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      • KCI등재

        공공조형물의 설치·관리에 있어서 공법적 쟁점

        김성배 사법발전재단 2020 사법 Vol.1 No.54

        Human has an instinct to communicate with others, expressing one’s existence and one’s wishes in the form of art. Art, which started from the expression of self-consciousness of individuals or groups, is conveyed to the public through a specific form or expression to communicate its meaning. With the reinforcement of local autonomy, the elected head of a local government is pushing ahead with plans to install public sculptures in order to commemorate his achievements, and central administrative agencies are installing many public sculptures as well. However, too often it is reduced to a grotesque monstrosity, annoying citizens and stoking controversy, and it is a representative example of waste of budget. Even in the case of the statute symbolizing the Korean women forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese military during WWII (“Statute of Peace”), a public sculpture that has garnered much national attention, disputes have arisen over its installation and management not only overseas but also domestically, and there are precedents of the statutes having been removed by the local authorities. Currently, there is no nation-level law that directly regulates “public sculptures,” but local governments have ordinances that directly regulate “public sculptures.” The so-called Dorasan Mural Case, a representative Supreme Court precedent related to public sculptures, received attention more from culture and arts specialists, civil law scholars, and copyright law scholars than administrative law scholars, despite being a state compensation case. The Dorasan Station where this mural is installed is a railway facility, and according to the administrative law, they are artificial and public objects, and are state-owned. In addition, the mural was also a public property, although there is no direct applicable law on its management and disposal. Contrary to the judgment of the second instance decision, the Dorasan Mural Paintings were not subject to the artwork management regulations. The state compensation lawsuit is an administrative lawsuit, which must be based on public law doctrine and principles, but in practice it is proceeding as a civil lawsuit. Although the characteristics of a place-specific art raised in the art world are understood, it is impossible to grant special protection of a place-specific art under the current copyright law through legal interpretation. If Korean precedents recognize a place-specific art, then there is a high possibility that relocating the Statute of Peace and the worker statue will be deemed a violation of the author’s personal rights under the Copyright Act, but such recognition seems unlikely under the attitude of the current precedent. Even if the Constitution of the Republic of Korea affirms the principles of a cultural state and protects the rights of artists by laws, the protection of artists cannot always take precedence in a conflict between the protection of artists and protection of other legal interests. Our constitution holds the legislature primarily responsible for building a cultural state, and trying to protect artists through interpretations beyond the scope of the current law is a dangerous attempt in the field of public law that requires harmonization and adjustment of public and private interests. Even if there is a national consensus to give special treatment only with regard to the Statute of Peace, it is unfair to use a different interpretative and enforcement measure for only the Statute of Peace and other specially designated sculpture against the current statutory regulations concerning public sculptures, and it is unjustifiable to exempt the application of national laws and regulations only for certain sculptures such as the Statute of Peace. It would be difficult to take measures, and this is a part where the legislator’s prompt action is required. For certain structures that are subject to private ownership, the installation of artworks is regula... 인류는 자신의 존재와 자신의 소망을 예술의 형태로 남기고 타인과 소통하는 본능을 지녔다. 개인이나 집단의 자의식발현에서 출발한 예술은 특정의 형태나 표현을 거쳐 대중에게 전달되어 그 의미를 표출하게 된다. 지방자치가 강화되면서 선출직 지방자치단체장은 자신의 업적을 남기거나 지자체를 홍보하기 위해서 공공조형물을 설치하려는 계획을 추진하고 중앙행정기관들도 많은 공공조형물을 설치하고 있지만 흉물로 전락하거나 시민들에게 오히려 불편을 주거나 논쟁거리를 제공하고 대표적 예산낭비 사례가 되기도 한다. 국민적 관심을 받는 공공조형물인 평화의 소녀상의 경우에도 해외에서뿐만 아니라 국내에서도 그 설치와 관리에 있어서 논쟁이 발생하였으며 철거되는 전례도 존재하고 있다. 현재 ‘공공조형물’을 직접 규율대상으로 하는 국가법령은 존재하지 않지만 지방자치단체 수준에서는 ‘공공조형물’을 직접 대상으로 하는 조례들이 존재하고 있다. 공공조형물과 관련된 대표적인 대법원 판례인 일명 도라산벽화사건은 국가배상사건임에도 불구하고 행정법학자보다는 문화예술관계자나 민사법학자와 저작권법학자의 관심을 더 많이 받은 사건이었다. 본 벽화가 설치된 도라산역과 그 대합실 등은 철도시설로서 행정법적으로는 공물 중에서 인공공물이면서 공공용물에 해당하고 국유공물이다. 또한 당해 벽화도 공물이 되었으며 공물관리권의 대상이지만 현재까지 그 관리와 폐기에 관한 직접 적용되는 법령이 없다. 대법원이 인용한 제2심판결의 판단과는 달리 도라산벽화는 미술품 관리규정의 적용 대상이 되는 미술품이 아니었다. 국가배상소송은 행정소송으로써 공법상 당사자소송에 의해야 하겠지만 실무에서는 민사소송으로 진행하고 있다. 소송당사자가 행정사건의 특성을 이해하고 주장하고 공격해야 하는데도 불구하고 행정법적 사고와 분석을 깊이 하지 않고 변론한 자료를 바탕으로 판단해야 할 법원의 입장은 일응 이해되지만, 본 판례를 해석·적용하면서 단순히 예술가의 권리와 소유권능의 분쟁으로 파악하려는 입장은 경계한다. 장소특정적 미술은 예술가가 작품을 구상하고 작품을 설치하는 과정에서 특정 장소를 고려해서 작품을 제작하는 특정한 작품들로서 특정의 장소에 있음으로써 그 작품의 의미가 살아나는 작품이다. 예술계를 중심으로 제기되는 장소특정적 미술의 특징은 이해되지만 현재의 저작권법상 장소특정적 미술의 특별한 보호를 법해석상 도출하는 것은 무리가 있다. 그런데 이런 해석을 논란이 되는 공공조형물에 적용할 경우 예기치 못한 결과가 도출될 수도 있는데 우리 판례가 장소특정적 미술을 인정한다면 소녀상과 노동자상의 이전 설치에 대해서 저작권법상 저작인격권위반을 주장하여 인정받을 가능성이 높지만 현재의 판례 태도로는 어려울 것이다. 대한민국 헌법이 문화국가의 원리를 천명하고 있고 예술가의 권리를 법률로서 보호하고 있다고 하더라도 예술가의 보호와 다른 보호법익의 충돌에서 예술가의 보호를 항상 우선시할 수는 없다. 우리 헌법은 제1차적 문화국가의 구현을 입법부의 책임으로 하고 있으며, 현행 법률의 해석범위를 넘어서는 해석을 통해서 예술가를 보호하려는 것은 공익과 사익의 조화와 조정이 필요한 공법영역에서는 더욱 위험한 시도가 아닐 수 없다. 소녀상만을 특별히 대우해야 할 국민적 ...

