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      • KCI등재

        Transobturator four-arms mesh in the surgical management of cystocele: a long-term follow-up

        Jin Long,Chung Lyul Lee,Seung Woo Yang,Ji Yong Lee,Jae Geun Lee,Ki Hak Song,Jae Sung Lim,Jong Mok Park,Yong Gil Na,Geon Gil,Ju Hyun Shin 한국운동재활학회 2021 JER Vol.17 No.1

        We studied the long-term efficacy and safety of cystocele operation by polypropylene mesh. A total of 198 women with stage ≥ 2 cystocele who had anterior vaginal wall repair with transobturator four-arm polypropylene mesh during 2003 to 2015 were evaluated. Outcomes including clinical characteristics and complications were reviewed by extracting patient data from electronic medical records. In addition, telephone interviews were conducted using a validated questionnaire along with physical examination. The follow-up period was 9.3± 0.3 years. The cystocele stage in patients was significantly decreased post-operation compared to that preoperation. The anatomical cure rate for cystocele was 93.4%, and that for stress urinary incontinence was 95%. Comparing the three questionnaires indicated overall average score was improved significantly, except for Female Sexual Function Index Assessment. Early complications were either resolved spontaneously or controlled medically in four cases of hematoma or abscess, three cases of vaginal infection and urinary tract infection, and four cases of difficult micturition. In late complications, four cases of pain were managed, five cases of recurrence were observed and two cases of mesh exposure were treated with ointment and local excision. Transobturator four-arms mesh is an effective and safe method for cystocele repair with low rate of recurrence and complications. We suggest that the use of transobturator four-arm mesh is a still good choice for the old patients with cystocele who are not suitable for general anesthesia and reside in areas where laparoscopy and robots are not available.

      • KCI등재

        Assessment of nephrotoxicity of herbal medicine containing aristolochic acid in mice

        Yi Quan,Long Jin,Kang Luo,Jian Jin,Sun Woo Lim,신유진,Eun Jeong Ko,Byung Ha Chung,Chul Woo Yang 대한내과학회 2020 The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine Vol.35 No.2

        Background/Aims: It is undetermined if herbal medicines (HM) containing aristolochic acid (AA)-containing have similar nephrotoxicity to AA itself. Methods: We administered HM containing a high concentration of AA for 5 days (short-term study) or a low concentration of AA for 30 days (long-term study) to C57BL/6 mice; for comparison, same dose of AA compound was used as controls. Results: The nephrotoxicity in the HM- and AA-treated mice was compared in terms of renal function, histopathology, oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, and mitochondrial damage. Short-term HM treatment resulted in acute kidney injury (marked renal dysfunction, acute tubular necrosis, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL] expression) in which the severity of renal dysfunction and histopathology was comparable with that induced by the administration of AA alone. Long-term HM treatment resulted in features of chronic kidney disease (CKD, mild renal dysfunction and tubular atrophy and dilatation). No significant differences in these parameters were observed between the HM- and AA-treated mice. HM-induced oxidative stress (8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine and manganese- dependent superoxide dismutase expression) and apoptotic cell death (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling [TUNEL]-positive cells and active caspase-3 expression) were similar in HM- and AA-treated mice in the short-term and long-term studies. Mitochondrial injury, evaluated by electron microscopy, was also similar in HM- and AA-treated mice in the short-term and long-term studies. Conclusions: The nephrotoxic potential of HM containing AA was similar to that of AA itself.

      • KCI등재

        환경인자에 노출된 탄소섬유/에폭시 복합재의 장기 층간전단강도 예측

        윤성호 ( Sung Ho Yoon ),( Ya Long Shi ) 한국복합재료학회 2017 Composites research Vol.30 No.1

