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Insonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH), a potent anti-tuberculous compound, was first reported to form a INH analogue with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in the tissue homogenate by Zatman et al., and it was suggested that the formation of such a INH analogue may be of significance in explaining the clinical anti-tuberculous action of INH. The species specificity of the animal NADase with respect to INH analogue formation was also reported. It is possible that both the "sensitive" and "insensitive" NADases react in the same manner to the INH and from INH analogue of NAD, and in case of the "insensitive" such a analogue is formed in relative large amounts. The knowledge on the human tissue NADase with respect to INH is still very poor except a few references on the prostata and spleen NADase is available, and much desired to be studied. The author made a study on the formation of INH analogue of NAD in human erythrocytes, as well as cell free systems of mouse liver, spleen, brain and lung. 1. In vitro formation of INH analogues of NAD in human erythrocyte homogenate and in subcellular fractions of mouse liver has been demonstrated. 2. In the subcellular fractions of mouse liver, the main part of the synthetic activity of INH analogue of NAD was found in motochondrial and soluble fractions. 3. The transglucosidase activity of NADase from human erythrocytes was demonstrated by measuring the ability of the homogenate of erythrocytes to synthesize isonicotinic acid hydrazide adenine dinucleotide. 4, The NADase of human erythrocytes is relatively "insensitive" to INH. 5. The tissues-i. e. liver, brain, spleen and lung, which were pretreated in vivo with NAD, give rise a high synthetic activity of formation of INH analogue of NAD, while the activity in the control group is much lower.
Piloti structure is a building designed to open the ground floor as a basic principle of modern architecture. However, it is considered urgent to prepare seismic retrofit plans for the irregular torsion problem of the Piloti building through the recent Pohang earthquake. Therefore, this study aims to provide the basic data for the selection of the Piloti building seismic retrofitting method by comparing the dynamic characteristics of each method through the small shaking table experiment using the seismic retrofitting method of the pilotty building.
According to the 「Guidelines of Structural Design for Piloti Building」 of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (2018), the natural period of middle and low rise building of upper-walled lower frame type, such as the domestic multiplex house in piloti style, is suggested for safety to apply the existing code formula of the wall structure. However, the current code formula of the wall structure was provided based on actual measurement of high-rise wall-type structures that mainly exhibit bending behavior. So it is considered that it is not suitable for a piloti-type house with four stories or less, where the wall behaves in shear. See also Park et al. (2000) confirmed that the effect of the lower frame part is greater than that of the upper wall part in the natural period of complex structures with 10 or more floors through analytical studies. Therefore, in this study, in order to examine the effect of the lower frame on the natural period of the middle and low-rise piloti structure, the estimation of natural period by the finite element analysis, approximation formula and ccurrent code formula was performed for the target structures with the shear and flexural stiffness of the upper wall and the shear stiffness of the lower frame as variables. As result, it was found that the change in the shear stiffness of the lower frame had a greater effect on the natural period of the whole building than the change in the bending or shear stiffness of the upper wall. 국토교통부(2018)의 「필로티 건축물 구조설계 가이드라인」에서는 국내 필로티 형식의 다세대 주택과 같이 중저층의 상부벽식 하부 골조구조를 이루고 있는 복합구조의 고유주기를 안전성을 고려하여 상부 벽식구조에 해당하는 식을 적용하도록 제시하고 있다. 그러나 현행 벽식구조의 고유주기 산정 기준식은 주로 휨 거동하는 고층 벽식구조를 대상으로 한 실측 결과를 통하여 제정된 것으로서 벽체가 전단거동을 하는 국내 4층이하 필로티형 다세대 주택에는 적합하지 않을 것으로 사료되며, 또한, Park et al. (2000)은 해석적 연구를 통하여 10층 이상의 복합구조물의 고유주기에서 하부 골조구조의 영향이 상부 벽식구조보다 크게 작용하고 있음을 확인하였다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 중저층 필로티 구조의 고유주기에 미치는 하부골조의 영향을 검토하기 위하여 상부 벽식구조의 전단 및 휨 강성과 하부 골조구조의 전단강성을 변수로 하는 대상 구조물들에 대하여 유한요소 모델을 이용한 고유치 해석과 고유주기 산정 근사식 그리고 현행 고유주기 산정 기준식을 이용하여 고유주기를 산출하고 비교하였다. 비교결과 하부골조의 전단강성변화가 상부벽체의 휨 또는 전단강성의 변화보다 건물 전체의 고유주기에 더 큰 영향을 주는 것으로 나타났다.
