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      • 사이버범죄 방지를 위한 국제형사사법공조

        정완(Wan Choung) 한국인터넷법학회 2004 인터넷법연구 Vol.3 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The explosive use of the Internet gives rise to lot of crimes on the international scenes. Not only hacking and viruses but also illegal activities on the Internet are increasingly conducted across the border. But countermeasures seem to be ineffective owing to legal, systematic and technological constraints. More often than not the cross-border crimes are beyond the investigation and prosecution of any state. Computer crimes on the Internet call for prompt and efficient investigation of the affected states through international cooperation. Digitalized data in the information age would pose a number of legal issues with respect to privacy, human rights, electronic democracy, national sovereignty, international jurisdiction, and so on. These issues can be tackled by the international coordination of domestic policies and national laws on cybercrime. Multilateral efforts have been staged by the G-8, the Council of Europe, OECD and APEC to combat cybercrime in a concerted manner. Also the International Criminal Police Organization, or InterPol, and the International Organization on Computer Evidence play an important role in this area. The Meeting of Justice and Interior Ministers of the Eight takes place every two year to discuss the issues on the international cooperation in investigating and prosecuting cybercrime. The international jurisdiction in the cyberspace might be established by a multilateral agreement in defining illegal activities as international crimes to be punished by the international criminal court. However, the air-tight definition of international crime would not allow the addition of cybercrime to the list of international crime. Also it should be noted whether a certain activity constitutes a criminal offence varies from nation to nation. A type of crime could be punished in a different manner. In short, a crime and punishment will be determined by a variety of political, economical, social and cultural backgrounds of each nation. Notwithstanding the foregoing difficulties, the Convention on Cybercrime was adopted by the Council of Europe in June 2001. This Convention requires contracting states to make cyber attacks a substantive criminal offence and to adopt procedural and mutual assistance measures to better combat cybercrime across international borders. It stipulates such criminal offences as intentional access to a computer system without right and unauthorized interception, data interference, system interference, misuse of devices, computer-related forgery or fraud, infringement of copyright and related rights. In particular, the Convention provides for the attempt and aiding or abetting of such activities as criminal offences, and the criminal, civil or administrative liability of a corporate as well. It also contains procedural law and measures so as to facilitate the investigation and prosecution of cybercrime. Though the Convention does not come into force because of the belated ratification of contracting states, it is necessary for Korea to accede to the Convention as soon as possible, and to make the Korean laws consonant with the requirements of the Convention. Against these backdrops, any nation should be careful of the following limits in the international cooperation to enhance penal justice: - To establish pornography or gambling as criminal offences varies from country to country in line with the legal and cultural background; - To deliver its nationals and evidences to other country is hardly possible owing to the supremacy of national sovereignty; and - To pursue its own national interest, technological and economical advantage could undermine the international cooperation.

      • KCI등재

        사이버공간상 불법ㆍ유해정보로 인한 청소년피해 실태와 법제도적 대응방안

        정완(Choung, Wan) 한국피해자학회 2004 被害者學硏究 Vol.12 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The Internet provides us with convenient access to a highly diverse area such as educational resources and collaborative studies. However, the problem lies in the fact that youth are exposed to the potential harm caused by using the Internet. I suggested several policies in protecting youth and children from illegal and harmful materials of the Internet in this paper. Firstly, I reviewed current situation of juvenile delinquency on the cyberspace through the quotation of statistic by Korean Institute of Criminology. Secondly, I explained about inappropriate Internet material and the legal controls. For example, a harmful exposure can occur through various channels, including Web pages, cyber communities, e-mails, chat rooms, instant messages, and peer-to-peer file-sharing connections. Thirdly, I examined several approaches to youth protection, basing on law, technology, and education. On the public policy side, government has to strengthen its policies through legal regulations to protect youth and children from illegal and harmful materials on the Internet. On the technical side, technological methods to restrict or block minors from inappropriate materials should be used. Technology-based tools such as filters can be highly effective in reducing the exposure of minors to inappropriate content. Finally, I emphasized the importance of cooperation between law enforcements at the local, state, national, and international levels to protect youth and children from inappropriate sexually explicit material on the Internet.

