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This paper considers subway routing problem. Given a schedule of train to be routed by a railway stock, the routing problem determines a sequence of trains while satisfying turnaround time and maintenance restrictions. Generally, the solution of routing problem is generated from set partition formulation solved by column generation method, a typical integer programming approach for train-set. However, we find the characteristics of metropolitan subway which has a simple rail network, a few end stations and 13 departure-arrival patterns. We reflect a turn-around constraint due to spatial limitations has no existence in conventional railroad. Our objective is to minimize the number of daily train-sets. In this paper, we develop two basic techniques that solve the subway routing problem in a reasonable time. In first stage, we formulate the routing problem as a Min-cost-flow problem. Then, in the second stage, we attempt to normalize the distance covered to each routes and reduce the travel distance using our heuristic approach. Applied to the current daily timetable, we could find the subway routings, which is an approximately 14% improvement on the number of train-sets reducing 15% of maximum traveling distance and 8% of the standard deviation.
Objectives The objective of this study is to investigate differences of clinical characteristics between a healthy female control group and female panic disorder (PD) patients with early sexual abuse history (PD+S) and without early sexual abuse history (PD-S). Methods We examined data from 83 patients diagnosed with PD and 20 healthy control subjects. We divided the patients with PD into PD+S (32 patients) and PD-S (51 patients) to compare demographic and clinical characteristics. The following instruments were applied: the Stress coping strategies, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Panic Disorder Severity Scale, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R), the Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ) and the NEO-neuroticism. Results Compared to the PD-S, the PD+S group showed higher scores in neuroticism and the APPQ. And, in the PD+S group, the scores of neuroticism were correlated with the ASI-R and APPQ subscale scores and the APPQ total scores were associated with the scores of BDI. Conclusions This study shows that female PD+S patients have higher scores in neuroticism and the APPQ than the PD-S group, and these factors are associated with the panic-related symptoms severity. It emphasizes the need of specific strategies considering the childhood abuse history such as early sexual abuse in clinical approach among patients with PD.
Anxiety disorders are characterized by dysregulation of neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter and neuroanatomical functions. Substantial advances in research method offered new insights into the neurobiologic mechanisms in anxiety disorders. Advances in molecular biology have enabled illumination of hormone and neurotransmitters that have important roles in anxiety. The neuroanatomic circuits related to anxiety are also being elucidated by improvements in neuroimaging technology such as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging. This article reviews the research data in relation to the neurobiology underlying fear and pathologic anxiety and discusses their implications for development of biological treatments for anxiety disorders.
본 연구에서는 micro-contact printing을 통하여 니오븀 호일 표면 위에 균일한 에칭 pits를 형성하였다. 균일한 보호층을 형성하고자 전해연마의 효과를 확인하였으며, 기존의 O2 플라즈마 공정 없이 손쉽게 균일한 에칭 pits를 형성시킬 수 있는 조건을 확인하였다. 메탄올 혼합 전해질을 사용하여 10 min 동안 에칭을 진행한 결과 니오븀 호일 표면 위에 지름과 간격이 각각 10 μm와 5 μm로 잘 정렬된 에칭 pits를 관찰하였다. We describe the preparation of highly-ordered etching pits on the Nb foil through a micromachining. The effects of electro-chemical polishing on the formation of uniformly-patterned protective epoxy layer was investigated. Unlike the previous proc-ess using O2 plasma, well-ordered etched pits were prepared without any dry processes. As a result, the Nb foil with the well-ordered pits of 10 μm × 5 μm could be obtained by electrochemical etching in methanolic electrolytes for 10 min.
Located south of Han River in southeastern part of Seoul, the KangNam-Gu experienced enormous increase in apartment prices since the year 2000. Many argue that the price changes in this area have a nationwide impact. In response to this claim, the Korean government enacted several regulations to stabilize the apartment prices in KangNam. However, it is not clear whether the KangNam Area has a real effect on the real estate market at a national scale. Wide variations in apartment price increases exist across different parts of Korea. Even within the Seoul Metropolitan Area, smaller administrative units (gu) have shown strikingly different patterns of price increases from the KangNam Area. This implies the existence of several apartment submarkets. The existence of submarkets and the differences in housing consumers' behavior across the nation allow us to deduce that the specific area-KangNam-may not have a nationwide influence on the apartment market. This paper examines how each city's apartment market reacts to both its past price movements and KangNam's current and past price movements. Several econometric methods including autoregression model, distributed lag model and autogressive distributed lag model are used for this analysis. The results indicate that the apartment prices in many cities in Korea reacted primarily to their own past movements while the price changes in KangNam had a major influence only on its spatially nearby areas (southeast part of Seoul and cities in the Kyung-Gi Province) rather than on the entire country.
