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In general, the efficiency of boiler varies with the loading rate, season and the operated year. When the boiler is operated in accordance with the maximum efficiency, it can be possible to save energy. In this experiment, the operating data of three boilers (two-drum D-type water tube boiler, capacity 30t/h, steam pressure 7.5 kg/cm2) were checked and calculated in order to know the amounts of evaporation and consumption of fuel oil, temperature (feed water, fuel oil, exhaust gas and air), the CO2%, the loss of exhaust gas and the calculated boiler efficiency. For the purposes of this study, the boilers were operated and six times checked with 45-100% of the loading rate in summer from 15th of July to 14th of August and in winter from 15th of December to 14th of january in the next for three years. The main results obtained from this study are as follows: 1.The maximum efficiency of boiler was decreased by 0.63% in summer and by 0.49% in winter in a year. 2.The average maximum efficiency of boiler was higher by 1.73% in summer (average 90.49%) than in winter (average 88.76%). 3.The economical loading rates showed 75% in summer and 80% in winter by No. 1 boiler, 85% in summer and winter by No. 2 boiler and 75% in summer and 80% in winter by No. 3 boiler. 4.The total average boiler efficiency with respect to 45-100% of the loading rate was higher by 1.39% in summer (87.84%) than in winter (86.45%). 5.The average temperature of exhaust gas was higher by 12.35℃ in winter (158.28℃) than in summer (145.93℃). 6.The average loss of exhaust gas was higher by 1.13% in winter (6.01%) than in summer (4.88%). 7.When No. 1 boiler was operated on the loading rate in accordance with the maximum efficiency, the fuel cost was down by 2,1000,000 won/ month in summer and 1.080,000 won/month in winter in comparison with± 5% of that condition.
In this paper, we implemented a pulse oximeter system which is measured oxygen saturation coefficient of a human blood in vivc We use the Beer-Lambert Law to measure the percentage of hemoglobin is oxygen saturation. The oximeter sensor are consisted of two LED(RED and INFRARED LED) and a single photodiode. The photodiode measures lights which transmitted through the tissue from two light source alternately, We calculated a ratio of light transmittance between two LEDs and then, it applied for the oxygen saturation coefficient calculation to formula. As a result, the oxygen saturation coefficient that measured from normal conditions men was 96.43[%]
Many studies have been conducted under the grand title as modernization of traditional landscape archit-ectures and there is also growing number of sites where the techniques of traditional landscape architecture have actually been tried. But conventional studies concentrated mainly in theoretical studies of "Kotdam(beautiful wall)", due to its title and scarcity. The studied on the detailed construction methods have been neglected. And what is worse, the wall usually is implamented by the architectural drawing. In the case, due to increase in ghe expenses, the building companies either reduce the size or substituted it with different structures. Thus, in the study, though stuctural issues may be solved with modern methods, it focused on expression of traditional pattern for architectural value and used tile type attaching method which resulted in signif-icant reduction of costs. As a result of the study, efficient way to build traditional pattern of Kotdom is suggested in attaching concept figure, standard model and standard Pumseom(quantity manpower spent per unit).
In connection with the administrative business of natural monuments, it is the most essential matter to get ready for the cooperation system among each ministerial agency for the conservation, management and utilization of natural monuments. Natural legacies registered as natural monuments are our beautiful and valuable properties that all of us have to enjoy, preserve well and leave to future generations under the mutual cooperation. For this we must recognize the value of natural monuments in the new way, and frame the administrative policy that can show clear concept of nature elements and establishment of ones values considered a characteristic of creature species hereupon. This research is intended to make a scheme for preserving natural monument from the side of landscape architecture after grasping problems through questionnaires. But, it is short of various opinions of all social standings due to the limitation of the questioner and in this connection some wide researches must be under way steadily hereafter.
The purpose of this study is to obtain basic data on the properties of the lightweight concrete within expanded polystyrene beads for various applications in the field. Inquiring into the change of the properties as altering cement matrix mixture and the capacity mixture ratio of expanded polystyrene beads, the mixture plane of this study is set up as W/C is fixed 50%, expanded polystyrene beads is increased 10% from 0% to 80% per 1m³ and the ratio of cement:sand in the cement matrix is 1:0, 1:0.5, 1:1. The results of this study are as follow. The slump as changing the mixture ratio of expanded polystyrene beads decrease smoothly until mixture ratio 50% but decrease rapidly being in excess of 50%. The density decrease regularly as the mixture ratio of expanded polystyrene beads increase but the ratio of strength decrease. The difference of cement matrix. The strength of cement matrix having more sand mixture ratio relatively decrease rapidly as increasing the mixture ratio of expanded polystyrene beads. It is judged decreased strength phenomenon as the quantity of coherent material created in the mixture decrease rapidly.
This study is prepared to introduce design quality improvement measures by the trend and cause analysis of design changes which have been made during operations of construction project for power plant. In this study, two types of analysis tool have mainly taken for the use of the improvement measures. One tool is the trend analysis to identify which action should be taken to cut down design changes. This is also useful to monitor whether project participant's endeavour for the action taken is effective or not, to the project performance and design quality improvement. The other is the cause analysis, by using cause and effect diagram, which is useful to identify main causes of the design changes and to establish the measures to reduce recurrence of the design changes.
참박과 호박 채종종자의 발아율을 증진시킬 수 잇는 종자 처리 방법을 확립하고자 저선량 감마선을 1∼20 Gy 까지 조사하여 발아와 초기생육 및 생리활성을 관찰하였다. 저선량 조사한 참박과 호박종자의 발아율은 대조구보다 증가하는 경향을 보였는데 효과는 종자상태에 따라 다르게 나타났다. 참박 70∼80% 발아율종자의 발아는 4∼20 Gy에서 증가하였는데 특히 4 Gy조사에서 가장 높았고, 80∼90% 발아율종자도 4 Gy 조사에서 효과를 보였다. 파종 4일 후의 발아율은 참박 70∼80%와 80∼90% 발아율 종자의 경우는 4 Gy조사에서 대조구보다 각각 66%와 26% 증가하였고, 호박의 70∼80% 발아율종자는 2 Gy 조사에서, 80∼90% 발아율종자는 8 Gy 조사에서 향상되었다. 저선량 조사한 유묘생육은 발아율이 증가한 선량에서 증가하였는데 특히 호박 70∼80% 종자의 2 Gy 조사에서 가장 높았다. 파종 6일 후에 조사한 참박의 효소활성은 4 Gy조사시에 단백질과 catalase 활성이, 호박의 경우는 catalase와 peroxidase 활성이 2 Gy와 8 Gy 조사에서 증가하였다. 참박과 호박종자의 발아와 유묘생육 및 생리활성은 저선량 감마선 조사에 의해 촉진됨을 확인할 수 있었다. To establish the seed treatment method of the gamma radiation for germination enhancement of bottle gourd(Lagenaria siceraria Standl) and pumpkin(Cucurbita ficifolia Bouche), seeds were irradiated with the dose 1~20 Gy of the gamma radiation. The germination rate in irradiated group was higher than that of the control, depending on seed condition. In the case of bottle gourd, the germination rate of 70~80% germinative seed was increased at 4-20 Gy irradiated groups. Especially, it was the highest at 4 Gy irradiated group. The germination rate of 80~90% germinative seed was the highest at 4 Gy irradiated group. The germination rate of 70~80% and 80~90% germinative seed at 4 days after sowing was increased 66% and 26% at 4 Gy irradiated group, respectively. In the case of pumpkin, the germination rate of 70~80% and 80~90% germinative seed was increased at 2 Gy and 8 Gy irradiated group, respectively. Effect of the low-dose gamma radiation on the early growth was enhanced depending on their germination enhancement. Especially, it was the highest at 2 Gy irradiated group of 70~80% gen inative seed of pumpkin. Catalase activity of bottle gourd was increased at 4 Gy irradiated group. Catalase and peroxidase activity of pumpkin were increased at 2 Gy and 8 Gy irradiated group. These results suggest that the germination, early growth and physiological activity of bottle gourd and pumpkin seeds could be promoted by the low dose gamma radiation.
This study evaluated the microleakage and interfacial gap between enamel and composite resin under the dry and wet condition of the enamel surface, V shaped class 5 cavities were prepared on the occlusal portion of extracted human molars. Samples were divided into three groups: D group (air dry for 10-15s), BD group (blot dry with moist cotton pellet), and DR group (air dry for 10-15s and rewet with Aqua-Prep F for 20s). Cavities were filled using Aelitefil composite resin after applied One-Step. Microleakage was tested by 2% methylene blue dye solution and the data were statistically analysed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. Also Enamel-resin interface was observed under SEM. Group BD showed statistically lower microleakage than group D (p〈0.05). but there was no statistically significant difference between group BD and DR (p)0.05). At the enamel-resin interface, group D showed the gap of 2 ㎛ thickness, but group BD and DR showed close adaptation. In conclusion, the use of blot dry and rewetting agent (Aqua-Prep F) resulted in decreased microleakage and improved adhesion between enamel and resin when using One-Step.
It is well known that obesity is an important cause of risk factor of cardiovascular disease, emphasized by many studies and cardiovascular disease has been found to correlate not only to the extent of obesity, but also the fat distribution of the individual. Recently, focusing on obesity of the abdomen, we were able to evaluate the significance of obesity indices by examining correlations between these indices and the risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Three hundred sixty four health examined persons through out-patient department of family medicine, Seoul hospital of Konkuk medical center were chosen as subjects of this study but finally one hundred twenty five examined persons were selected. The auther analysed correlations between obesity indices and cardiovascular risk factors by measuring serum lipid levels, fasting blood glucose levels and blood pressure that are thought to be risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and obesity indices were calculated using anthropometric measurements. The abdominal obesity indices and risk factors of cardiovascular disease, the levels of total cholesterol in the serum, fasting blood glucose levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, increased significantly according to age and there was a significant difference in the abdominal obesity indices according to drinking and smoking habits. Systolic and diastolic pressures had significant differences according to the presence or absence of an alcohol drinking history. There were negative correlatons between HDL-cholesterol and obesity indices(r = -0.248, -0.215, -0.204, -0.256, -0.201) and the weakest correlaton was found or noted between fasting blood glucose level and sagittal diameter. Among obesity indices, sagittal diameter and sagittal diameter per height may be important prognostic indicators or risk factors of cardiovascular disease.