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Purpose: This study examined: 1) what it meant for patients to have multimorbidity 2) how they manage their illness usinghealth care facilities, and 3) what contextual backgrounds exist regarding the health care system. Methods: Thisqualitative research obtained individual in-depth interviews from 22 patients. Participants were selected by purposivesampling among those who saw physicians more often than the national average from the 2013 medical-claim data. Thetranscribed data were analyzed using Ground theory. Results: Multimorbidity patients suffered from "chain-like serialsymptoms" and "pain without a breakthrough". They expressed themselves as "indeed patients among patients", "mybody is a general hospital", and "an incompletely normal person". There was a demand to resolve the anxiety arising fromthe situation in which the body keeps getting sicker without showing any signs of recovery. In a state of reduced socialsupport and a lack of trust in the doctor, their desire to be healed led them to receive a temporary relief through dependenceon medical institutions. Conclusion: This research recognized the desire of multimorbidity patients to seek temporary reliefthrough dependence on medical institutions. A more patient-centered directed care plan, specific to the needs of thepatients with multimorbidity is required
This paper deals with the dynamic effect of pipeline installation and embedment for the on-bottom stability design of offshore pipelines on soft clay. On-bottom stability analysis of offshore pipelines on soft clay by DNV-RPF109(DNV, 2010) results in very unreasonable pipe embedment and concrete coating thickness. Thus, a new procedure of the on-bottom stability analysis was established considering dynamic effects of pipeline installation and pipe-soil interaction at touchdown point (TDP). This analysis procedure is composed of three steps: global pipeline installation analysis, local analysis at TDP, modified on-bottom stability analysis using DNV-RP-F109. Data obtained from the dynamic pipeline installation analysis were utilized for the finite element analysis (FEA) of the pipeline embedment using the non-linear soil property. From the analysis results of the proposed procedure, an optimum design of onbottom stability of offshore pipeline on soft clay can be achieved. This procedure and result will be useful to assess the on-bottom stability analysis of offshore pipelines on soft clay. The analysis results were justified by an offshore field inspection.
In this paper, the effects of nonlinear soft clay on dynamic embedment of offshore pipeline were investigated. Seabed embedment by pipe-soil interactions has impacts on the structural boundary conditions for various subsea structures such as pipeline, riser, pile, and many other systems. A number of studies have been performed to estimate real soil behavior, but their estimation of seabed embedment has not been fully identified and there are still many uncertainties. In this regards, comparison of embedment between field survey and existing empirical models has been performed to identify uncertainties and investigate the effect of nonlinear soil parameter on dynamic embedment. From the comparison, it is found that the dynamic embedment with installation effects based on nonlinear soil model have an influence on seabed embedment. Therefore, the pipe embedment under dynamic condition by nonlinear parameters of soil models was investigated by Dynamic Embedment Factor (DEF) concept, which is defined as the ratio of the dynamic and static embedment of pipeline, in order to overcome the gap between field embedment and currently used empirical and numerical formula. Although DEF through various researches is suggested, its range is too wide and it does not consider dynamic laying effect. It is difficult to find critical parameters that are affecting to the embedment result. Therefore, the study on dynamic embedment factor by soft clay parameters of nonlinear soil model was conducted and the sensitivity analyses about parameters of nonlinear soil model were performed as well. The tendency on dynamic embedment factor was found by conducting numerical analyses using OrcaFlex software. It is found that DEF was influenced by shear strength gradient than other factors. The obtained results will be useful to understand the pipe embedment on soft clay seabed for applying offshore pipeline designs such as on-bottom stability and free span analyses.
This study was investigated with sample digestion techniques and a reliability of the analytical results for a quantitative analysis of a standard reference material (“urban particulate matter”, SRM 1648). The metallic elements were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with closed vessel microwave acid digestion method and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Quality control of the overall analytical procedures for metallic element determinations of standard reference material were estimated by analysis of a SRM 1648. Three digestion solutions (type 1: HNO3, type 2: HNO3 and H2O2 (4 : 1) mixture, type 3: 5.55% HNO3 and 16.75% HCl mixture) were applied to SRM 1648. As a result, three digestion solutions used in this study are completely unable to digest Cr of SRM 1648. Reliability of Cr and As showed some errors in the digestion with digestion solution type (3) due to the influence of chlorides. Type (3) digestion solutions are sufficient to fulfill the digestion of As as well as Se in SRM 1648. ICP-MS results showed the improvement in accurate and precise determination of some trace elements like Cd, V and Pb in SRM 1648. It is important to use the proper digestion solution for each element to qualify analytical precision.
본 연구는 전통적인 유교적 가치가 강조하고 있는 이상적인 인간상으로서의 군자를 현대 경 영조직상황에서 리더십의 관점에서 살펴보기 위한 측정도구개발을 목적으로 하고 있다. 이를 위해 사서에서 군자의 성격 또는 행동적 특징들을 내용분석하여 핵심어휘들을 추출하여 확정적 인 요인분석을 하였다. 확정적 요인분석의 주요결과는 군자십이 인적역량과 관리역량 2개의 요 인구조를 가지고 있음을 발견하였다. The goal of this article is to develop the questionnaire to measure KunJaship that refers the wise man traditionally emphasized in confucius society. KunJa's traits or behavioral characters are extracted by the content analysis technique from four books-Analects of Confucius, The Great Leaning, The Doctrine of Mean, Mencius. The result of confirmatory factor analysis shows two factors reside in KunJaship-human competence and managerial competence.