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An equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi high entropy alloy (HEA) coating layer was prepared via a cold spray (CS) process. In orderto control the microstructure and nano-indentation properties of the CS HEA, heat treatments were employed. CS HEAcoating layer showed a heterogeneous microstructure where ultra-fine grains were formed at the particle interfaces, whilecoarse grains were formed inside the particles. Furthermore, deformation twins (DTs) were also formed inside the particlesdue to severe plastic deformation (SPD) in each particle generated during the CS deposition. For the 550 °C heat treatment(HT), fine Cr-rich precipitates were additionally formed at the grain boundary and particle boundary. By contrast, recrystallizationoccurred during 850 °C HT, while the size of the Cr-rich precipitate increased. The nano-indentation hardness ofthe CS HEA coating layer was 10.9 GPa, which was ~ 3 times higher than that of the conventional cast HEA. The superiorhardness of the CS HEA might has been enabled due to the combination of the high dislocation density, DTs, and ultra-finegrains. Based on the results above, the strategy to control the microstructure and mechanical properties through HT of theequiatomic CoCrFeMnNi HEA coating layer prepared via the CS process has been discussed.
To prepare activated carbon with a high specific surface area, oxygen functional groups (OFGs) that can serve as useful electron donors during KOH activation were treated with nitric acid and incorporated into activated carbon. OFGs are incorporated differently according to the surface characteristics of starting materials. Up to 22.46% OFGs are incorporated into wood-based activated carbons (WACs), the C=O, COOH contents was 1.90, 17.05%, respectively. Whereas up to 12.82% OFGs are incorporated into coconut shell-based activated carbons, the C=O, COOH contents was 4.12, 6.15%, respectively. The OFGs used for increasing the specific surface area are the carbonyl group, and as the content of the functional group increases, the carbonyl group spreads to the carboxyl group. The specific surface area of activated carbons increased by 10–68% with an increase in the carbonyl group up to 6% (maximum point of carbonyl group). On the other hand, the specific surface area for WACs increased when the carboxyl group was 10% or below, but decreased by 6–15% when it increased to 10% or excess.
Yong Sung Choi,Sung-Hoon Chung,Eun Sun Kim,Eun Sun Kim,Eunhee Lee,Euiseok Jung,So-Yeon Lee,Woo Ryoung Lee,Hye Sun Yoon,Yong Joo Kim,Ji Kyoung Park,Son Moon Shin,Ellen Ai-Rhan Kim 대한신생아학회 2022 Neonatal medicine Vol.29 No.1
Purpose: Pediatricians have a significant responsibility to educate mothers about the importance of breastfeeding. However, there have been minimal efforts in the courses of resident training in Korea. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the change in knowledge and attitude before and after a 4-week breastfeeding educational intervention among multicenter residents. Methods: Prospective interventional educational research was designed for residents at eight training hospitals in Korea. Institutional reviews were obtained in each hospital. The education curriculum consisted of 14 courses regarding breastfeeding theory and practice. These materials were used to teach pediatric residents for 4 weeks. Knowledge-based tests were administered before the course, and re-tests were administered after the course using different test items of similar levels. Test scores and survey responses were compared before and after the intervention. Results: A total of 73 residents (1st year 20, 2nd year 23, 3rd year 16, and 