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The social, economic and political transition now underway in Asia is positive but uncertain. Unlike Europe, communist regimes remain in power in East Asia-China, North Korea, Vietnam-although leadership and generational changes are underway in these states. In Asia, threats of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, emerging nationalism amidst longstanding ethnic and national rivalries, and unresolved territorial disputes combine to create a political landscape of potential instability and conflict. Among them, one significant example is the territorial dispute of Spartly Islands. In 1988, there were small naval clashes between China and Vietnam, and these nations continue to be the most likely to engage in armed conflict over the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea. In February 1992, China reaffirmed its claim to the Spratly Islands and, unfortunately, its readiness to use force to back up its claim. Japan is also seriously concerned about this area because the Japanese economy heavily depends on using the sealane to import natural resources from abroad. In this sense, the area around the Spratly Islands will continue to be a source for regional instability among China, Japan and neibouring countries. Furthermore the unresolved territorial dispute between China and Japan around the Senkaku Islands will also worsening the instability in Asia.
Since the end of the cold war the security situation in Northeast Asia has become more complicated. Although the U.S. still wants to maintain a military presence in Northeast Asia, China does not want such involvement and is consistently calling for the U.S. to withdraw from the region. With the fall of the U.S.S.R. and the bipolar system with it, the U.S. presence has become less meaningful as well as less justifiable domestically, with many in the U. S. calling for a military draw down and pull out from places far from home such as Northeast Asia, Even though North Korea gave up its nuclear weapons project it still produces long-range missiles. Japan has become increasingly concerned about its national security interests after the cold war with the Japanese archipelago being within the range of North Korean missiles and as China has been rising fast while investing lots of money for its military build-up and its pursuit of hegemonic power in the region. With the end of the bipolar system and China's developing its military potential. the situation in Northeast Asia has become very complicated and unstable. Take for example the spratley Islands, where there is potential for mining petroleum, there is a great possibility of aconflict erupting between China and Japan. In light of this very volatile situation, it is essential that some kind of organizstion for regional security in Northeast Asia Asia be established. But because of conflicting national interests in the area we need first to establish confidence-building measures to prevent conflict and preserve peace and stability in the area. Without such arrangements and an organization devoted to regional security, peace and security in the region cannot be guaranteed.
This paper aim to analyze the violence of the post-war society in three novels, <A House with a Deep Garden>, <The Toy City> and <A Fisherman Do not Snap the Reed>, that describe the post-war era. These novels are all notable works as they depict the background of the post-war society and the author's personal experiences. These are all bildungsromans that young children are main characters. Thus, in these novels, it is very common that caned children. Interestingly enough, in the three novels, all mothers who cane are widows caused from war. In addition, their caning is more frequent and harsh than other parents’ canes which are the purpose of education and discipline. Until now, most studies have paid attention to children’s growth in these novels. Therefore, the caning mothers’ feelings have been ignored. Unlike other studies, this study pay attention to caning mother, especially widows. In the time which traditional moral and beliefs were destroyed, the obsession and demand for social norm grew strong. The strong sanctions and crackdown were imposed on the abnormal, especially among the minority such as widows. These repressive mechanisms were also internalized to those who are subject to monitoring and controlling. As a result, they showed symptoms of self-control and self-censorship, further a nervous disease. That is what we commonly call the obsessional neurosis. The social environments that excessively force and suppress widows were the cause of the obsessional neurosis, and this violence transformed as cane, one of the aggressions, was enacted to their children. The widows caned their children to grow right more harshly because the mothers wanted that their children were different from the bad prejudice on widows and widows’ children. Consequentially, the widows’ caning is one of the social pathology of the post-war era, not the personal deviation. 김경민, 2019, ‘매를 든 어머니’로 상징되는 전후 성장소설의 폭력성, 어문연구, 181 : 203~229 마당 깊은 집 과 장난감 도시 , 고기잡이는 갈대를 꺾지 않는다 는 모두 전후 사회의 시대상을 그린 소설로 어린 아이들이 주인공으로 등장하는 성장이야기인 만큼 매 맞는 아이의 모습이 세 작품에 모두 등장하는데, 이때 아이들에게 매를 드는 사람은 모두 “전쟁으로 과수댁이 된 어머니”이며, 이들이 가하는 매질은 유난히 더 빈번하고 가혹하게 그려진다. 전후, 정상의 범주에서 벗어난 것들에 대해서는 강도 높은 제재와 단속이 이루어졌고 그중에서도 홀로 된 여성들에게는 더욱 심한 억압이 이루어졌다. 또한 이러한 억압기제는 감시와 통제의 대상인 이들에게까지 내면화되어 자기 통제와 자기검열의 형태로 고착화되고 결국 신경증의 형태로까지 이어진다. 지나친 강요와 책임감을 부여하는 사회 분위기는 홀로 된 여성들에게 강박으로 작용했고, 이러한 폭력성은 매질이라는 공격성의 형태로 더 약한 대상인 자식들에게 가해진 것이다. 이처럼 전후 소설에 재현된 매 맞는 아이, 그리고 매를 드는 어머니라는 상징은 전후 사회의 폭력성을 증언하는 중요한 이미지라 할 수 있다.