In this paper, through appreciating one of W. B. Yeats’s later poems, I try to find how the poet’s creative self gets to have its creative power and in what mechanism it expands its poetic circumference. “Among School Children” is the very poem his poetic self and creative imagination are well wrought into. In the poem, the poet suggests that power and knowledge cannot exist together, speaking of the powerful theories of Plato and simultaneously of the philosopher’s powerless being before Nature. He praises Aristotle as a king of kings, and Pythagoras as world-famous golden-thighed, but he mocks them of being old clothes upon an old stick to scare a bird. In the same way, he asserts that “the body is not bruised to pleasure soul.” In the sense of deconstructionists, all the binary oppositions have their hierarchies; however, Yeats puts the two antithetical elements on the identical level, as they are not subordinated to each other, and tries to bridge the abyss or space between. Such an attempt to unite the opposite worlds is manifested in his A Vision. Concerning his “gyre” theory, the figure is frequently drawn as a double cone. The one is called primary gyre, representing space, intellect, mask and fortune; the other antithetical one to represent time, emotion, creativity and will. The narrow end of each cone is in the centre of the broad end of the other. Seen at the narrow end of each cone through the centre of each broad end, appears a circle having a dot at the center. This is the poet’s world of imagination whose centre is his “self” and whose circumference is the limit of the self’s perception. The poet’s life-long activities are related with his efforts to expand the circumference. “Among School Children” is a trace of such activities. The centre is the place where the self of the poet is located; the circumference is where the self “perceives its limitation,” or where arises the feeling of awe, terror, or ecstasy, which means a kind of tension geared between the binary opposite worlds: the finite and the infinite; the mortal and the immortal; life and death; the real and the ideal; youth and age; the body and soul; pleasure and despair. The perception network of the poet connects the centre and circumference. The power to widen the circle originates from the poet’s paradoxical sense of life, of deprivation, and of renunciation through an attainable love with Maud Gonne, tensions between religious struggles, civil revolutions, and so on. The sharp confrontation of these tensions takes place rise to in the circumference and stimulates the poet’s creative imagination. This power of self strengthened by these tensions starts its quest-journey to explore the mysteries beyond the limit of its circle: the mysteries of the opposite worlds separated here and there. The ultimate purpose of the journey, finally, is to reach the united condition of the two worlds, which means what Greg Johnson calls “the highest imaginative enhancement of human identity” or immortality. This united world is the place where “we cannot know the dancer from the dance” and where Yeats’s “unity of being” is synthesized.
The focus of study in this paper is put on the comparison of symbolism manifested in the world of W. B. Yeats’ poetry and the thoughts of Master Won-hyo.. The comparing works include the identification of their understanding ways of life. The symbols in common to bridge W. B. Yeats and Master Won-hyo are, for instance, circle, cone, cycle, sphere, spiral, wheel, vehicle, etc. Such a sign symbolizes a round thing, in another expression, the world or the cosmos where man belongs to. The phenomenological world or the cosmos by oriental thoughts is represented as the 28 phases of the moon, ranging from the dark moon(objectivity) to the full moon(subjectivity), which according to W. B. Yeats’ theory are identified the same kinds of character of man. Won-hyo(元曉, 617~686), a life-long friend of another Buddhist Master Ui-sang., insisted on the necessity for every living being to return to the foundation of the One Mind(一心), which is the original state of being, in another words, or “Ultimate Reality” to which every living being has to return. The Hwa-yen Sutra(華嚴經), a rare scripture of Mahayana Buddhism(大乘佛敎), emphasizes that the Ultimate Reality is the Source of One Mind of Won-hyo. We can say that Mahayana Buddhism teaches every living being the way to return to the world of the Ultimate Reality by great vehicle of Mahayana(大乘) in sanskrit. Another principle of Hwa-yen philosophy may be expressed as All in one, one in all. One is all, all is one(一中一切一切中一, 一卽一切一切卽一). The Six Aspects(六相) is interpretated by the principle. The mutual relationships are harmonized between the whole and a part, between the unity of the whole and the diversity of the part, and between the completion of the whole and the self-denial of the part. The One Mind is synonymous with the Great Vehicle with great wheels, which return to the Source of One Mind, the original state of being, or the Ultimate Reality( or Nirvana). The meaning of the One Mind may be expanded to the synonym of the existential world or the cosmos, at the center of which the One Mind lies. Accordingly, The One Mind, the Great Vehicle or Great Wheel and the World has a similar analogy, which make a system of symbolism, so called “Yeatsian gyre theory.” Yeats imagined a spiral, which he preferred to call a gyre) or whirling cone. Then two such cones were drawn and considered to pass like the human soul through a cycle from subjectivity to objectivity. These cones were imagined as interpenetrating, whirling around inside one another, one subjective, the other objective. The cones were not restricted to symbolizing objectivity and subjectivity. They were beauty and truth, value and fact, particular and universal, quality and quantity, abstract and concrete, and the living and the dead. Yeats thought that he had discovered in the figure of interpenetrating gyres the archetypal pattern which is mirrored and remirrored by all life, by all movements of civilization or mind or nature. Man or movement is conceived of as moving from left to right and then from right to left. No sooner is the fullest expansion of the objective cone reached than the counter-movement towards the fullest expansion of the subjective cone begins. These movements slide to the 28 phases of the moon. The dark moon, in the course of wane and wax sways to the full moon. The different 28 patterns of the moon is mirrored by all life or mind, ranging from the highest state of subjective mind(the 15th phase: the full moon) to the highest cast of objective mind(the 1st phase; the dark moon). In the long run, the world which Won-hyo and Yeats seek for as an ideal space of mind is a unified one, into which melted are the binominal opposites such as objectivity and subjectivity, the sacred and the profane, the bishop and Jane, fair and foul, the dancer and the dance, beauty and truth, value and fact, particular and universal, quality and quantity, abstract and concrete, and the living and the dead.