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to look into the health insurance systems and application in Korea and Japan in order to improve elderly people's quality of life. Their quality of life can be improved by upgrading the long term care systems; and extending treatment and prevention. Methods: This study is to examine long term care systems articles through content analysis in the National Health Insurance Service. Data were collected from the printed Internet and analyzed. Results: A part-time dentist system in elderly care facilities has trouble in taking care of old people's oral health due to both lack of time and operational difficulties. It is urgent to arrange dental experts who can permanently stay in care facilities and to build systems which can be managed periodically and continually. Conclusions: As having staff training for the efficiency and using the manpower in care facilities (care workers), it is necessary to solve the unequal medical service in oral health care for the elderly in Korea.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress level and health status of primary caregivers living with demented elderly. Method: The subject was 92 primary caregivers who had been taking care of demented elderly at home. The research tools were a stress questionnaire and health status questionnaire. The data were collected through direct interview with a questionnaire in the B city, from February to March 2004. The data were analyzed by t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficients and Scheffe test using SPSS/PC 11.0 program. Results: The primary caregivers living with demented elderly showed slightly high level of stress and moderate level of health status. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the stress level and the mental and the physical health status. Conclusion: Based on the results, we recommend the development of an intervention program to decrease the stress level of primary caregivers living with demented elderly for improving their health status.
본 연구에서는 1998년부터 2003년 하계까지 약배양 기법 및 콜히친 처리를 이용하여 개발한 '삼강벼/낙동벼' DH(doubled-haploid) 183계통의 주요 농업 형질을 조사$.$분석하였다. DH 집단의 주요 농업형질을 조사한바 초장, 간장, 수장, 삼절간장, 수수 및 출수일수는 양적형질의 특징인 넓은 범위의 변이폭, 연속적인 빈도 분포양상 및 양친을 초월하는 초월분리 현상을 보였다. SSR 마커를 이용한 유전자지도의 작성에는 양친에 다형성을 나타내는 136개의 마커를 사용하였다. 작성된 유전자 지도는 전체 길이가 1,909cM이었으며, 마커간 평균길이는 14 cM을 나타내었다. A doubled-haploid (DH) population was developed through anther culture of F$_1$ plants obtained from a cross between a japonica cultivar, 'Nagdongbyeo', as male parent and a indica cultivar, 'Samgangbyeo', as female parent. Segregation modes for plant length, culm length, panicle length, third internode length, and days to heading in the DH lines showed nearly normal distribution with wide range of variation. A molecular map with 136 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was constructed using the DH population. The total map distance was 1,909 cM and the average interval of marker distance was 14 cM.
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정보통신기술의 발전으로 교육분야에서도 시간, 장소 및 기기의 제약없이 학습이 가능한 스마트 교육이 활성화되고 있다. 그러나 주로 콘텐츠 기반의 교육 솔루션들이 제공되고 있고 학습자의 개별 특성을 파악하여 개별화된 학습을 제공하는 시스템 구축은 상대적으로 저조하다. 유아교육에서 자유선택활동은 중요한 놀이 활동이지만 교사들의 임상적 관찰에 의존함으로써 효율적으로 시행되지 못하고 있다. 최근 대두되고 있는 초연결성에 기반을 둔 사물인터넷 기술을 자유선택활동에 적용한다면 객관적이고 정형화된 데이터를 축적할 수 있고 이러한 데이터는 유아들의 개별화된 활동 유형과 놀이 형태 분석에 사용될 수 있을 것이다. 본 논문에서는 오픈소스 하드웨어 기반으로 사물인터넷 환경을 구축하여 유아들의 자유선택활동을 관찰하는 시스템을 설계하고 구현한다. 제안된 시스템은 유아들의 활동정보를 축적하여 분석 자료로 제공함으로써 교사들의 업무 경감과 개별 유아들에 대한 맞춤 교육 자료로 활용될 것이다. Along with the development of information and communication technology, smart education that can learn without restrictions of time, place and equipment is activated even in the field of education. Although smart education is provided with content-based training solutions, construction of a system that grasps individual characteristics of learners and provides personalized learning is relatively weak. The activity of free choice is an important play activity of early childhood education, but it is not implemented efficiently by relying on the clinical observation of the teacher. If the IoT(Internet of Things) technology based on Hyper-Connected is applied to free-choice activities, it is possible to provide the child's personalized activity type and play-form analysis based on objective and stylized data. In this paper, we design and implement a system to monitor the child's activity of free choice by building an IoT environment that is based on open source hardware. The proposed system provides children's activity information as objective data and will be used as teacher's work mitigation and custom training material for each child.
NAND flash memories have the advantages of fast access speed, high density and low power consumption, thus they have increasing demand in embedded system and mobile environment. Despite the low power and fast speed gains of NAND flash memory, DRAM disk buffers were used because of the performance load and limited durability of NAND flash cell. However, DRAM disk buffers are not suitable for limited energy environments due to their high static energy consumption. In this paper, we propose WAP-LRU (Write pattern Analysis based Placement by LRU) hybrid disk buffer management policy. Our policy designates the buffer location in the hybrid memory by analyzing write pattern of the workloads to check the continuity of the page operations. In our simulation, WAP-LRU increased the lifetime of NAND flash memory by reducing the number of garbage collections by 63.1% on average. In addition, energy consumption is reduced by an average of 53.4% compared to DRAM disk buffers.