        본 연구에서는 환경인자에 노출된 탄소섬유/에폭시 복합재의 층간전단강도를 이용하여 장기 성능을 예측하였다. 필라멘트와인딩 공법으로 제작된 층간전단시편은 분위기 온도가 50℃, 70℃, 100℃인 건조 조건과 분위기 온도가 25℃, 50℃, 70℃인 침수 조건에 각각 3000시간까지 노출시켰다. 연구결과에 따르면 분위기 온도가 50℃ 와 70℃인 건조 상태에서는 층간전단강도가 노출시간에 따라 크게 변하지 않지만 분위기 온도가 100℃인 건조 상태에서는 노출시간이 길어지면 후경화로 인해 다소 증가한다. 그러나 분위기 온도가 25℃인 침수 상태의 경우 층간전단강도는 노출 초기에 크게 변하지 않다가 노출시간이 길어지면 감소하고 감소 정도는 분위기 온도가 높아지면 커진다. 각 분위기 온도에 대한 층간전단강도 선형회귀식은 침수 상태에 3000시간까지 노출된 시편에서 얻은 층간전단강도에서 구할 수 있었다. 이들 선형 회귀식을 이용하면 층간전단강도는 분위기 온도가 25℃와 50℃인 경우 측정값의 5.5% 이내, 분위기 온도가 70℃인 경우 측정값의 2.3% 이내로 예측이 가능하였다. 따라서 제시된 성능 예측 절차는 환경인자에 노출된 탄소섬유/에폭시 복합재의 장기 층간전단강도를 잘 예측할 수 있다. The purpose of this study was to predict the long-term performance using the interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber/epoxy composites exposed to environmental factors. Interlaminar shear specimens, manufactured by the filament winding method, were exposed to the conditions of drying at 50℃, 70℃, and 100℃ and of immersion at 25℃, 50℃, and 70℃ for up to 3000 hours, respectively. According to the results, the interlaminar shear strength did not vary significantly with the exposure time for the drying at 50℃ and 70℃, but it increased somewhat for the drying at 100℃ due to the post curing as the exposure time increased. The interlaminar shear strength of the specimens exposed to the immersion at 25℃ did not change significantly at the beginning of exposure, but it decreased with the exposure time and the degree of decrease increased as the environmental temperature increased. The linear regression equations for the environmental temperatures were obtained from the interlaminar shear strength of the specimens exposed to the immersion for up to 3000 hours. Using these linear regression equations, the interlaminar shear strength was estimated to be within 5.5% of the measured value at 25℃ and 50℃, and 2.3% of the measured value at 70℃. Therefore, the proposed performance prediction procedures can predict well the long-term interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber/epoxy composites exposed to environmental factors.

      • KCI등재

        탄소배출권 가격과 철강기업 주가의 인과관계

        임청룡(Lin Qing-long),김태균(Kim Tae-kyun) 에너지경제연구원 2010 에너지경제연구 Vol.9 No.1

        본 논문의 목적은 시계열분석을 이용하여 탄소배출권 가격과 철강기업 주가의 인과관계를 분석하는 것이다. 탄소배출권 거래에 의한 영향을 감안하여 분석 기간을 탄소배출권 거래전과 거래후로 구분하였으며, 탄소 의무저감 유무에 따른 영향을 감안하여 의무저감 지역의 철강기업 ARCELOR와 비의무저감 지역의 철강기업 POSCO를 선정하였다. 탄소배출권 거래 전의 POSCO와 ARCELOR 주가사이의 관계 분석결과 두 기업은 장기균형이 존재하였다. 탄소배출권 거래가 시작된 후의 POSCO와 ARCELOR의 주가 및 탄소배출권 사이의 상호관계 분석결과 POSCO와 ARCELOR의 주가사이 장기균형이 없어지고, ARCELOR와 탄소가격사이 장기균형이 존재하는 결과를 얻었다. 인과관계로부터 철강기업이 탄소배출권 가격에 영향을 주나, 탄소가격으로부터 영향을 받지 않는 것으로 나타났다. This paper analyzes the causality of CO₂ price and the stock prices of steel corporations using time series model. The data was separated by two periods, before and after CO₂ trades. And two steel corporations were selected, ARCELOR is from party included in Annex Ⅰ(Kyoto Protocol), POSCO is from party not included in Annex Ⅰ. The results show that the price of POSCO and ARCELOR stock have long-run equilibrium. After the CO₂ trading, the stock prices of POSCO and ARCELOR do not have long-run equilibrium, but the prices of ARCELOR stock and CO₂ have long-run equilibrium. Also the stock prices of steel corporations affect CO₂ price, but CO₂ price does not affect the stock prices of steel corporations.