4th year residents 14) from eight training hospitals completed the intervention. Their average age was 30.3±2.9 years, 17 (23.3%) were male, 22 (30.1%) were married, and eight had more than one child of their own. The mean pre-test score was 61.8±13.4 and the mean post-test score was 78.3±7.5 (P<0.001). The inter-grade difference in the score was significant in the pre-test (P=0.005), but not significant in the post-test (P=0.155). There were more responses of obtaining confidence after the intervention (P<0.001). Conclusion: In our study, pediatric residents showed improvement in their knowledge and confidence level after 4 weeks of the breastfeeding curriculum. This will provide a basis for future policymaking in the training of pediatric residents regarding breastfeedReceived: 6 January 2022 Revised: 15 February 2022 Accepted: 15 February 2022 Correspondence to: Ellen Ai-Rhan Kim, MD Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505, Korea Tel: +82-2-3010-3390 Fax: +82-2-3010-6978 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org A Multi-Center Educational Research Regarding Breastfeeding for Pediatrics Residents in Korea Yong-Sung Choi, MD,PhD1, Sung-Hoon Chung, MD, PhD2, Eun Sun Kim, MD, PhD3, Eun Hee Lee, MD4, Euiseok Jung, MD5, So Yeon Lee, MD, PhD5, Wooryoung Lee, MD6, Hye Sun Yoon, MD, PhD7, Yong Joo Kim, MD, PhD8, Ji Kyoung Park, MD, PhD9, Son Moon Shin, MD, PhD9, and Ellen Ai-Rhan Kim, MD, PhD5 1Department of Pediatrics, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Korea 2Department of Pediatrics, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Korea 3Department of Pediatrics, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon, Korea 4Department of Pediatrics, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul, Korea 5Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea 6Department of Pediatrics, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Korea 7Department of Pediatrics, Nowon Eulji Medical Center, Eulji University, Seoul, Korea 8Department of Pediatrics, Hanyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Korea 9Department of Pediatrics, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, Korea Neonatal Med 2022 February;29(1):28-35 https://doi.org/10.5385/nm.2022.29.1.28 pISSN 2287-9412 . eISSN 2287-9803 Copyright(c) 2022 By Korean Society of Neonatology This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Original Article 29 Neonatal Med 2022 February;29(1):28-35 https://doi.org/10.5385/nm.2022.29.1.28 ing in Korea.
이상언 ( Sang Eon Lee ),노동진 ( Dong Jin No ),박장호 ( Jang Ho Park ),이고은 ( Go Eun Lee ),박인숙 ( In Sook Park ),류영수 ( Yeong Su Lyu ),안민섭 ( Min Seob Ahn ),정지호 ( Ji Ho Jung ) 대한한방신경정신과학회 2010 동의신경정신과학회지 Vol.21 No.2
Yuzheng(鬱證) comes from obstruction of qi by stress. The patient has depressed mood, irritable sign, chest discomfort, costal pain, angry state or some strange feeling on the throat. Oh-Ji-Sang-Seung(五志相勝) therapy is base on the theory of interrelation in five elements in oriental medicine. The contents of Oh-Ji-Sang-Seung(五志相勝) therapy include five subjugations of five emotions. Anxiety subjugates fear(思勝恐), fear subjugates joy(恐勝喜), joy subjugates pity(喜勝悲), pity subjugates anger(悲勝怒), and anger subjugates anxiety(怒勝思). Forgiveness program is a kind of psychological therapies to decrease the degree of anger and it is included in Oh-Ji-Sang-Seung(五志相勝) therapy. In this case, a female patient, 50 years old, who suffered from Yuzheng(鬱證) with chest discomfort, irritable sign, easily angry state, depressed mood, hot flush, insomnia. We used Oh-Ji-Sang-Seung(五志相勝) therapy besides herbal medication, acupuncture to her condition got improved. Therefore we reported it for the treatment.
