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The global obesity epidemic and the growing elderly population largely contribute to the increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance acts as a critical link between the present obesity pandemic and type 2 diabetes. Naturally occurring reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate intracellular signaling and are kept in balance by the antioxidant system. However, the imbalance between ROS production and antioxidant capacity causes ROS accumulation and induces oxidative stress. Oxidative stress interrupts insulin-mediated intracellular signaling pathways, as supported by studies involving genetic modification of antioxidant enzymes in experimental rodents. In addition, a close association between oxidative stress and insulin resistance has been reported in numerous human studies. However, the controversial results with the use of antioxidants in type 2 diabetes raise the question of whether oxidative stress plays a critical role in insulin resistance. In this review article, we discuss the relevance of oxidative stress to insulin resistance based on genetically modified animal models and human trials.
다문화 사회에서 문화적 역량은 간호제공자에게 필수적으로 요구되는 능력으로, 본 연구는 간호대학생의 자 아성찰, 비판적 사고성향 및 다문화 경험이 문화적 역량에 미치는 영향을 확인하고자 시도되었다. 연구 대상은 경기 도에 소재한 일개 간호대학생 148명이며 문화적 역량에 미치는 영향을 확인하기 위해 상관관계 및 다중회귀분석을 실시하였다. 연구결과 자아성찰, 비판적 사고성향 및 다문화 경험과 문화적 역량 간에 정적 상관관계가 있었고, 비판 적 사고성향(β=0.27, p=.005)과 자아성찰(β=0.21, p=.040)이 문화적 역량에 주요한 영향 요인으로 문화적 역량의 26%를 설명하는 것으로 확인되었다. 따라서 간호대학생의 문화적 역량 향상을 위해서 자아성찰과 비판적 사고성향 을 향상시킬 수 있는 내용과 방법들을 융합적으로 다문화 교육 프로그램 개발 및 개선 시 포함할 것과 문화적 역량 에 영향을 미치는 다양한 요인을 좀 더 탐색하여 이론적 모델을 수립하는 연구 수행을 제언하고자 한다. As Korea has been rapidly transformed to be a multi cultural society, it becomes essential for nursing provider to develop cultural competency. The purpose of this study was to identify impact of self-reflection, critical thinking disposition and multi cultural experience on nursing student’s cultural competence. A convenience sample of 148 nursing students was obtained from a university in Gyeonggi Province. Data was analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regression. Significant relationships were found between self-reflection, critical thinking disposition, multi cultural experience and cultural competence in nursing student. The result of multiple regression indicates that critical thinking disposition (=0.27, p=.005), self-reflection (=0.21, p=.040) were the most consistent predictors of cultural competence and explained 26.0%. Thus, it is necessary to develop multi cultural education program including self-reflection and critical thinking disposition. The findings suggest the necessity to explore further various factors affecting the cultural competence and to conduct research for establishment a theoretical model.
This study aims to examine whether there is any difference in students’ recognition on physical education teachers’(PET') violent speech and behavior according to the level of schools, students’ gender distinction, types of classes and teachers’ gender distinction and to make a close inquiry into the influence of their violent speech and behavior on students’ stress, attitude toward the subject of physical education and the deviant behavior in the physical education class. In this study, we collected 876 responses drawn form a questionnaire from middle and high school students in B city using the stratified cluster random sampling method. Data of lists of questions were analyzed by regression analysis, one-way of analysis of variance, t-test, reliability analysis and exploratory factor analysis using SPSS program. As a result of these analysis of data, the following findings were drawn. First, as for PET' violent speech and behavior according to the level of schools, middle school students recognized PET' violent behavior more than high school students did. as for PET' violent behavior according to gender of PET', male recognized PET' violent behavior more than female. as for PET' violent behavior, according to types of classes, students from male only classes recognized verbal violence more than those from female only classes and co-education classes. Second, PET' violent speech and behavior did positively influence students' stress. Third, PET' physical violence has a negative influence on students’ positive emotions, health and physical activities which are sub-factors of the physical education subject, and PET' verbal violence influenced the increase of students’ negative emotions. Forth, PET' violent speech and behavior increased dissatisfaction, negligence and resistance which are sub-factors of deviant behavior of the physical education class. 본 연구는 중등학교 체육교사의 폭력적 언행이 학생들의 스트레스, 체육교과 태도 및 체육수업 일탈행동에 미치는 영향을 규명하는데 목적이 있다. 이를 위해 B시 중․고등학생을 대상으로 876부의 설문지를 이용하였다. 설문지의 자료는 SPSS 프로그램을 이용하여 탐색적 요인분석, 신뢰도 분석, 회귀분석을 실시하였으며 그 결과 다음과 같은 결론을 도출하였다. 첫째, 체육교사의 언행은 중학생, 남학생 수업, 남자 체육교사일 때 더 폭력적으로 인식하는 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 체육교사의 폭력적인 언행은 학생들의 스트레스에 정(+)의 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 체육교사의 신체적 폭력은 건강과 신체활동, 긍정적 정서에 부(-)의 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났으며, 언어적 폭력은 부정적 정서에 정(+)의 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 넷째, 체육교사의 폭력적 언행은 체육수업 일탈행동에 정(+)의 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다.
The purpose of this study is to examine the organization of the standard liberal arts curriculum in accordance with the academic credit bank system (ACBS). With the growth of the system, the standard curriculum of the ACBS turned out to have many problems which have to be solved for securing and maintaining the quality of the system. In an attempt to improve the standard liberal arts curriculum of the ACBS, the study analyzed the problems of standard liberal arts curriculum of the ACBS according to three criteria: the organization of subjects in the six liberal arts curriculum areas, the completion of liberal arts and the exchange subjects between majors and the liberal arts. Based on the results of the analysis, the study suggests ways to improve standard liberal arts curriculum. In the future, research needs to be conducted to explore ways to implement the proposed standard liberal arts curriculum of the ACBS in real contexts.
Service industry performance and competitive advantage depend on the attitudes and behavior of customer service employees who produce and deliver services through contact with customers. Most studies on customer service employees so far have concentrated on kindness, attitudes, or benefits. This study focuses on the increasing importance of customer service employees and intends to study them from the viewpoint of human brands that recognize customer service employees as a brand. In addition to the role of the employee at the service contact point, the customer participation behavior affects the interaction process with the customer service employee. Ultimately, customers could no longer be excluded from control to improve service quality. This study based on theory that the human brand characteristics of the customer service employees lead the customer's participation, which has a positive effect on the relationship with the service brand and the service brand attitude surveyed and analyzed customers who use service brand. This study is summarized as follows. First, the relationship between the service brand and the customer is examined. Second, this study also expands prior studies by examining the human brand characteristics of customer service employees and customers’ willingness to participate in providing information on the impact of the consumer-brand relationship. The results of the study indicate that among the customer service employees’ human brand characteristics reliability, familiarity, and empathy were found to affect the relationship between customers, the service brand, and the attitude toward the service brand the most. This study provides important implications for theoretical and practical strategies by examining the qualities and characteristics of customer service employees, which are the most important agents of marketing.
This paper investigates a pattern of verbal noun constructions in which a verbal noun is accusative‐marked and its theme argument is also accusative‐marked. Based on the two arguments capitalizing on indeterminate pronoun licensing and passive formation, this paper proposes that verbal nouns can take two distinct types of complementation structures: a nominalized structure embedding a vP (with a non‐restructuring verb hata ‘do’) or a nominalized structure embedding a VP (with the restructuring verb hata). The verb hata turns out to be a lexical restructuring verb, which has an option to take restructuring complementation. This paper argues against the complex predicate approach to verbal noun constructions, favoring the VP-complementation approach which holds that a verbal noun, without the help of the so-called light verb hata, theta-marks its accusative-marked object argument.