      • KCI등재

        Risk Factors Associated with Pain Severity in Patients with Non-specific Low Back Pain in Southern China

        Shilabant Sen Sribastav,Jun Long,Peiheng He,Wei He,Fubiao Ye,Zemin Li,Jianru Wang,Hui Liu,Hua Wang,Zhaomin Zheng 대한척추외과학회 2018 Asian Spine Journal Vol.12 No.3

        Study Design: A prospective cross-sectional study. Purpose: To evaluate the risk factors associated with the severity of pain intensity in patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) in Southern China. Overview of Literature: Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of activity limitation and work absence throughout the world, so a firm understanding of the risk factor associated with NSLBP can provide early and prompt interventions that are aimed at attaining long-term results. Methods: Participants were recruited from January 2014 to January 2016 and were surveyed using a self-designed questionnaire. Anonymous assessments included Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The association between the severity of NSLBP and these potential risk factors were evaluated. Results: A total of 1,046 NSLBP patients were enrolled. The patients with primary school education, high body mass index (BMI), those exposed to sustained durations of driving and sitting, smoking, recurrent LBP had increased VAS and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores with lower SF-36 scores (p <0.01). Workers and drivers compared with waiters and patients who lifted >10 kg objects in a quarter of their work time for >10 years had higher VAS and ODI scores with lower SF-36 scores (p <0.01). Multiple logistic regression showed lower levels of education, LBP for 1–7 days, long-lasting LBP in last year, smoking, long duration driving, and higher BMI were associated with more severe VAS score. Conclusions: The severity of NSLBP is associated with lower levels of education, poor standards of living, heavy physical labor, long duration driving, and sedentary lifestyle. Patients with recurrent NSLBP have more severe pain. Reducing rates of obesity, the duration of heavy physical work, driving or riding, and attenuating the prevalence of sedentary lifestyles and smoking may reduce the prevalence of NSLBP.

      • KCI등재

        Can Robotic Gastrectomy Surpass Laparoscopic Gastrectomy by Acquiring Long-Term Experience? A Propensity Score Analysis of a 7-Year Experience at a Single Institution

        홍성수,손상용,신호정,Long-Hai Cui,허훈,한상욱 대한위암학회 2016 Journal of gastric cancer Vol.16 No.4

        Purpose: It is hypothesized that robotic gastrectomy may surpass laparoscopic gastrectomy after the operators acquire long-term experience and skills in the manipulation of robotic arms. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term learning curve of robotic distal gastrectomy (RDG) for gastric cancer compared with laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG). Materials and Methods: From October 2008 to December 2015, patients who underwent LDG (n=809) were matched to patients who underwent RDG (n=232) at a 1:1 ratio, by using a propensity score matching method after stratification for the operative year. The surgical outcomes, such as trends of operative time, blood loss, and complication rate, were compared between the two groups. Results: The RDG group showed a longer operative time (171.3 minutes vs. 147.6 minutes, P<0.001) but less estimated blood loss (77.6 ml vs. 116.6 ml, P<0.001). The complication rate and postoperative recovery did not differ between the two groups. The RDG group showed a longer operative time and similar estimated blood loss compared with the LDG group after 5 years of experience (operative time: 159.2 minutes vs. 136.0 minutes in 2015, P=0.003; estimated blood loss: 72.9 ml vs. 78.1 ml in 2015, P=0.793). Conclusions: In terms of short-term surgical outcomes, RDG may not surpass LDG after a long-term experience with the technique.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Can Robotic Gastrectomy Surpass Laparoscopic Gastrectomy by Acquiring Long-Term Experience? A Propensity Score Analysis of a 7-Year Experience at a Single Institution

        Hong, Sung-Soo,Son, Sang-Yong,Shin, Ho-Jung,Cui, Long-Hai,Hur, Hoon,Han, Sang-Uk The Korean Gastric Cancer Association 2016 Journal of gastric cancer Vol.16 No.4