      • 「공용수용에서의 사인수용의 법적 문제」에 관한 토론문

        김성배 한국토지공법학회 2015 한국토지공법학회 학술대회 Vol.- No.98

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

      • KCI등재

        신형상 전단연결재를 적용한 철선일체형 데크플레이트의 성능평가

        김성배,강민정,황보찬,김상섭,Kim,Sung Bae,Kang,Min Joung,Hwangbo,Chan,Kim,Sang Seup 한국방재학회 2014 한국방재학회논문집 Vol.14 No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        철선일체형 데크플레이트는 시공의 편의성 및 공기단축으로 건설현장에서 널리 사용되고 있다. 일반적으로 데크플레이트는 강구조에 적용되므로, 강재보와 철근콘크리트 슬래브의 경계면에서 작용하는 수평전단력에 저항하기 위해 전단연결재를 설치한다. 또한 시공 중 데크플레이트의 탈락 및 바람에 의한 낙하 등을 방지하기 위해 철선트러스가 끝나는 양단부의 상부철선에 직봉을 설치한다. 그러므로 강재보 상부에는 전단연결재와 직봉이 중첩된다. 이에 본 연구에서는 전단연결재와 직봉의 기능을 겸하는 새로운 형상의 전단연결재를 개발하였으며, 30개의 실험체를 제작하여 시공 중 철선일체형 데크플레이트의 구조적 안전성을 평가하였다. 실험결과 신형상 전단연결재는 직봉의 역할을 충분히 대체할 수 있을 것으로 판단된다. Recently, due to the decreased work term and the convenience of construction work, the steel wire-integrated deck plate has been widely used in the construction sites. In deck plate, Shear connectors are installed to resist horizontal shear force on the interface between steel beams and reinforced concrete slabs. Also vertical bars are installed at upper wire of the ends of steel truss girder to insure safety during the construction. Therefore, this study attempts to develop the new-type shear connector which function as vertical bars while securing a higher shear capacity, and tests have been conducted on 30 specimens to evaluate the structural safety of the proposed deck plate system during the construction step. The test results show that the new-type shear connectors sufficiently perform the roles of the Vertical bars.

