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Purpose The current research seeks to investigate how consumers respond to a company’s CSR activities in the product-harm crisis in the foreign market, focusing on the case of the Samsung Galaxy Note 7 Battery Explosion case in 2017 in the U.S. market. Adopting the specific types of corporate responsibilities that Carroll (1991) suggests, we classified the CSR activities into three (i.e., the legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities) and examined which type of CSR activity is the most effective in dealing with consumer response to the product-harm crisis. Design/Methodology/Approach For this purpose, we experimented in the United States. 65 US participants were recruited for our experiment. Samsung’s Galaxy Note 7 Battery Explosion crisis was described to participants first; then one of the three types of CSR activities was presented according to the conditions in which participants were randomly assigned. Then participants indicated the evaluation of Samsung. Findings The results indicate that consumers’ evaluation of Samsung was more positive when Samsung involves in ethical or philanthropic responsibility than a legal responsibility. Research Implications We make significant theoretical and managerial contributions. We advance the CSR literature as well as the product-harm crisis literature by incorporating that companies’ CSR initiatives could be a good way to soothe dissatisfactory consumers. Our results are also managerially meaningful by providing specific guidelines regarding which type of CSR activity is more effective in handling the negative consequences due to a product-harm crisis.
광산폐기물은 크게 폐석과 선광공정에서 배출되는 광미 등으로 구분된다. 특히, 광석으로부터 유가자원회수 또는 금속 추출시 제련공정 등에서 얻어지는 광미나 잔류물은 자원 고갈에 따른 재이용 및 환경보전 측면에서 관심이 높아지고 있다. 광미의 경우 일반적으로 함유된 유가자원의 품위가 원광에 비해 낮으나 처리비용은 기존의 선광 처리 비용에 비해 휠씬 저렴하기 때문에 세계적으로 휴ㆍ폐광산 지역에서 광미 재처리를 시도하고 있다. 국내에서도 방치된 광산폐기물의 재활용을 촉진하기 위해서는 자원처리 및 회수기술의 개발은 물론 회수된 자원의 활용을 적극적으로 검토할 필요가 있다. 본고에서는 광산폐기물의 재활용기술개발 및 적용 현황, 향후 기술개발 전망 등을 검토하였다. Mineral wastes are generated by the minerals, mining, and metal industries. These are generally inorganic waste streams of mainly waste rock or residues from refining during extraction of metals or minerals from the ore. There are many plants where minerals are recovered in secondany circuits, treating tailings, where the feed grades are much lower than would be economic on a mined ore. The world is now becoming aware of the finite nature of its resources at a price, and of the ever-increasing development costs of large new mines. Reprocessing of old tailings on a large scale must be worth examining very seriously by those with access to sufficient material of this type. In the present paper, mineral separation techniques to recover valuable metals and resources from the old tailings are reviewed, and new trends for future developments are also discussed.
緖論The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PSM(Polysaccharide mushroom) on 121 patients who have suffered from cancer disease. PSM was administered to patients for over 2 months continuously. We checked improvement of clinical symptoms and the changes of hematology, serum biochemical changes and tumor markers. The maintenance and improvement in the cancer-induced symtoms were as fellows; weight loss(75.9%), anorexia(55.5%), general body weakness(47.2%). In the analysis of hematology attached by cancer, the maintenance and increasing is as fellows: WBC(87.6%), Hgb(76.8%), Platelet(90.6%) RBC(75.9%). In the analysis of tumor markers attached by cancer, the maintenance and decreasing is as follows: CEA(81%), CA19-9(40%), CA15-3(92%). For the analysis of serum biochemical changes indicating liver and renal damage, the maintenance and decreasing is as follows: AST(90.6%), ALT(93.9%), BUN(91.9%), Creatinine(98.2%). In the analysis of QOL(Quality of life)attached by cancer, the combined treatment of western and oriental therapy(maintenance and improvement: 84.3%) was more effective than traditional oriental cancer therapy alone(maintenance and improvement; 61.5%). The survival time in the patients with terminal cancer was above 6 months(90.4%). In the analysis of antitumor effects, the combined treatment of western and oriental therapy were as follows : maintenance 74.1% improvement 6.5%. Analysis of curative evaluation(maintenance and improvement), the combined treatment of western and oriental therapy(75%) was higher than traditional oriental therapy (54.8%). Analysis of curative evaluation (maintenance and improvement) ciassified by diagnostic stage were as follows; stage III (82.5%), stage IV(63.5%). Analysis of curative evaluation(maintenance and improvement) ciassified by disease areas, in descending order; colon cancer(86.7% top), rectal cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer. Analysis of tumor markers as follows: maintenance and improvement: 92.3%(average). Analysis of IL-12 and IFN- γ attached by cancer, increasing of IL-12(31.8%), IFN- γ (70.8%) were observed. From the above results, it is suggested that PSM has the effects of antitumor and immune activity, also could be usefully applied for cancer patients by the combination with western therapies. Key word : Cancer disease, PSM(Polysaccharide mushroom)
Oligomeric surfactants were synthesized for making pristine montmorillonite hydrophobic. Properties of organoclay such as d-spacing and ion-exchanged fraction depended on the chemical structure of surfactant. d-spacing and ion-exchanged fraction increased when surfactant had fuctional group and hydrophobic chain. The organoclay treated with the oligomeric surfactant was suspended in DMF, so the dispersibility of organoclay could be controlled by sonication. The properties of polyurethane/clay nanocomposites such as thermal stability, morphology, transmittance, oxygen permeability and tensile properties were investigated. Because the interfacial area between polymer matrix and organoclay was enlarged with increasing the dispersibility of organoclay, the properties of the nanocomposites were enhanced when organoclay was well dispersed in polyurethane matrix.
There propagate use management paradigm in developed countries is changing as Command & Control ⇒ Market Based ⇒ Open Access ⇒ Manage By Technology & Technical Analysis, that the policy response to environmental changes, such as a variety of new technologies. The emergence of service, the proliferation of propagation users It is to activate the market. However, the basic principles of radio management such that the change of paradigm be used to spread in a range that does not affect the interference, such as the horn is to be observed. Around the world in order to prevent the propagation and utilization Horn interference enacted regulations for managing the radio station, and also discipline. 주요 선진국의 전파이용 관리 패러다임이 Command & Control ⇒ Market Based ⇒ Open Access ⇒ Manage By Technology & Technical Analysis로 변화되고 있는데, 이는 다양한 신규 기술․서비스의 출현, 전파이용자의 급증 등 환경변화에 대한 정책대응과 시장활성화를 위함이다. 그러나 이러한 패러다임의 변화에도 혼간섭 등의 영향을 주지 않는 범위에서 전파를 이용해야 한다는 전파관리의 기본원칙은 준수되어야 한다. 전파유효 이용 및 혼간섭을 방지하기 위해 세계 각국은 자국에 적합한전파관리 규제를 법제화하고, 규율하고 있다.