In the electrode fabrication of unit cell, we found that optimal the electrochemical characteristics were obtained with at 90 wt.% of activated carbon(BP-20), 5 wt.% of conducting agent(Ppy, Super P) and 5 wt.% of P(VdF-co-HFP)/PVP mixed binder. The electrochemical characteristics of unit cell with Ppy improver were as follows : 37.6 F/g of specific capacitance, 0.98 Ω of AC-ESR, 2.92 Wh/kg and 6.05 Wh/L of energy density, and 754 W/kg and 1,562 W/L of power density. It was confirmed that internal resistance were reduced due to the increase of electrical conductivity and filling density by the introduction of conductivity agent, and content of conducting agent was suitable in the range of 4~6 wt.%. According to the impedance measurement of the electrode with conductivity agent, we found that it was possible to charge rapidly by the fast steady-state current convergence due to low equivalent series resistance(AC-ESR), fast charge transfer rate at interface between electrode and electrolyte, and low RC time constant.
수용성제독제(KDA-1)는 화학 및 생물학 작용제로 오염된 지역 및 장비 제독에 사용되는 화생방 물자로 K10 제독차 등에 탑재된 제독장비로 살포된다. 수용성제독제는 저장 화생방 장비 및 물자 신뢰성평가(CSRP)를 통하여 저장수명이 주기적으로 연장되며, 이로 인해 부대 내 장기보관 중 발생하는 응력과 플라스틱의 물성저하 등에 의해 용기 뚜껑의 취약 부위가 파손되는 현상이 빈번히 발생되고 있다. 이러한 제독제 용기 파손의 근본원인이 용기의 기밀성을 보장하기 위한 오링의 응력에 기인하는 것으로 분석되었으며, 이를 바탕으로 재발방지를 위한 품질개선 방안을 수립하였으며 검증시험을 통하여 실제품 적용가능 여부를 검토하였다.
This paper contains the results of a field research on the subject of informal social network on the life satisfaction of the aged population in Korea and Japan. informal social network, involving an extended as well as an immediate family members and neighbors, is divided into the following categories: population size; distance; face-to-face contact frequency; communication frequency; a subjective level of social relations. The findings of the research : First, the aged population in Korea have more children, relatives, friends and neighbors on average, while their distance with children and relatives are wider than their Japanese counterparts. The frequency of both direct and indirect contact is higher among Korean senior citizens than that of the aged in Japan, whereas the subjective assessment their relationship with their children, relatives and neighbors are poorer than Japanese senior citizens. Second, as for the more satisfied with their lives when they have a religion, a subjectively poor economic condition, a higher frequency of face-to-face interactions, a lower frequency of indirect contact, and a better subjective social relations. On the other hand, Korean senior citizens are more satisfied with their lives when they live with their spouse, are in a subjectively better economic and health conditions, have a larger pool of social network with a lower frequency of contact and a higher subjective relationship level. Also, the study found that on average, the aged population in Korea earned higher scores in categories such as the size of social network, contact frequency in both direct and indirect forms, are relatively close in distance but are less satisfied with subjective level of closeness and life in general. In contrast, the senior citizens of Japan have a smaller size of social network with a longer distance and less frequent contact in any form, while their subjective assessment of relationship and life gets higher marks. The following implications could be drawn : First, it is imperative to improve the quality as well as quantity of informal social network. By extension, policy makers need to tackle the issue related to the aged population, such as 1-member household, separation from the family, “solitary death”, etc. Second, it is necessary to ensure stable income for the aged population. Third, informal social network for senior citizen support is called for.