      • KCI등재

        산 처리된 키틴에 의한 음이온성 염료 제거

        김성배,이재환 한국화학공학회 2002 Korean Chemical Engineering Research(HWAHAK KONGHA Vol.40 No.5

        산 처리된 키틴에 의한 염료 제거율을 조사하고, 그 결과를 키토산의 염료 제거율과 비교하였다. 사용된 염료는 음이온성인 Acid Blue 25, Direct Red 81과 Mordant Yellow 10이었다. 초기 염료용액의 pH가 6에서는 산 처리된 키틴이 처리되지 않은 키틴이나 키토산보다 염료 제거율이 월등히 높았다. 염료 제거율은 산 처리된 키틴에 포함된 수분함량에 따라 달랐는데 수분함량이 많을수록 염료 제거율이 높게 나타났다. 또한 염료 제거율은 염료용액의 pH에 따라 민감하게 변하였는데 pH가 낮을수록 염료 제거율이 높았다. pH=6에서는 산 처리된 키틴의 염료 제거율이 처리되지 않은 키틴과 키토산보다 상당히 높았고, pH=3에서는 키토산의 염료 제거율이 가장 높았다. Dye removal by acid-treated chitin was investigated and compared with results from chitosan. Dyes used were Acid Blue 25, Direct Red 81 and Mordant Yellow 10 which were all anionic dyes. When the pH of initial dye solution was 6, the dye removal of the acid treated chitin was superior to those of untreated chitin and chitosan. Dye removal was varied with the moisture content of the acid treated chitin and increased as the moisture content was increased. Also, dye removal was varied very sensitively with the pH of dye solution and increased as pH was decreased. When the pH of initial dye solution was 6, the dye removals of acid-treated chitins were significantly higher than those of untreated chitin and chitosan. But, at pH 3, the dye removal of chitosan was the highest among them.

      • KCI등재후보
      • KCI등재후보

        유통업체 상표의 지각된 정보단서가 이의 지각품질, 지각희생 및 선호에 미치는 영향

        김성배,전인수 한국유통학회 2002 流通硏究 Vol.6 No.2

        According to the secondary data, private brand(PB)'s share of retail is 25∼30% in the USA, but about 45 in Korea. In Korea PB's average price is 23.3% less than manufacturer brand. It is very interest that PB's price advantage doesn't have a good effect on it's share of retail sales. This research's objective is to study why Korean consumers don't purchase private brand cheaper than manufacturer brand. A theoretical reasoning depends on information cue theory and means-ends model of perceived value. A Unit of analysis is comsumers who purchase private brand at E-mart in Pusan city, one of largest discount store in Korea. Hypothesis tested by Lisrel's structural equation model and interesting results as follows: First, favorable brand image among extrinsic cues is most positively correlated with perceived quality/sacrifice and intrinsic cues is also statistically significant. This fact imply that intrinsic cues; package, logo, country of origin are very important in the adoption of private brand in Korea. Second, compared with manufacturer's brand, PB's perceived price is positively correlated with perceived quality/sacrifice. This fact imply a assimilation effect between manufacturer's brand and private brand. Finally, a correlation between perceived sacrifice and PB proneness is satistically insignificant, but perceived quality has a significant effect on its proneness. this fact imply that innovators(about 4% of potential consumer) are risk-taker.

      • 웹 컨텐츠를 이용한 실습교육의 수용요인에 관한 실증적 연구 : 공업계 고등학교 전자교과를 중심으로

        김성배,김미량 한국컴퓨터교육학회 2002 컴퓨터교육학회 논문지 Vol.5 No.4

        7차 교육과정이후 ICT는 실업계 고교의 수업에서 교육효과 제고를 위한 중요한 도구로 등장하였다. 이러한 맥락에서 본 연구는 공업계 고등학교 학생들의 수업 만족도 및 참여도를 높일 수 있는 방법을 모색하고자 전자과 실습교육을 위한 웹 컨텐츠를 설계, 개발, 수업에 적용하여 어떤 요인들이 학습자의 만족에 영향을 미치는지를 확인해 보고자 하였다. 그 결과, 학습자의 학습 만족도에는 웹 컨텐츠의 용이성, 유용성, 재미 등의 요소가 직접적인 영향을 미침을 확인할 수 있었고, 그 이외의 웹 컨텐츠의 디자인, 이미지, 질 , 학습자의 태도, 자기 효능감 등의 요인들이 간접적인 영향을 미침을 확인할 수 있었다. 본 연구 결과는 실업계 고교 수업에서 사용하고자 하는 웹 컨텐츠 설계에 유용한 지침을 제공해 줄 수 있을 것으로 판단된다. Since the 7th educational renovation was established, ICT has emerged as an indispensable tool for teaching a variety of subjects in technical high schools. This paper develops the model for explaining the factors affecting the use of web contents as a mode for studying Electronic subject. Based on data collected from a questionnaire survey from the students who studied the Electronic subject using web contents, a following conclusion is provided: the perceived usefulness, ease of use and the playfulness significantly affect the level of satisfaction, but the design of contents, image, quality, attitude as well as self-efficacy only indirectly affect the satisfaction level. This result might provide the useful guidelines for designing the web-contents for technical high school students.