( Eun Uk Jung ),( Youn Jae Lee ),( Hyun Su Jun ),( Yong Gun Jo ),( Sung Kil Park ),( Sung Jae Park ),( Sang Heon Lee ),( Ji Hyun Kim ),( Jung Sik Choi ),( Sam Ryong Jee ),( Sang Young Seol ) 대한간학회 2011 Clinical and Molecular Hepatology(대한간학회지) Vol.17 No.3(S)
Purpose Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection due to their occupational exposure. Many guidelines recommended to perform routine screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) of HCWs to receive appropriate treatment. This study aimed to identify the risk factors of positive interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA) of HCWs in intermediate TB burden country. Methods This was a retrospective study in a tertiary hospital in South Korea. Form May 2017 to March 2018, HCWs were tested IGRA. We estimated the prevalence of TB infection and the annual risk of TB infection (ARI) based on their IGRA Results according to age group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors for IGRA positivity. High-risk departments were defined as TB related departments. Results Total 3233 HCWs were analyzed. Median age of participants was 38.0 and female was predominant (72.6%). Overall positive rate of IGRA was 24.1%. According to age group, IGRA positive rates were 6.6% in the 20s, 14.4% in the 30s, 34.3% in the 40s, and around 50% in the 50s and 60s, respectively. The ARIs were 0.349% - 0.034% between 1986 and 2005, midyear of TB infection, have gradually decreased over approximately three decades. The area under the curve (AUC) predicting LTBI using IGRA was 0.749 with age cut-off point at 40. In multivariate analysis, older age, healed TB lesion in x-ray, male gender were risk factors of IGRA positivity, whereas high-risk TB department was not a significant risk factor for positive IGRA Results. Conclusions This study suggests that in intermediate TB burden countries, the LTBI test Result of HCWs might be greatly affected by age itself, rather than occupational exposure, thus careful interpretation considering the age structure is required.
( Ji Soo Choi ),( Su Hwan Lee ),( Eun Hye Lee ),( Chang Hwan Seol ),( Sung Ryeol Kim ),( Byung Hoon Park ),( Ah Young Leem ),( Kyung Soo Chung ),( Moo Suk Park ),( Young Sam Kim ) 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 2020 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 추계학술대회 초록집 Vol.128 No.-
Purpose Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) with acute respiratory failure can increase the development of pneumothorax during treatment. This study aims to identify the incidence and related factors of pneumothorax in PCP patients with acute respiratory failure and to analyze their prognosis. Method We retrospectively reviewed the occurrence of pneumothorax including clinical characteristics and Results of other examinations in 119 patients with PCP pneumonia and respiratory failure requiring the mechanical ventilator treatment in medical intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary-care center between July 2016 and April 2019. Result The 28-day survival rate was 62.2% (N=74). Twenty-two patients (18.5%) developed the pneumothorax during ventilator treatment, and 45 patients (37.8%) were required the tracheostomy due to weaning failure. The cytomegalovirus co-infection (odds ratio 13.9; p = 0.013) were related with the occurrence of pneumothorax. Of 74 patients with 28-day survival, 15 patients (20.3%) were underwent the pneumothorax. In those patients, 5 patients survived (p = 0.048), and only 2 patients finally succeeded to wean from the ventilator (p = 0.037). Conclusion PCP patients with acute respiratory failure who developed pneumothorax were not associated with 28-day mortality, but might have related to difficult and prolonged weaning from the mechanical ventilator.
Researchers have endeavored to identify the etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Though the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases remains unknown, dysregulation of the immune system in the host gastrointestinal tract is believed to be the major causative factor. Omics is a powerful methodological tool that can reveal biochemical information stored in clinical samples. Lipidomics is a subset of omics that explores the lipid classes associated with inflammation. One objective of the present systematic review was to facilitate the identification of biochemical targets for use in future lipidomic studies on inflammatory bowel diseases. The use of high-resolution mass spectrometry to observe alterations in global lipidomics might help elucidate the immunoregulatory mechanisms involved in inflammatory bowel diseases and discover novel biomarkers for them. Assessment of the characteristics of previous clinical trials on inflammatory bowel diseases could help researchers design and establish patient selection and analytical method criteria for future studies on these conditions. In this study, we curated literature exclusively from four databases and extracted lipidomics-related data from literature, considering criteria. This paper suggests that the lipidomics approach toward research in inflammatory bowel diseases can clarify their pathogenesis and identify clinically valuable biomarkers to predict and monitor their progression.
This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of 3 extracts derived from wheat sprouts (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat sprouts` phenolic compounds had the highest antioxidant activities according to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (