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The necessity of the internet-aided instruction, and the advantages and restrictions of it were widely investigated as theoretical background, and the general principle of designing the instruction, model of procedure in science class, practical design of the internet-aided instruction procedure of it's development and effective approach of web design. On the basis of the above, experiment contents of 10 units in highschool common science (department of chemistry)were reconstructed, and deployment plan for teaching-learning guidance papers for experiments, reports of experiments, individualized problem for evaluation, self-learning references, guidance papers for teaching, figure files for forming concepts and principles were made. Experimental unit of chemical reaction speed which is difficult for the first grade highschool students is established, and it is made a form of CD-ROM title with animation and presentation techniques. As a result, Learning environment which raised learner's motivation was presented. Further more, based on web instruction model and instruction design principle for learning with internet, teaching-learning home page with HTML was made.
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of molasses supplementation to silage materials in ensiling Galgeuntang (herbal medicine) meal on the quality of silage, and its palatability in Korean native goats. In experiment Ⅰ, molasses was added at the levels of 0, 0.5, and 1.0% to Galgeuntang meal with three replicates per treatment. In experiment Ⅱ, three 1.5-yr-old Korean native goats were used to measure palatability. In experiment Ⅰ, lactic acid contents in molasses treatments were significantly(p<0.05) higher, and pH and butyric acid contents were lower than those of non-molasses treatment. In addition, molasses treatment increased total microbial cell counts in MRS medium for lactobacillus, but decreased total microbial cell counts in PDA medium for fungi. Molasses supplementation to silage materials increased in vitro dry matter disappearance. Molasses supplementation tended to increase silage intake in Korean native goat (experiment Ⅱ), but the difference was not significant(p>0.05). It is concluded that molasses supplementation to silage materials in ensiling herbal medicine meal could improve its preservability and palatability, the higher the better.
본 연구는 경주지역 1개 고등학교 3학년 여고생을 대상으로 초경 시작 전인 초등학교 4학년부터 고등학교 2학년까지의 키, 몸무게, 가슴둘레 수치와 초경 연령을 파악하여 여성의 초경이 빠를수록 체성장 속도의 변화가 있을 것이라는 가설을 기초로 두 요인간의 관련성을 파악하고자 시행되었다. 경주시 1개 여자고등학교 3학년생 총 317명에 대해 ㅊ경 나이, 초경시 심리 상태, 초경이 시작되었을 때의 상담 여부와 상담하였던 사람, 부모 신장과 초경전후의 식사 규칙성, 다이어트 경험, 수면시간, 스트레스, 음주/흡연 여부, 질병력 등에 대한 설문 조사를 시행하였고, 초등학교 4학년부터 고등학교 2학년까지의 키, 몸무게, 가슴둘레에 대한 정보는 건강기록부에서 확보하였다. 상기 대상자 중 건강기록부가 분실된 39명, 초경나이에 대해 응답하지 않았던 29명 및 결석 등으로 조사를 하지 못하였던 42명을 제외한 조사 대상자는 206명으로 선정하였다. 대상자들의 초경연령 평균값(Mean±SD)은 13.0±1.11이었고, 초등학교 4학년부터 고등학교 2학년까지의 초경 이후 신장 성장률은 감소하였으며, 초경연령이 빠른 군이 초등학교 때는 신장에 있어서 우위를 차지하나 고등학교에 오면서 신장은 비슷한 수준이 되었다. 초경후 1-2년 사이에 체중과 흉위의 증가율은 감소하였고, 초경연령이 빠른 군이 초등학교와 고등학교 사이에 체중과 흉위에서 모두 우위를 차지하였다. 본 연구의 결과는, 흔히 이차 성징의 시작 시점 혹은 사춘기의 시작 시점으로 보고있는 초경 연령이 청소년기의 성장과 밀접한 관련성이 있고, 특히 체중과 흉위의 성장 속도와 밀접한 관련성이 있음을 시사한다. To understand the onset of menarche in relation to changes in physical growth that take place during female adolescence, especially the changes in height and weight velocity. The 207 senior in one women high school of Kyongju were investigated in April 3 to 8, 2001. We collected the information, relation in the age at menarche, height & weight of parents, regularity of eating, and obesity diet, duration of sleeping, sickness & stress near age at menarche, by self-recording. The status of height, weight & chest circumference between the 4th grade of primary school and the junior of high school was collected by individual Health Record. The results were followed; The average age at menarche was 12.95±1.11 years old and the most frequent age of menarche is 13 years. After menarche, the velocity of height, weight and chest circumference were decreased. The most rapid group of menarche hold dominant position in height during elementary school. As time passed, they dont hold dominant position in height. The most rapid group of menarche get an advantage in the weight and the girth of chest after elementary school. The height of subjects is directly proportional to the height of their parents. These results suggest that the starting age at menestuation can be closely associated with physical growth and development.
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Background: Several studies have evaluated the relationship of low back pain with lumbar flexion angle and muscle activity. However, there are scant studies on the relationship between the ratio of normalized muscle activities and lumbar flexion angle. The lumbar flexion angle has been used to diagnose low back pain and to determine the predominantly used muscles during trunk forward bending in asymptomatic individuals. Prolonged sitting is associated with a slumped or upright sitting posture, which can affect the soft tissues in the lumbar region. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the predominantly used muscles during forward bending, holding, and re-extension based on EMG data. Methods: In total, 20 participants were screened for inclusion. The activities of the longissimus [ES (T12)], erector spinae [ES (L3)], gluteus maximus, and hamstring muscles were examined during forward bending, holding the posture, and re-extension. The mean lumbar flexion angle was used to categorize the patients. Patients with a short hamstring length during forward bending were excluded. Results: The ES (T12) and gluteus maximus : hamstring, and ES (L3) : hamstring activity ratios were compared between the groups during the three phases. The data were normalized to calculate the percent reference voluntary contraction (%RVC). The gluteus maximus : hamstring and ES (L3) : hamstring ratios during re-extension were significantly different between the groups. Conclusions: In the experimental group, the participants showed greater activation of the hamstrings than the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during re-extension. Future studies should include a larger sample size and use more precise eligibility criteria.