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Tengku,Alina,Tengku,Ismail,Rohana,Abdul,Jalil,Wan,Rosli,Wan,Ishak,Noor,Fadzlina,Hamid,Wan,Suriati,Wan,Nik,Hamid,Jan,Jan,Mohamed,Nor,Haslina,Mohd,Wan,Nor,Arifin,Wan,Mohd,Izani,Wan,Mohamed,Mohd,Ismail,I 대한가정의학회 2018 Korean Journal of Family Medicine Vol.39 No.1
Background: A qualitative study providing an in-depth exploration of people's view and the increasing burden of overweight and obesity is required. This study aimed to explore the understanding of dieting and previous experi-ences on weight loss attempts among overweight and obese government employees in Kelantan, Malaysia, prior to recruitment into the intervention program.Methods: Thirteen focus group discussions involving 129 participants from a weight-loss intervention program were conducted within the first 1 month of recruitment. These discussions were moderated by two trained re-searchers in the Malay language and assisted by an interview guide. They were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis was performed, and codes and themes from each discussion were constructed.Results: The participants understood dieting with various meanings, including skipping meals and removing rice from daily diets. They applied numerous methods to lose weight and achieved various outcomes. Health and ap-pearance, social support, and compliance with current trends were the factors motivating these participants to lose weight. Their determination to lose weight was limited by lack of self-control and motivation, experiences of un-pleasant effects, influence on weight, and environmental and health factors.Conclusion: Real-life weight loss experiences and perceptions provided relevant insights into current weight loss management strategies. Some of these issues and misunderstandings should be emphasized in weight loss strate-gies during health promotion.
Systematic experiments were conducted to investigate the most appropriate extraction conditions forsulfur reduction. Initial extraction studies showed that DMF was the most potentially effective solvent. The influence of DMF to diesel ratios, extraction times and temperatures, addition of co-solvent, solventmixtures, double extractions were explored. The use of co-solvent and solvent mixtures showed poorefficiencies of sulfur removal. A two-stage extraction with ratio of 1:1 (DMF/Diesel) was successfullyremoved over 88.0% of sulfur in diesel. Under Box–Behnken design, the model showed that maximumextraction ability was observed at 30 8C, 30 min and 1.0 of DMF/diesel ratio to achieved 67.5%.
The performance of oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of commercial diesel by alumina supported polymolybdate based catalyst system was studied using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as an oxidizing agent. From catalytic testing, MoO3-Al2O3 calcined at 500 oC was the most potential catalyst which gave the highest sulfur removal under mild condition. The sulfur content in commercial diesel was successfully reduced from 440 ppmw to 105 ppmw followed by solvent extraction. Response surface methodology involving Box-Behnken was employed to evaluate and optimize MoO3/Al2O3 preparation parameters (calcination temperatures, molybdenum loading precursor and catalyst loading), and their optimum values were found to be 510 oC, 0.98 g and 11.18 g/L of calcination temperature, molybdenum loading precursor and catalyst loading, respectively. Based on results, the reaction mechanism for oxidation of sulfur compounds to the corresponding sulfones occur in the presence of MoO3 /Al2O3 catalyst was proposed.
Juhari,,Wan,Khairunnisa,Wan,Rahman,,Wan,Faiziah,Wan,Abdul,Sidek,,Ahmad,Shanwani,Mohd,Hassan,,Muhammad,Radzi,Abu,Noordin,,Khairul,Bariah,Ahmad,Amin,Zakaria,,Andee,Dzulkarnaen,Macrae,,Finlay,Zilfalil,,B Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2015 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.16 No.9
Background: Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited predisposition to colorectal, endometrial (uterine) and other cancers. Although most cancers are not inherited, about 5 percent (%) of people who have colorectal or endometrial cancer have the Lynch syndrome. It involves the alteration of mismatch repair (MMR) genes; MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. In this study, we analyzed the expression of MMR proteins in colorectal cancer in a Malay cohort by immunohistochemistry. Materials and Methods: A total of 17 patients were selected fulfilling one of the Bethesda criteria: colorectal cancer diagnosed in a patient aged less than 50 years old, having synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer or with a strong family history. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin embedded tumour tissue samples using four antibodies: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Results: Twelve out of 17 patients (70.6%) were noted to have a family history. A total of 41% (n=7) of the patients had abnormal immunohistochemical staining with one or more of the four antibodies. Loss of expression were noted in 13 tumour tissues with a negative staining score <4. Of 13 tumour tissues, four showed loss expression of MLH1. For PMS2, loss of expression were noted in five cases. Both MSH2 and MSH6 showed loss of expression in two tumour tissues respectively. Conclusions: Revised Bethesda criteria and immunohistochemical analysis constituted a convenient approach and is recommended to be a first-line screening for Lynch syndrome in Malay cohorts.