      • KCI등재

        다수파주주의 억압행위와 소수파주주의 합리적 기대 : 폐쇄회사 주주간 분쟁해결에 관한 미국판례를 중심으로

        金聖培 한국기업법학회 2002 企業法硏究 Vol.10 No.-

        A close corporation is a business organization typified by a small number of shareholders, the absence of a market for the corporation's stock, and substantial shareholder participation in the management of the corporation. Close corporation usually formed by family members and friends. In close corporations, the minority shareholders often become employees and rely on their salaries as their return on investment. As the majority shareholders may control compensation and employment decisions, not only is the minority shareholder vulnerable to losing his or her investment, but the minority shareholder is often at risk of losing his or her job. Over the years, state legislatures and courts have developed two significant avenues of relief for the "oppressed" close corporation shareholder. First, many state legislatures have amended their corporate dissolution statutes to include "oppression" by the controlling shareholder as a ground for involuntary dissolution of the corporation. Second, particularly in states without an oppression-triggered dissolution statute, some courts have impose an enhanced fiduciary duty between close corporation shareholders and have allowed an oppressed shareholder to bring a direct cause of action for breach of this duty. The courts have developed three principal approaches to defining oppression. First, some courts define oppression as burdensome, harsh and wrongful conduct. Second, some courts link oppression to breach of an enhanced fiduciary duty owed from one close corporation shareholder to another. Third, a number of courts tie oppression to the frustration of the reasonable expectations of the shareholders. Of these three approaches, the reasonable expectations standard acquires the most approval, courts have increasingly used it to determine whether oppressive conduct has taken place, and commentators have generally been in favor of the reasonable expectations standard. Until the 1980s, Illinois led the United States in developing the doctrine of shareholder oppression. Illinois courts held that oppression did not require a finding of fraud or illegal conduct, and that heavy-handed and arbitrary conduct on the part of another shareholder will constitute oppression for the purpose of dissolution. Several jurisdictions have followed the Illinois decisions in recognizing broad bases for oppression. After the 1980s, New York led the way in developing the reasonable expectations test in order to determine whether there has been oppressive conduct. A reasonable expectation has been defined as an expectation (1) that is known to or assumed by the other shareholders and concurred in by them; (2) that is embodied in understandings, express or implied, among the participants; and (3) that is often derived from the parties' actions and course of conduct. Courts and commentators have observed that reasonable expectations are based on understanding shared by all of the stockholders at the outset of a business. To ascertain the reasonable expectations of close corporation shareholders, one could gather empirical evidence by asking a large number of stockholders about the entitlements they expected to receive as a result of their investments in close corporations. Even if a broader pattern of behavior in close corporations is recognized, specific evidence from the particular dispute before the court seems to be necessary as well. Courts may willing to find reasonable expectations based on a broader behavior pattern and thin specific evidence because they understand the economics behind an investor's commitment of capital to a close corporation. Once reasonable expectations have been established, the shareholder oppression doctrine protects them through an expansive range of remedies. The breath of remedies for shareholder oppression provides the courts with great flexibility to choose a remedial scheme that most appropriately responds to the aggrieved shareholder's harm. For a number of reasons, the buyout remedy itself is particularly significant. First, the buyout remedy functions as a market for the aggrieved minority shareholder by allowing the shareholder to recover the capital that he or she invested in the company. Second, the buyout remedy creates an equitable parting between the majority shareholder and the aggrieved minority shareholder. Third, the buyout remedy does not require the bargain between the shareholders to be articulated with precision. As long as a court is satisfied that general understanding of employment or management was shared between the investors, no further detail on these understandings is typically needed. Majority conduct that unjustifiably frustrates such general understandings will trigger oppression liability and will typically allow for application of the buyout remedy. In determining whether to order equitable relief, dissolution or a buyout, the court shall take into consideration the duty which all shareholders in a closely held corporation owe one another to act in an honest, fair, and reasonable manner in the operation of the corporation and the reasonable expectations of the shareholders as they exist at the inception and develop during the course of the shareholder' relationship with the corporation and with each other.

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