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Since the end of the cold war the security situation in Northeast Asia has become more complicated. Although the U.S. still wants to maintain a military presence in Northeast Asia, China does not want such involvement and is consistently calling for the U.S. to withdraw from the region. With the fall of the U.S.S.R. and the bipolar system with it, the U.S. presence has become less meaningful as well as less justifiable domestically, with many in the U. S. calling for a military draw down and pull out from places far from home such as Northeast Asia, Even though North Korea gave up its nuclear weapons project it still produces long-range missiles. Japan has become increasingly concerned about its national security interests after the cold war with the Japanese archipelago being within the range of North Korean missiles and as China has been rising fast while investing lots of money for its military build-up and its pursuit of hegemonic power in the region. With the end of the bipolar system and China's developing its military potential. the situation in Northeast Asia has become very complicated and unstable. Take for example the spratley Islands, where there is potential for mining petroleum, there is a great possibility of aconflict erupting between China and Japan. In light of this very volatile situation, it is essential that some kind of organizstion for regional security in Northeast Asia Asia be established. But because of conflicting national interests in the area we need first to establish confidence-building measures to prevent conflict and preserve peace and stability in the area. Without such arrangements and an organization devoted to regional security, peace and security in the region cannot be guaranteed.
The social, economic and political transition now underway in Asia is positive but uncertain. Unlike Europe, communist regimes remain in power in East Asia-China, North Korea, Vietnam-although leadership and generational changes are underway in these states. In Asia, threats of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, emerging nationalism amidst longstanding ethnic and national rivalries, and unresolved territorial disputes combine to create a political landscape of potential instability and conflict. Among them, one significant example is the territorial dispute of Spartly Islands. In 1988, there were small naval clashes between China and Vietnam, and these nations continue to be the most likely to engage in armed conflict over the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea. In February 1992, China reaffirmed its claim to the Spratly Islands and, unfortunately, its readiness to use force to back up its claim. Japan is also seriously concerned about this area because the Japanese economy heavily depends on using the sealane to import natural resources from abroad. In this sense, the area around the Spratly Islands will continue to be a source for regional instability among China, Japan and neibouring countries. Furthermore the unresolved territorial dispute between China and Japan around the Senkaku Islands will also worsening the instability in Asia.
This paper aim to analyze the violence of the post-war society in three novels, <A House with a Deep Garden>, <The Toy City> and <A Fisherman Do not Snap the Reed>, that describe the post-war era. These novels are all notable works as they depict the background of the post-war society and the author's personal experiences. These are all bildungsromans that young children are main characters. Thus, in these novels, it is very common that caned children. Interestingly enough, in the three novels, all mothers who cane are widows caused from war. In addition, their caning is more frequent and harsh than other parents’ canes which are the purpose of education and discipline. Until now, most studies have paid attention to children’s growth in these novels. Therefore, the caning mothers’ feelings have been ignored. Unlike other studies, this study pay attention to caning mother, especially widows. In the time which traditional moral and beliefs were destroyed, the obsession and demand for social norm grew strong. The strong sanctions and crackdown were imposed on the abnormal, especially among the minority such as widows. These repressive mechanisms were also internalized to those who are subject to monitoring and controlling. As a result, they showed symptoms of self-control and self-censorship, further a nervous disease. That is what we commonly call the obsessional neurosis. The social environments that excessively force and suppress widows were the cause of the obsessional neurosis, and this violence transformed as cane, one of the aggressions, was enacted to their children. The widows caned their children to grow right more harshly because the mothers wanted that their children were different from the bad prejudice on widows and widows’ children. Consequentially, the widows’ caning is one of the social pathology of the post-war era, not the personal deviation. 김경민, 2019, ‘매를 든 어머니’로 상징되는 전후 성장소설의 폭력성, 어문연구, 181 : 203~229 마당 깊은 집 과 장난감 도시 , 고기잡이는 갈대를 꺾지 않는다 는 모두 전후 사회의 시대상을 그린 소설로 어린 아이들이 주인공으로 등장하는 성장이야기인 만큼 매 맞는 아이의 모습이 세 작품에 모두 등장하는데, 이때 아이들에게 매를 드는 사람은 모두 “전쟁으로 과수댁이 된 어머니”이며, 이들이 가하는 매질은 유난히 더 빈번하고 가혹하게 그려진다. 전후, 정상의 범주에서 벗어난 것들에 대해서는 강도 높은 제재와 단속이 이루어졌고 그중에서도 홀로 된 여성들에게는 더욱 심한 억압이 이루어졌다. 또한 이러한 억압기제는 감시와 통제의 대상인 이들에게까지 내면화되어 자기 통제와 자기검열의 형태로 고착화되고 결국 신경증의 형태로까지 이어진다. 지나친 강요와 책임감을 부여하는 사회 분위기는 홀로 된 여성들에게 강박으로 작용했고, 이러한 폭력성은 매질이라는 공격성의 형태로 더 약한 대상인 자식들에게 가해진 것이다. 이처럼 전후 소설에 재현된 매 맞는 아이, 그리고 매를 드는 어머니라는 상징은 전후 사회의 폭력성을 증언하는 중요한 이미지라 할 수 있다.
