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Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a necrotizing vasculitis of small- and medium-sized arteries affecting multiple organ systems. Generally, multi-organ involvement is more common than isolated organ involvement in classic PAN. A localized PAN involving breasts alone has rarely been reported. We describe an unusual case of a 72-year-old woman with a localized form of PAN manifested by acute onset of breast pain with fever. Ultrasonography of breasts showed increased echogenicity of subcutaneous fat tissue surrounding the arteries with wall thickening in both upper breasts. Excisional biopsy of left breast revealed leukocytoclastic small to medium-sized arteritis without giant cell infiltration, indicating PAN. Other imaging studies showed that there were no visceral organ involvements. We diagnosed a localized PAN involving breasts, and initiated corticosteroid and methotrexate. She rapidly responded to the treatment and has remained in clinical remission for 1 year.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of multi-herbal extract on skin function improvement. In this study, herb mixture consisting mainly Nelumbo nucifera leaves induced procollagen type 1 secretion in normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF). Moreover, it also exerted free radical scavenging activity, and exhibited strong intracellular antioxidant capacity. Although the extract did not effect on tyrosinase activity, it reduced melanin contents in B16F10 cells. It had no significant influence on viabilities of human skin-derived cell lines, human keratinocyte HaCaT, NHDF, and normal human epidermal melanocyte. These results demonstrate the improvement of skin function by treatment with our herbal extract via its anti-wrinkle, antioxidant and skin whitening activities. The current results also indicate that new non-toxic multi-herbs consisting mainly Nelumbo nucifera leaves may be useful source of natural cosmetic agent.
The inner ear is a complex and delicate structure composed of the cochlea and the vestibular system. To maintain normal auditory function, strict homeostasis of the inner ear is needed. A proper immune response against infection, thus, is crucial. Also, since excessive immune reaction can easily damage the normal architecture within the inner ear, the immune response should be fine regulated. The exact mechanism how the inner ear's immune response, specifically the innate immunity, is regulated was unknown. Recently, we reported a protein selectively localized in the inner ear during bacterial infection, named cochlin, as a possible mediator of such regulation. In this review, the immunological function of cochlin and the mechanism behind its role within inner ear immunity is summarized. Cochlin regulates innate immunity by physically entrapping pathogens within scala tympani and recruiting innate immune cells. Such mechanism enables efficient removal of pathogen while preserving the normal inner ear structure from inflammatory damage.
The objective of this study is to select optimal bands, which is possible to classify the difference in reflectance between infected and non-infected fire blight (FB) at pear orchard. The image was acquired using hyperspectral camera with high dimensional data and was classified by the support vector machine (SVM) and decision tree (DT) method. All single bands of infected (n=27) and non-infected (n=55) FB were extracted from hyperspectral image and then those were averaged to four commercialized band (Green, Red, Red edge and NIR) to evaluate the classification error rate of established multispectral imaging sensor. All single bands and modified four bands were adopted to SVM and DT method to classify the difference in reflectance between infected and non-infected FB. The classification error rate was calculated by K-Fold cross validation with SVM and DT based on machine learning composed of training sample 70% and test samples 30%. The accuracy of classification method was evaluated by the classification error rate. All single band was used to select more optimal bands for classifying infected and non-infected FB than the bands of established multispectral imaging sensor by selected classification method. In the case of the modified four bands, the classification error rates of SVM were represented respectively as 25.39% for Green (550nm BP 40nm), 39.78% for Red (660nm BP 40nm), 15.18% for Red edge (735nm BP 10nm) and 25.14% for NIR (790nm BP 40nm). In DT method, Red edge (735nm BP 10nm) was selected as the classifier out of four bands and the classification error rates was 9.76% when the test samples were applied to the classifier. It means that the decision tree (DT) method was more suitable to separate the difference in reflectance between infected and non-infected fire blight (FB) than the support vector machine (SVM) when we applied the modified four bands. In the case of all single bands, it is not possible to run the algorithm of SVM because the amount of high dimensional data was exceeded our computer capacity. In DT method, only Red edge (754nm BP 5.6nm) was selected as the classifier out of all single bands. The classification error rates was 6.10% when the test samples applied to classifier. It means that the reflectance of Red edge was the key classifier for the presence or absence of fire blight. As a result, it is possible to classify the difference in reflectance between infected and non-infected fire blight (FB) using the support vector machine algorithm and decision tree method. The reflectance of Red edge is important band to identify the presence or absence of fire blight in pear orchard.
Background: Psoriasis is a chronic cutaneous disease manifesting with scaly plaques. Therapeutic strategy against psoriasis has changed since the introduction of biologics as new anti-psoriatic drugs. Objectives: This study was aimed to analyze the treatment outcome of various systemic drugs for psoriatic patients who visited our Department of Dermatology during last five years (2015-2019). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 502 psoriatic patients who have been enrolled in Chonnam National University Hospital during last five years from 2015 to 2019. Demographics and treatment outcome of each systemic anti-psoriatic drug was evaluated by PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) scoring. Results: The most common drug to be prescribed was methotrexate (MTX) (27.7% of enrolled all patients) followed by cyclosporine (CsA) (23.9% of them), and acitretin (21.7%). The success rate of treatment to reach PASI 75 response was 54.8% by MTX, 52.5% by CsA, and 45.9% by actitretin, respectively. The portion of patients who were treated with biologics among enrolled patients was increasing from 2.5% to 6.2% during last five years. Among biologics, guselkumab was most commonly prescribed one, followed by secukinumab, ustekinumab, and adalimumab. The PASI 75 response of each biologic was 100% by guselkimab and 94.1% by secukinumab, respectively. Conclusion: This study presents results of treatment outcomes of various systemic drugs for psoriasis in Chonnam Province, Korea.
Background: While individual cases of various tumor arising from nail unit have been reported in Korea, few study about incidence and clinical characteristics of nail tumors has been reported. Objectives: To evaluate the incidence and clinical characteristic of nail tumors in single center in Korea. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical photographs and medical records of the patients with nail tumors who visited Chonnam National University Hospital between January 2015 and December 2019. 54 cases of nail tumor were diagnosed by skin biopsy. Results: Distal mucous cyst (22.2%) was the most common tumor and malignant melanoma (20.4%) was the second most. The third most tumor was glomus tumor (16.7%) and followed by melanoma in situ (14.8%). And other tumors were onychopapilloma (7.4%), pyogenic granuloma (5.6%), subungal exostosis (3.7%), myxoid pseudocyst (1.9%), ungal fibrokeratoma (1.9%), squamous cell carcinoma (1.9%), verrucous carcinoma (1.9%), superficial acral fibromyxoma. (1.9%). Of these, malignant nail tumors accounted for 22.3%. Conclusion: Our study showed that various nail tumors from nail occurred. For optimal treatment of nail tumors, we are needed to figure out the incidence and clinical characteristics of nail tumors.