        Purpose: It is hypothesized that robotic gastrectomy may surpass laparoscopic gastrectomy after the operators acquire long-term experience and skills in the manipulation of robotic arms. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term learning curve of robotic distal gastrectomy (RDG) for gastric cancer compared with laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG). Materials and Methods: From October 2008 to December 2015, patients who underwent LDG (n=809) were matched to patients who underwent RDG (n=232) at a 1:1 ratio, by using a propensity score matching method after stratification for the operative year. The surgical outcomes, such as trends of operative time, blood loss, and complication rate, were compared between the two groups. Results: The RDG group showed a longer operative time (171.3 minutes vs. 147.6 minutes, P<0.001) but less estimated blood loss (77.6 ml vs. 116.6 ml, P<0.001). The complication rate and postoperative recovery did not differ between the two groups. The RDG group showed a longer operative time and similar estimated blood loss compared with the LDG group after 5 years of experience (operative time: 159.2 minutes vs. 136.0 minutes in 2015, P=0.003; estimated blood loss: 72.9 ml vs. 78.1 ml in 2015, P=0.793). Conclusions: In terms of short-term surgical outcomes, RDG may not surpass LDG after a long-term experience with the technique.

      • KCI등재

        Triffin Dilemma and International Monetary System : Evidence from Pooled Mean Group Estimation

        Long-Fei Guan,Wee-Yeap Lau 한국유통과학회 2018 The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Busine Vol.5 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        This study is motivated based on concern from some renowned scholars and central bankers whom have raised the issue of the sustainability of the International Monetary System (IMS). Using the panel data set of four major international currencies, USD, JPY, EUR and GBP from 1973 to 2013 with Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimator, to re-examine whether Triffin dilemma still exists through investigating the relationship between the reserve share, current account balance and real effective exchange rate. The evidence from the result indicates that Triffin dilemma exists only in the long run, and shows that in the long-run, current account balance is proportionate to the increased real effective exchange rate while varies inversely with the reserve shares. However, the estimation for the short-run is not significant to prove the existence of Triffin dilemma. In addition, we investigated the non-dollar panel sample and found that the international monetary system still suffers from Triffin dilemma even without the dollar. To overcome Triffin dilemma, immediate step such as having currency swap mechanism is recommended. In medium term, a multi-polar Monetary System is suggested, and in the longer time, a supranational currency will be used to replace all the currencies in the world.

      • Triffin Dilemma and International Monetary System : Evidence from Pooled Mean-Group Estimation

        Long Fei Guan,Wee Yeap Lau 한국유통과학회 2017 한국유통과학회 학술대회 논문집 Vol.2017 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        This study utilizes the panel data set of four major international currencies, USD, JPY, EUR and GBP from 1973 to 2013 with Pooled Mean-Group (PMG) estimator, to re-examine whether Triffin dilemma still exists through investigating the relationship between the reserve share, current account balance and real effective exchange rate. The evidence from the result indicates that Triffin dilemma exists only in the long run, and shows that in the long-run, current account balance is proportionate to the increased real effective exchange rate while varies inversely with the reserve shares. However, the estimation for the short-run is not significant to prove the existence of Triffin dilemma. In addition, we investigated the non-dollar panel sample and found that the international monetary system still suffers from Triffin dilemma even without the dollar. To overcome Triffin dilemma, three steps are suggested to be taken and in the longer time, a supranational currency is used to replace all the currencies in the world.

      • KCI등재

        Quantification of the Energy Flows during Ultrasonic Wire Bonding under Different Process Parameters

        Yangyang Long,Friedrich Schneider,Chun Li,Jörg Hermsdorf,Jens Twiefel,Jörg Wallaschek 한국정밀공학회 2019 International Journal of Precision Engineering and Vol.6 No.3

        Despite of its wide and long-term application for interconnections in the field of microelectronics packaging, a quantitative understanding on the mechanisms of ultrasonic (US) wire bonding is still lacked. In this work, the energy flows from the electrical input energy to the different mechanisms during the US bonding process are quantified based on real-time observations via which the relative motions at the wire/substrate and the wire/tool interfaces can be detected. The relative motions at the two interfaces are proved to be caused by both the continuous plastic deformation and the US vibration. The normal force and US power interdependently affect the relative motion amplitudes. The deduced energy flows show that the energy from the transducer mainly flows to the vibration induced friction at the two interfaces and the microwelds formation, deformation and breakage. Despite of their significance to the process, the other mechanisms receive only little amount of energy. The impacts of the process parameters including normal force, US power and time on the energy flows are quantitatively investigated. A good coupling of the normal force and the US power guides more energy to the formation of microwelds while a long process time would increase the friction induced energy consumption.

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