In this paper, a hybrid neural network is proposed to improve the learning ability of a neural network. The union of the characteristics of a Self-Organizing Neural Network model and of multi-layer perceptron model using the backpropagation learning method gives us the advantage of reduction of the learning error and the learning time. In learning process, the proposed hybrid neural network reduces the number of nodes in hidden layers to reduce the calculation time. And this proposed neural network uses the fuzzy feedback values, when it updates the responding region of each node in the hidden layer. To show the effectiveness of this proposed hybrid neural network, the boolean function(XOR, 3Bit Parity) and the solution of inverse kinematics are used. Finally, this proposed hybrid neural network is applied to the visual tracking control of a PUMA560 robot, and the result data is presented.
The goal of enhancement is to improve the perceptual aspect and visual appearance of images for human viewers. The objectives of image enhancement vary according to its specific application and an image enhancement algorithms used for a specific objective may not be accepted in some other applications. In this paper we review some of conventional enhancement techniques, such as global histogram equalization(GHE), local histogram equalization(LHE), clipped histogram equalization(CHE). We also describe some modified version of these algorithms. The proposed method is to detect detail information. We distinquish edge from nonedge and apply histigram equalization respectively. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed method for medical image.
Background: Nocturnal muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary, painful muscle contractions that occur in the night andare accompanied by hardening of the muscles. Many symptomatic treatments have been introduced for nocturnalmuscle cramps, such as quinine, magnesium, and phenytoin. However, the efficacy and safety of these drugs have notbeen adequately evaluated. To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of phenytoin treatment for nocturnal muscle cramps,we conducted a retrospective study of 16 patients with nocturnal muscle cramps. Methods: We reviewed 16 patients (6 men, 10 women) who suffered frequent nocturnal muscle cramps and were treatedwith phenytoin. The patients’ clinical information (age, sex, disease duration, and locations of cramps), treatment dosage,and frequency of cramps were obtained by reviewing their medical records. Results: The patients were aged 63.1±14.7 years (mean±SD; age range, 30-80 years; median age, 68 years). Twelve andfour patients received phenytoin doses of 100 and 200 mg/day, respectively. The median duration of medication was51 days (range, 14-378 days). Phenytoin treatment was effective in all patients; 13 patients (81.3%) experienced a totalremission of their symptoms, and a significant reduction (66.7-85.7%) in the frequency of cramps was found in theremaining 3 patients. No adverse effects were reported by any of the patients. Conclusions: While this retrospective study was conducted with only a small number of patients, the clinical resultssuggest that phenytoin is a safe and helpful therapy for the treatment of nocturnal muscle cramps.
Zn1.10CoxMn1.90-xO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) specimens were prepared using a conventional solid state reaction method. We investigatedthe structural and electrical properties with varying amounts of Co for application in IR detectors. All specimens exhibiteda very dense microstructure and the average grain size decreased slightly with an increase in the composition ratio of Co ions. The Zn1.10Co0.05Mn1.85O4 specimen shows the highest B-value of 5025 K, and the Zn1.10Co0.25Mn1.65O4 specimen shows theminimum resistivity of 100 kΩ • cm. The responsivity,s noise voltage and detectivity of the Zn1.10Co0.10Mn1.80O4 specimen are0.03 V/W, 6.36 × 10-5V and 2.0104 cmHz1/2/W, respectively.