      • KCI등재

        인터넷상 허위사실유포의 규제 필요성에 관한 고찰

        정완(Choung, Wan) 경희법학연구소 2016 경희법학 Vol.51 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        오늘날 커뮤니케이션의중심무대인인터넷공간에허위사실유포행위가 늘고있고그로인한 지역갈등의 심화, 헤이트스피치의 증가 등 폐해가 심각하므로 이에 대한 적절한 규제가절실한 상황이다. 주지하는 바와 같이 헌법재판소는 2010년 전기통신기본법상의 허위통신죄 규정에 대하여 헌법상 명확성원칙에 위배된다는 이유로 위헌결정을 선고하였다. 법률조문상 허위의 개념이 추상적이고 그 공익의 내용이 불명확하므로 이 규정은 헌법상 명확성원칙에 위배된다는 것이 헌법재판소 결정의 요지였다. 통상 ‘공익’이란 “대한민국에서 공동으로 사회생활을 영위하는 국민 전체 내지 대다수 국민과그들의 구성체인국가사회의이익”을 의미하고, ‘허위통신’은“객관적으로진위가 밝혀질 수 있는 사실에 관한 것으로서 그 내용이 거짓이거나 명의가 거짓인 통신”을 의미하는것이므로그의미가불명확하다고할수없으며, 이조항은허위사실유포에의한공중도덕이나 사회윤리의 침해, 국가공공질서의 교란 등을 방지하기 위한 것으로서 정당한 입법목적 달성을 위한 적합한 수단에 해당한다는 등 합헌론의 견해도 강력히 제기되었지만, 전기통신기본법상의허위통신죄는그입법연혁과보호법익의관점에서볼때통신의내용을규제하기 위한 목적보다는 전기통신의 사회적 공공성과 안정성 등에 관한 사회적 신뢰를 보호하기 위한 목적에서 마련된 것이므로 이 규정을 표현의 자유와 관련된 ‘허위사실유포죄’의 성격으로 단정해서는 안 된다는 것이 헌법재판소의 태도라고 하겠다. 현재 인터넷에 유포되는 허위사실 가운데 상당수는 타인을 모욕하거나 명예를 훼손하는등권리침해를야기하는경우이거나선거과정에서의상대후보에대한근거없는중상과모략의경우등이다. 이러한행위는허위사실의적시자체가구체적법익에대한위험을직접적으로 야기하는 경우로서 현행법상 사기죄나 명예훼손죄, 신용훼손죄나 업무방해죄, 무고죄나 공무집행방해죄, 공직선거법 위반, 자본시장법상 시세조종행위 등의 조항으로 충분히의율할 수 있다. 하지만 이러한구성요건에해당하지않는 허위사실유포행위로서국가사회적으로혹은정치적, 지역적으로 큰 반감이나 지역감정을 초래하거나 안보나 경제에 심각한 영향을 미치는 행위에 대해서는 이를 강력히 규제해야 할 필요성이 크다. 이에 따라 허위통신죄규정의폐지 이후에도 이를 보완하기 위한 신규입법을 추진하는 동향이 계속되고 있다. 심각한 허위사실유포를막기위한적절한규제를위해서는허위통신규정이가지고있던용어의막연성과 추상성을 배제하고 이 부분에 대한 적절하고 확실한 보완을 통하여 이른바 ‘명확성의원칙’과 ‘과잉금지의 원칙’ 등을 위반하지 않는 내용의 보다 구체적인 대체입법을 준비해야 할 것이다. 구성요건을 분명히 함으로써 공익에 대한 판단주체가 누구인가에 따라 법률규정이자의적으로 해석될여지를 확실히제거해 줄수있다면 신규입법후에는 지난번과같은 불필요한 위헌주장은 없어지게 될 것이다. The Constitutional Court of Korea decided Unconstitutional Decision against the crime of false communication on Framework Act of Telecommunications on the 28th of December in 2010. The crime of false communication, generally known as ‘dissemination of false information’, has been criticized by many people because the clause in the act violates the principle of legality. They say if false information itself be punished, then every expressions cannot be protected by freedom of expression. Recently at the case of ‘Minerva’, the man indicted by violation of the clause of false communication on Framework Ac of Telecommunication was given a verdict of “not guilty”. This case shows the limits of application of the act. In relation with Minerva Case, the Constitutional Court of Korea decided that the contested provisions violate the constitution by infringing the freedom of expression violating the principle against excessive restriction. This article was written about the unconstitutional decision by the Constitutional Court of Korea against the false communication provision on Framework Act of Telecommunications and the necessity of legislating new legal provision against the false communication on the internet.