A wall-frame structure resists horizontal load by the interaction between the flexural mode of the shear wall and the shear mode of the frame, which implies that the frame deflects only by reverse bending of the columns and girders, and that the columns are axially rigid. However, as the height of frame increases the shear mode of frame changes to flexural mode, which is due to the extension and shortening of the columns. An approximate hand method for estimating horizontal deflection and member forces in high-rise shear wall-frame structures subjected to horizontal loading is presented. The method is developed from the continuous medium theory for coupled walls and expressed in non-dimensional structural parameters. It accounts for bending deformations in all individual members as well as axial deformations in the columns. The deformations calculated from the presented approximate method and matrix analysis by computer program are compared. The presented approximate method is more accurate for the taller structures. 횡력을 받는 전단벽-골조 시스템은 휨거동을 하는 전단벽과 전단거동을 하는 골조가 슬래브의 강체평면운동(Diaphragm Action)을 통하여 상호작용하여 수평력에 효율적으로 저항하는 시스템이다. 횡력을 받는 골조의 거동은 보와 기둥의 휨 변형에 의한 골조의 수평 전단변형과 기둥의 축 변형에 의한 골조의 휨 변형으로 구분 할 수 있다. 일반적으로 전단벽-골조 시스템의 근사해석 시 골조의 휨변형은 무시하여 왔으나, 건물의 높이가 증가 할수록 골조의 휨 거동은 큰 영향을 미칠 것으로 사료된다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 횡력을 받는 전단벽-골조 시스템의 근사해석 시 기둥의 축 변형을 고려하기위하여 병렬전단벽 시스템(Coupled Shear Wall System)의 해석 시 사용하는 연속매체모델(Continuous Medium Model)을 이용하여 횡 변위 및 부재력을 산정할 수 있는 근사식을 수정 제시 하였다. 새롭게 제시된 근사식을 검토하기 위하여 기존 식과 컴퓨터에 의한 Matrix해석 결과와 비교하였으며, 비교결과 건물 높이가 높을 수록 본 연구에서 제시한 근사해석 식이 기존 식보다 Matrix 해석 결과에 가깝게 나타났다.
구조물의 손상 추정은 동적응답신호로부터 고유주기와 모드형상을 구한 후 이를 역해석하여 손상위치와 손상정도를 파악함으로써 이루어 진다. 건축구조물의 경우 토목구조물에 비하여 구조형식이 복잡하고 비구조요소 및 노이즈 등의 영향으로 인하여 구조물 판별에 어려움이 있다. 동적응답신호를 이용한 건물의 손상추정에 관한 최근의 연구들은 손상추정을 위하여 민감도 또는 추정치 등 간접적 지표를 사용하고 있으나, 좀 더 합리적이고 명확한 손상추정을 위하여 운동방정식으로부터 직접 유도된 변수를 손상지수로 활용할 필요가 있을 것으로 판단된다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 전단형 건물의 운동방정식으로부터 직접 유도된 층강성 감소비를 손상지수로 하는 손상추정 방법을 제안하였다. 제안된 손상지수는 손상 전 모드형상과 손상 전 후 고유진동수 차이를 알면 구할 수 있다. 제안된 손상 추정방법을 수치해석예제에 적용한 결과 손상이 발생한 층에서 층강성 변화율이 (-)부호를 나타내었으며, 크기가 다른 층에 비하여 15배 정도 크게 나타나 전단형 건물의 손상 추정지수로서 활용될 수 있을 것으로 판단된다. Damage location and extent of structure could be detected by the inverse analysis on dynamic response properties such as frequencies and mode shapes. The dynamic response of building structures has many noise and affected by nonstructural members and, above all, the behavior of building structure is more complex than civil structure and this makes the damage detection difficult. In recent researches the damage is detected by the indirect index such as sensitivity or assumed values. However, for the more reasonable damage detection, it needs to use the damage index directly induced from dynamic equation. The purpose of this study is to provide the damage detection method on shear building structures by the damage index directly induced from dynamic equation. The provided damage index could be estimated from measured mode shape of undamaged structure and frequency difference between undamaged and damaged structure. The damage detection method is applied to numerical analysis model such as MATLAB and MIDAS GENw for the verification. The damage index at damaged story represents (-) sign and 15 times than other undamaged sories.