; 1. Paralysis agitans is similar with symptoms of Jinjeon, Qi, Gyeong, Gyejong, Lyeon and Pyengo, Tantan, Jungbu, Jungpung. 2. There are runs, Hwa, Dam, Eo in the causes of disease, Gansinyinheo, Qihyeolyangheo, Jeokyeoldamhwa, Qichehyeoleo, Ganpungnaedong etc in clinical types, to be concerned with liver, kidney, heart and spleen in Jangbu. Gansinyinheo and Qihyeolyangheo are concerned wiyh idopathic paralysis agitans, Jeokyeoldamhwa and Qichehyeoloe successive it, Ganpungnaedong both idiopathic and successive. 3. Treatments are Jayinjamyang, Pyeonggansikpung, Ikqiyanghyeol, Sikpunghwallak, Seoganhaewool, Hwalhyeoltonglak etc, and prescriptions are Yukmi, Chunmagudeongum, Paljintang, Tonggyuhwalhyeoltang, Hyeoltbuchukeotang etc. 4, In caring, it is necessary to live pleasantly, to be temperate sexual intercourse, to control diet, to do suitable exercises, for example Qigong, Physical exercises, Walking etc. 5. In clinical reports, this disease frequently occurs more than 50 years, male is more than female, and there are many complications as hypertension and arteriosclerosis etc. The majority of causes are Gansinyinheo, Qichehyeoleo, and the others are Qihyeolyangheo, Damhwa, Ganpungnaedong, Qigiulche, Yeolyoesimsin etc, the majority of care Jabogansin, Yukyinsikpung, Hwalhyeolhwaeo, and the others Ikqiyanghyeol, Haldamtonglak, Seoganhaewool. Curing period is generally from 2 to 3 months. In effectiveness rate, successive Qichehyeoleo type is the highest, and idiopathic Qihyeolyangheo type is the lowest. Effectiveness of rigidity is higher than tremor.