      • KCI등재후보

        사이버폭력의 피해실태와 대응방안

        정완(Choung, Wan) 한국피해자학회 2005 被害者學硏究 Vol.13 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        This article is about some legal countermeasures of cyber violence, for example slander, curse, libel etc. in cyberspace. Internet is regarded as the 'most participatory marketplace' and 'speech-enhancing medium' in the 21th century. Some argue that Internet should be set free from legal regulations. Can we then say that Internet is really a free space ? The answer would be no. Internet has already become a subject of legal regulation, although the degree of regulation differs according to each country. Internet takes the form of a mixture of broadcasting, communications, and press. It would be inappropriate to evaluate Internet as just one of the above-mentioned media, thus mitigate or aggravate the responsibilities in it. Rather, Internet should be recognized separately. An e-mail could be regarded as a form of private communication, but an open bulletin board cannot be regarded as a form of private communication. Therefore it is possible to regulate defamation and pornography on the Internet. This article is composed of some chapters as follows ; Chap.1 Introduction Chap.2 Concept and Patterns of Cyber Violence Chap.3 Current Situation of Cyber Violence Chap.4 Regulation of Cyberspace and Freedom of Speech Chap.5 Some Legal Countermeasure against Cyber Violence Chap.6 Conclusion I suggest some legal countermeasure against cyber violence, for example, establishment of governmental organization to help victims, legislation of cyber curse crime, introduction of internet real name system, strengthening of ISP liability etc. in this article.

      • KCI등재

        카르텔에 대한 EU 위원회의 과징금 정책에 관한 고찰

        정완 ( Choung Wan ) 한국외국어대학교 법학연구소 2010 외법논집 Vol.34 No.2

        The purpose of the competition law is to maintain and encourage competition in the market while enhancing the welfare of consumers. The EU competition law has another purpose of supporting the establishment of a single market. The European Commission has been trying to protect its small and medium sized firms and consumers from large corporations’ anticompetitive behaviour. The EU seems to have strengthened its implementation and enforcement efforts of the competition law in recent years. As we expect to see a rising number of Korean firms entering the EU market, Korean corporations need to develop strategies to deal with the EU competition law. This article researched the situation of EU competition law enforcement against companies, the European commission’s role and enforcement power, some measurements of our companies and government in Korea, mainly centering around surcharge of European commission.