This paper aims at tracing trans-pacific historical continuity, as it is demonstrated in the faith of second-generation Korean Christians. Second-generation Korean Christians are the children of Korean immigrants who went to the U.S.A., following the liberalization of the immigration laws in 1965 that removed the national origins quota system and ended the exclusion of Asians from immigration. About eighty percent of them are Protestants or Catholics, which corresponds with the Protestant or Catholic percentage of first generation Koreans. Spending their childhood and adolescence in Korean ethnic churches, second-generation Koreans acquire the evangelical religiosity of their parents which originated from Korea. Furthermore, being born or raised in the U.S.A., they also obtain American evangelical religiosity. Exploring the aforementioned socio-religious reality, this article claims that Korean Christianity, Korean ethnic churches and American evangelical Christianity are not very different from one another, and that, in fact, they are almost identical. While second-generation Korean Christians are socialized into the conservative Christianity of Korean ethnic churches brought from Korea, they identify with and are influenced by American evangelical Christianity. Thus, the faith of second-generation Koreans shows the trans-pacific continuity between Korea and America.
현재 중등학교 학교 현장에서의 국어과 내의 과목 간 비중을 따져본다면, 문학 영역의 위상은 높다고 할 수 있다. 그러나 국어교사를 선발하는 임용시험에서는 그렇지 못하다. 초기에는 많은 비중을 차지했던 문학 영역의 비중은 점점 줄어들고 있다. 타당한 이유 없이 이러한 경향이 지속된다면, 문학 학계의 활발한 연구 활동을 통하여 하루 속히 이를 개선해야 할 것이다. 본고에서는 이러한 현상이 발생하는 원인이 무엇인지 탐구해 보고, 이를 왜 개선해야 하는지에 대한 근거를 밝히기 위해 먼저 1997~2008년의 중등 국어교사 임용시험 문항의 영역별 비중을 분석하였다. 이와 함께 교육과정에 나타난 문학 영역의 비중을 살펴보았으며, 사범대 국어교육과의 교육과정과 교수진의 비율을 분석하여 임용시험 출제 영역의 바람직한 위상을 세우고 그에 따른 문학 영역의 적절한 비중에 대해 제시하였다. 연구 결과 현재 고등학교 교육과정에서 문학의 비중은 여전히 높으며, 사범대 국어교육과 교수의 비율에 따라 국어교육과 교육과정에서도 문학의 비중이 압도적으로 높다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 따라서 사범대 교수진과 교육과정이 이런 상황에서 현실은 고려하지 않고 무작정 중등 국어교사 임용시험에서 문학 영역의 비중을 줄이는 것은 바람직하지 못하며, 그 비중을 현재보다 높여야 마땅할 것이라고 본다. At present, the proportion of literature is relatively high in the middle school Korean education, while not in exam for employment of middle school Korean teacher. The proportion has been gradually lowered since its early period with high proportion. This trend is not desirable, when there is no clear reason, so it should be corrected by diverse study activities of literature learned world. This article aims to examine the reasons of the trend and to analyze each subject's proportion at the exams for middle school Korean teacher employment from 1997 to 2008 in order to base the necessity of correcting this trend. In addition, I survey the proportion of literature in educational curriculum, analyze the proportion of literature professors in colleges of education for determining proper proportion of literature at the exam, and present the proper proportion determined by those researches. As a result, present literature education in high school curriculum accounts for large proportion of Korean education, and the proportion of literature professors and literature classes in colleges of education is very high. Taking into consideration such facts, it isn't desirable to reduce the proportion of literature at the exam without any reasonable causes; rather the proportion should be raised according to the actual proportion determined by the above researches.
This paper argues that Korean has genuine clausal comparatives which have degree abstraction-structures involved. This paper examines kes- comparatives in Korean which have clausal forms at surface, dividing them into two sub-types: predicative and attributive kes-comparatives. Predicative kes-comparatives have individual- denoting DP structures, getting a phrasal analysis whereas attributive kes- comparatives are ambiguous between degree-denoting CP structures and individual- denoting DP structures, getting either a clausal analysis or a phrasal analysis. Korean is not distinct from English in that they both have clausal comparatives which involve degree abstraction structures. The degree abstraction parameter, proposed by Beck et al. (2004), is not applicable to Korean comparatives.