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To evaluate the influences of adrenocortical hormone on the signal transduction system in young brain, the authors observed the effects of bilateral adrenalectomy on the induction of immediate early genes(IEGs) such as c-fos, jun B, and TIS 1 by electroconvulsive shock(ECS) in the young rats. The young(70g) male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ECS(130V, 0.5sec) at day 3 or 14 after bilateral adrenalectomy. They were sacrificed at 0, 15,30, 45, and 60 minutes after ECS, and cerebral cortex and hippocampus were dissected from their brains. The induction of IEGs were assessed with northern hybridization. The band intensities of the autoradiographs measured by densitometer were compared between adrenalectomized group and shamoperated control group. In the cerebral cortex, c-fos and jun B appeared and disappeared earlier, and enhanced in the earlier phase of the induction in the adrenalectomized group. These trends were more prominent for jun B than for c-fos, and were more prominent at day 14 than at day 3 after adrenalectomy. The induction of TIS 1 was attenuated at day 14 after adrenalectomy. In the hippocampus, the induction of c-fos and jun B by ECS was not influenced by adrenalectomy. The induction of TIS 1 was attenuated at day 3 after adrenalectomy. These results suggest that adrenalectomy has influences on the induction of IEGs by ECS in rat brain differently, depending on the brain region, the kind of IEGs, the age of the rats, and the time passed after adrenalectomy.
Attention is a phenomenon hard to define, but can be conceptualized as a mental function ranging from sustaining readiness to perceive stimuli to understanding the nature and value and selecting stimuli that are most relevant to the given situation. Manifestations of attention include vigilance, and focused, directed, selective, divided, and sustained attentions. While basic attentional tone is controlled by the interaction among reticular activating system, thalamus and prefrontal cortex, direction and selection of attention is controlled by neural circuits of prefrontal, posterior parietal, and limbic cortex. It is expected that understanding of attention and its neural control could provide answers to the relationship between pathophysiology and clinical symptoms of some major psychiatric disorders. More efforts are required to develop tools to assess more detailed and various aspects of attention in Korea.
Attentional dysfunction is considered as one of the core deficits in schizophrenic process. The findings, pathophysiological mechanisms, and their clinical implications of clinical and experimental neurocognitive tests for the attentional impairment in schizophrenics are reviewed. The influences of psychopathology, antipsychotic treatment, and chronic institutionalization are also included in the review. In contrast, there are only a few evidences that attentional dysfunction would be a core deficit of depressive, manic, and anxiety disorders. Some recent findings of attentional impairment in these disorders are reviewed.
The Suicide Prevention Law passed last March will be enacted beginning in April 2012, after the establishment of enforcement regulations. The suicide rate of Korea is 31/100,000, about 3 times the mean of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, and is still going up rapidly. Suicide is the 4th most common cause of death in Korea. As the suicide rate abruptly increased after the mid-1990s, there was little time to prepare effective strategies for suicide prevention, including personnel, programs, and networks. This is also partly due to the strong stigma and negative attitude against suicide and suicide prevention, which has prevented the exploration of the reason for the high suicide rate and recent increase. The Suicide Prevention Law requires comprehensive suicide prevention activities of the central and local governments, and support for those who attempt suicide, victims, and their families. Its successful implementation will be highly dependent on active participation of doctors for screening and prevention of high risk groups, including patients with depression and chronic physical illnesses and those who have psychosomatic symptoms from various stressful life events.
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연구목적: 본 연구는 전산화 주의력 평가도구를 개발하고, 신뢰도와 타당도를 검증하며, 표준화 자료를 얻기 위 하여 수행되었다. 방 법: 시각 및 청각 연속수행력검사와 시각 및 청각 조건 연속수행력검사, 기호잇기검사 A, B를 전산화 하 였으며, 27명의 정상대조군을 대상으로 하여 검사-재검사 신뢰도를 검증하였다. 타당도를 검증하기 위 하여, 48명의 정상인을 대상으로 검사 성적을 기존의 전산화 인지기능검사 성적과 비교하였으며, 또한 본 연구에서 개발된 검사들의 내적 일치도를 평가하였다. 20세부터 50세까지 고졸이상의 학력을 가 진 한국 남녀 성인 154명을 대상으로 표준화 자료를 얻었다. 결 과: 전산화 주의력 검사들의 검사-재검사 성적은 paired t-test 결과 차이가 없었으며, Pearson 상관계 수 0.393~0.831 사이의 높은 상관관계를 보였다. 연속수행력검사의 정반응간에는 0.343~0.671의 높 은 상관관계를 보였다. 연속수행력검사는 기존의 경계력 및 지속적 주의력검사들과 높은 상관관계를 보 였으며, 기호잇기검사 A는 기존의 주의력 검사들과, 기호잇기검사 B는 지능, 추론 능력 등 고위인지기 능과 높은 상관관계를 보였다. 연속수행력검사 성적은 성별, 학력, 연령에 영향을 받지 않았으며, 시각 연속수행력검사 성적이 청각 연속수행력검사 성적 보다 우수하였다. 기호잇기검사 성적은 학력이 높을 수록, 연령이 낮을수록 좋았다. 전산화 주의력 검사의 표준화 자료와 해석기준을 제시하였다. 결 론: 20세부터 50세가지 고졸 이상의 학력을 가진 한국 성인 남녀에서 신뢰성 있고 타당성 있게 사용할 수 있는 전산화 주의력 검사도구가 개발되었으며, 표준화 자료와 해석기준이 마련되었다. Objectives:This study was conducted to develop the computerized attention tests for Korean adults. It also aimed at evaluating the reliability and validity of these tests and providing their normative data. Methods:Computerized versions of auditory & visual continuous performance tests(CPTs), controlled CPTs, and trail making test A & B were developed through several steps of preliminary applications and corrections. The test-retest reliabilities of each test was evaluated by the paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient using the data from 27 normal persons. The validity of each test was evaluated by the Pearsons’s correlation coefficient between the computerized test scores and the preexisting cognitive function tests using the data from 48 normal persons. The normative data were obtained from the 154 Korean adults, aged 20 to 50, whose educational levels were higher than high school graduate. Results:There were no statistical differences between the means of the test and retest scores. High correlations were also observed between the tests and retest scores. The number of correct responses of the computerized CPTs were highly correlated with each other. They were also highly correlated with the scores of the pre-existing attentional measures. Trail making test scores were highly correlated with higher cortical functions such as IQ and hypothesis formation abilities. The CPTs scores were not affected by sex, educational level, and age. The performances for the visual CPTs were higher than those of auditory tests. Trial making test scores were influenced by educational level and age. The normative data and guidelines for interpretation were provided. Conclusion:Clinically applicable computerzied attention assessement tools with high reliability and validity were developed. The normative data for the Korean adults aged 20 to 50 were obtained and the guidelines for the interpretation were provided.