Wan-Nor-Asyikeen,,Wan,Adnan,Siti-Azrin,,Ab,Hamid,Jalil,,Nur,Asyilla,Che,Othman,,Nor,Hayati,Zain,,Anani,Aila,Mat Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2016 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.17 No.6
Background: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy among females worldwide, approximately 320,000 women being diagnosed with the disease each year and 76,000 dying. To date, there is limited knowledge of endometrial cancer in Malaysia. Objectives: To identify the epidemiological profile and prognostic factors of survival. Materials and Methods: A list of endometrial cancer patients in 2000-2011 was obtained from the hospital Record Department. Only cases confirmed by histopathology examination were included. We excluded those with incomplete medical records or referral cases. Simple and multiple Cox regression approaches were used for data analysis. Results: Only 108 cases were included with a mean (SD) age of 62.7 (12.3) years, with 87.0% Malay ethnicity. Grade of cancer was: 29.1% grade 1, 43.7% grade 2 and 27.2% grade 3. The majority of patients had non-endometrioid type (60.2%), with myometrial invasion (82.2%) and lymphovascular invasion (57.3%). The significant prognostic factors were age (HR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.08, p=0.002) and having lymphovascular invasion (HR 2.15; 95% CI: 1.08, 4.29; p=0.030). Conclusions: Endometrial cancer patients should be diagnosed earlier to reduce the risk of mortality. The public should be given education on the signs and symptoms of the disease.
Congestion avoidance in emergencies is one of many overlooked localization issues. During an emergency (such as a fire), it is difficult for rescuers to determine the best exit route when inside a building. Any time delay during decision making can risk loss of life. Therefore, an efficient Emergency Rescue Localization (ERL) system is essential to assist rescuers to identify the best route for reaching the outside when inside a building. Thus, we propose a new ERL based on an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). In the proposed ERL, an IMU is used to retrieve location information from inside the building. To conclude, we illustrate out proposed solution for indoor environmental set-up.
In the requirement analysis phase, good quality requirements are needed to develop the foundation of good quality software. This paper proposes quality attributes from the SQA activities in requirement phase from the end users' perspective in an e-commerce application. By analyzing SQA activities in requirement engineering process, we found out five quality attributes that most affect customer's satisfaction: functionality, security, usability, reliability and efficiency. This paper describes the quality attributes that are gained from the requirements elicitation, requirements documentation, requirements validation, negotiation and the requirements management planning activities. The results show that functionality, security, usability, reliability and efficiency affect e-commerce customers' satisfaction. Most of the online shopping websites comply with customer requirement and requirement expectations.
( Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad Wan Mohtar ), ( Louise Young ), ( Grainne M. Abbott ), ( Carol Clements ), ( Linda M. Harvey ), ( Brian Mcneil ) 한국미생물 · 생명공학회 2016 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.26 No.6
Ganoderma lucidum BCCM 31549 has a long established role for its therapeutic activities. In this context, much interest has focused on the possible functions of the (1,3)-β-D-glucan (G) produced by these cultures in a stirred-tank bioreactor and extracted from their underutilized mycelium. In the existing study, we report on the systematic production of G, and its sulfated derivative (GS). The aim of this study was to investigate G and its GS from G. lucidum in terms of their antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity spectrum against human prostate cells (PN2TA) and human caucasian histiocytic lymphoma cells (U937). 1H NMR for both G and GS compounds showed β-glycosidic linkages and structural similarities when compared with two standards (laminarin and fucoidan). The existence of characteristic absorptions at 1,170 and 867 cm-1 in the FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) for GS demonstrated the successful sulfation of G. Only GS exhibited antimicrobial activity against a varied range of test bacteria of relevance to foodstuffs and human health. Moreover, both G and GS did not show any cytotoxic effects on PN2TA cells, thus helping demonstrate the safety of these polymers. Moreover, GS showed 40% antiproliferation against cancerous U937 cells at the low concentration (60 μg/ ml) applied in this study compared with G (10%). Together, this demonstrates that sulfation clearly improved the solubility and therapeutic activities of G. The water-soluble GS demonstrates the potential multifunctional effects of these materials in foodstuffs.
국익은 국가의 생존 전략을 설명하는 가장 주요한 개념으로 다양하게 규정 될 수 있지만, 많은 학자들은 경제적·정치적·인도주의적·사회적 혹은 환경적 이익이라고 한다. 또한 국익은 국가안보와도 밀접하게 연관되는데 국가안보와 생존을 보장하는 가장 확고한 것이라고 할 수 있겠다. 본 연구는 국익과 관련된 말레이시아의 대외정책을 중심으로 서술하였고 역사적 발전에 따라 말레이시아의 대외정책이 어떻게 바뀌었는지를 보여준다. 1957년 말레이시아 연방 성립 이후의 대외정책을 경제, 영토 그리고 종교적인 부문으로 나누어서 연구를 진행 하였다. 말레이시아의 대외정책은 국익의 달성과 보호를 그 기반으로 하고 있음을 밝혀내었고 제2장에서 이론적 논의로서 국익과 관련된 역사적 논의를 살펴보았다. 제3장에서는 말레이시아의 대외정책을 경제, 영토문제, 그리고 종교로 나누어 고찰하였고, 제4장에서 연구의 결론과 미래 정책 방향을 언급하였다. For the Realist, national interest is a crucial concept for explaining states`survival strategy. As national interest of a state is often multifarious in nature, many scholars conclude that national interest could be economic, political, humanitarian, social or environmental interest. National interest is also associated with a security of a state. It is paramount for a state to safeguard their national interest as an iron law of necessity to ensure their security and survival. In this paper, the writers argue that the formulation of Malaysia`s foreign policies is very much determined by what a nation in this case Malaysia, perceive as national interest. Based on historical development, the interplay relation between national interest and foreign policies is discussed in great detail to illustrate that the nature of Malaysia`s foreign policies is primarily geared towards achieving and protecting the national interest at the international level. This article concludes that national interest and foreign policies are intertwined tools vital for enhancing a nation`s well being and survival.