      • 독점규제법상 카르텔규제에 관한 고찰

        정완 ( Wan Choung ) 영산대학교 법률연구소 2007 영산법률논총 Vol.4 No.2

        카르텔(cartel)은 시장에서 경쟁을 회피할 목적으로 행해지는 가장 강력한 수단이며, 따라서 그 규제는 경쟁정책의 매우 중요한 부분을 차지하고 있다. 우리나라 독점규제법도 카르텔을 ‘부당한 공동행위’로서 규제하고 있다. 독점규제법 제19조제1항의 ‘부당한 공동행위’라 함은 부당하게 경쟁을 제한하는 가격, 거래량 등 경쟁요소에 대한 사업자간의 합의를 의미한다. 카르텔은 자원 배분의 비효율을 초래하고 독점이윤을 창출하여 소비자에게 큰피해를 입힌다. 또 카르텔 참여 사업자도 원가절감이나 경영합리화의 유인이 사라져 경쟁력을 잃게 되고 궁극적으로는 국가경제에 악영향을 미치게 된다. 이러한 이유로 각국에서 카르텔은 경쟁법 위반행위 중 가장 경쟁제한성이 큰 행위로 다루어지고 있다. 주무부서인 공정거래위원회는 1981년 출범 이래 카르텔의 적발과 시정에 업무의 우선순위를 두고 있다. 독점규제법의 시행역사가 27년을 넘고 있다. 이제 카르텔의 폐해에 대한 사회전반의 인식이 많이 달라졌고 이에 따라 공정거래위원회가 카르텔을 시장경제의 공적으로 삼고 카르텔을 적발하기 위하여 적극적으로 노력하고 있는 것은 바람직한 현상이다. 본고에서는 독점규제법상 카르텔, 즉 ‘부당한 공동행위’의 성립요건을 중심으로 그 주요내용을 검토하고, 부당한 공동행위에 대한 이론을 살펴본 후, 우리나라 카르텔 정책의 문제점과 개선방안에 대하여 고찰해 보고자 한다. Cartels are considered the most powerful tool to avoid competition in the market. Accordingly, regulation over cartels is the key of the competition law enforcement anywhere, including Korea. Article 19(1) of the Korean Competition Act stipulates that cartel means an agreement, regardless of its form such as contract, arrangement, announcement, and others(formal requirement), among businesses(subject requirement) to do enlisted behavior(types of cartel), that restricts competition. Considering that the most difficult problem in the regulation of cartels is to procure evidence of an agreement, the author analyses the method to prove agreement, by either director indirect(circumstantial) evidence. The inference of agreement by law, that is peculiar to the Korean Competition Act, is also analysed. Another issue is about the limit of the exception of "justified behavior in accordance with other legislation". Despite of tough interpretation of the Korean competition authority and courts of the exception clauses to the Competition Act, there still exists wide gray area where demarcating line for illegality is not clear. Lawyers and government also do not suggest clear standard to decide illegality regarding administrative guidance. The Korean Competition Authority needs to consider making certain guideline to solve such uncertainties. Important remedies for violations of competition laws include corrective measures and administrative fines. Among various remedies, order for public notice of the violation, which is intended to secure compliance by means of dishonor or damages to business reputation or violators, however, contains danger to infringe upon personal dignity, credit, or privacy. The issue of efficient investigation for effective cartel regulation depends on the ability to secure evidence. The Korean Competition Act introduced leniency program for voluntary report and cooperation at Article 22-2 and this new system is expected to contribute to vitalizing cartel regulation.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        독점규제법상 동의명령제 도입에 관한 고찰

        정완(Choung Wan) 한국형사정책연구원 2009 형사정책연구 Vol.77 No.-

        공정거래위원회는 최근 ‘동의명령제’를 도입할 것임을 입법예고하였다. 동의명령제도는 불공정거래 또는 독과점 사건에 대해 위법성 판단 없이 당국과 기업의 합의에 따라 사건을 조기 종결짓는 제도이기 때문에 불법 혐의가 분명한 기업에 대해 당국이 자의적 판단에 따라 ‘면죄부’를 줄 우려가 있다. 동의명령이 적용될 경우 위법성 여부에 대한 판단이 면제돼 기업 입장에서는 이미지 실추나 법적 분쟁 등의 부담을 피할 수 있고, 또 공정거래위원회 입장에서는 사건을 조기에 종결지을 수 있으며, 소비자 입장에서는 신속하게 피해를 보상받을 수 있는 등의 장점이 있다. 그러나 위법 혐의가 짙은 기업일수록 동의명령제를 활용할 가능성이 높고, 공정거래위원회와 기업 양자만의 합의에 따라 조치가 결정된다는 점에서 부작용이 우려된다. 본문에서는 공정거래위원회가 입법을 추진하고 있는 이른바 동의명령제도에 대하여 그 개념과 절차, 운용사례 등을 살펴본 후, 기대효과와 함께, 논란이 일고 있는 쟁점 부분에 대하여 고찰해 보고자 한다. It is 27 years since the antitrust law was introduced into Korea. Until now, there have been continuous and various efforts to improve the antitrust system, and the efforts are considered to be comparatively successful. However, previous trials for development of the system have been mainly concentrated on the substantive law, and procedural reform has not seen to be so sufficient. Especially, as the number of the cases which have been brought to the Fair Trade Commission is rapidly increasing in recent years, the procedural improvement for not only due process but efficient treatment of flocking cases is rising as a pending task around the enforcement authority. In this context, what the KFTC is carefully considering introduction is so called the ‘Consent Decree’ or ‘Consent Order’. It is known as a mechanism in which the relevant parties can quickly settle the case at issue, on condition that the enforcement promise not to investigate or accuse against the undertaking, on the other hand the undertakings agree to stop the challenged practices. In fact, it is well known that most of antitrust cases in the U.S. have been settled through the Consent Decree. In order to successfully introduce the Consent Decree into Korean antitrust procedure, however, detailed analysis on theoretical background and actual use is firstly required. Because it has formed on the basis of the judicial regulation of the U.S. and have various incentives which cause undertakings to utilize the system.

      • KCI등재

        부동산거래제도의 발전방안

        정완(Wan Choung) 한국부동산연구원 2003 부동산연구 Vol.13 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        이 논문은 부동산거래제도에 대한 분석을 통하여 현행 제도의 문제점을 파악하고 이를 바탕으로 현행 부동산거래관련 법제도의 개선방안을 도출하는데 그 목적이 있다. 논술과정에서는 부동산거래관련 이용자와 실무자들의 설문조사 결과를 각 항목에서 인용하였다. 부동산거래에서 가장 중요한 역할을 하는 것은 부동산중개이며, 부동산중개제도의 핵심적 내용은 중개업자의 자격제도, 중개보수제도, 중개계약 및 거래계약제도이다. 부동산거래 및 중개제도의 실태에 대하여 중개사와 이용자에 대한 설문을 분석하였는데, 부동산거래제도의 실태와 관련하여 부동산직거래제도, 부동산거래의 안전장치, 서비스 만족도 등 세 가지 항목을 분석하였고, 부동산중개제도의 실태와 관련하여 확인설명서와 체크리스트, 중개계약제도, 중개수수료 체계, 검인계약제도 등의 항목을 분석하였다. 부동산거래제도의 발전방안으로는 부동산거래제도의 편리성 제고를 위하여 서면중개계약제 도입, 확인설명서제도 개선, 부동산직거래제도 개선 등을 제시하였고, 부동산거래의 안전성 확보를 위하여 부동산 거래이행보증제도와 권원보험제도의 전면적 실시 및 손해배상제도의 개선 등을 제시하였다. 아울러 부동산서비스업의 선진화를 위하여 종합부동산서비스업의 육성, 부동산 컨설팅업의 활성화, 각종 자격제도의 정비, 검인계약서제도 개선 등을 제시하였다. 결론적으로 우리나라의 부동산거래제도가 변화하는 국내외 환경에 적극적으로 대처하기 위해서는 현행 법제에 대한 개편을 검토할 필요가 있는바, 주요 관심사인 거래이행보증제도, 권원보험제도, 종합부동산업무 등을 다양하게 수용하여 법제화할 필요가 있으며, 이를 위하여 가칭 ‘부동산거래기본법을’을 제정하여 시행할 필요가 있다고 생각한다. To secure the safety of real estate transactions and prevent the good-natured misconducts in real estate transactions. various devices for promoting the safety of real estate transaction such as escrow and title insurances should be much needed. In case of accidents. in order to provide sufficient compensation for loss of the customers. it is necessary to adjust the upper limit of guaranteeing insurance or allowances. To enhance the conveniency of transaction. expansion of exclusive agency listing. utilization of contract by paper. improvement of the check lists are truly needed. Also, official seal on contract should be improved particularly because a number of people involved in transaction usually report the faked figures of transaction resulting in addition of unnecessary step. which is against the initial intention of introducing the program. that is, enhancing the transparency of the transaction. As one of the ways for advancing the real estate industry. it is suggested here that a comprehensive real estate services companies which would provide various real estate related services to needy people by incorporating the currently scattered services. In Korea, various real estate related businesses are recognized by individual laws and protected by many licence programs. and thus much discussions have been made for introducing new licences. However, much caution are needed because new licence programs are likely to produve overlaps with the existing ones. thus creating complaints from the existing licence owners and often turning out to be much out of the line with principles of the market economy. therefore, it is strongly suggested that rather than newly establishing licences, market autonomy should be allowed to play its own role. Improving and advancing real estate services and transaction systems would require more comprehensive approaches including cultural and institutional aspects and perhaps cannot be done only with a couple of legal or institutional improvement measures. However, in pursuing the more enhanced safety of real estate transaction and thus advancing it, various attempts and measures discussed above should be made and explored.

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