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      • KCI등재

        댄스스포츠(자이브, 차차차) 운동시 심폐기능반응에 관한 비교연구

        남상남(Sang-Nam Nam), 최인애(In-Ae Choi), 인희교(Hee-Kyo In), 김차남(Cha-Nam Kim), 김종혁(Jong-Hyuck Kim) 한국생활환경학회 2001 한국생활환경학회지 Vol.8 No.3

        The purpose of this study was to provide effective information about the guidelines of dance sports and basic data for scientific means, by analyzing metabolic and cardiopulmonary function during exercise of dance sports. By repeated measuring those, each one of men and women who have no cardiopulmonary system problems and are dance sports athlete on school. The results are obtained as following. There are some significant differences (P<0.05) for woman at 3 and a half minutes, 4 minutes, 4 and a half min and 5 min on the results of heart rate t-test, and also both jive (man) and cha cha cha (woman) are showed higher levels to degree of strength of two works. There are some significant differences (P<0.05) for man at 30 seconds and I min on the minute ventilation t-test, and both jive (man) and cha cha cha (woman) are showed higher levels to degree of strength of ones. There is no significant difference for both man and woman on the respiratory exchange ratio t-test, and all of them are showed similar levels to degree of strength of jive and cha cha chao There are some significant differences (P<0.05) for man at a half min and 5 min on the t-test results of maximum oxygen uptake on weight. and in jive both man and woman are showed higher levels to degree of strength of two works. From the result mentioned above, By using the measurement instruments with the up-to-date technique for dance sports as an excellent aerobic exercise on field and measuring for the degree of strength and physiological change of each items, so analyzing characteristics of physiological views for each items can establish the basis of scientific guidance means for some athletes practices dance sports for competition and provide general subjects with the important informations about selecting appropriate to the fitness level of them the type of dance or setting up the degree of strength of exercise and will be able to contribute widely to the development of dance sports, which has already been selected in Asian games as an regular item and seems to be selected in Olympic games as one.

      • KCI등재

        Original Article : Maternal antimullerian hormone as a predictor of fetal aneuploidy occurring in an early pregnancy loss

        ( So Hyun Shim ), ( Hyeong In Ha ), ( Yong Wook Jung ), ( Sung Shin Shim ), ( Yeon Kyung Cho ), ( Ji Youn Kim ), ( Kyoung Jin Lee ), ( Dong Hyun Cha ), ( Soo Hyun Kim ), ( Hee Jin Park ) 대한산부인과학회 2015 Obstetrics & Gynecology Science Vol.58 No.6

        Objective The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between the parameter representing ovarian reserve and the fetal aneuploidy in early spontaneous miscarriage. Methods A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed in patients who were diagnosed with early pregnancy loss (≤13 gestational weeks) and examined for fetal karyotype at the CHA Gangnam Medical Center, CHA Bundang Medical Center, and CHA Gumi Medical Center between January 2011 and December 2012. Karyotyping was performed by the Genetic Laboratory of the Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center. Medical records were reviewed for demographics, karyotype analysis and hormonal assay of ovarian reserve including antimullerian hormone (AMH) and follicle stimulating hormone. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results A total 462 patients were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 35.31±4.12 years and the mean AMH level was 3.88±3.50 ng/mL (n=195). Two hundred eleven conceptuses (45.7%) of patients showed the euploid and 251 (54.3%) showed the aneuploid. There are significant differences in maternal age, AMH and gestational age between fetal euploid and aneuploid groups (34.46±4.35 vs. 36.04±3.78 years, P<0.001; 4.60±3.86 vs. 3.43±3.18 ng/mL, P=0.022; 7.67±1.54 vs. 8.27±1.46 weeks, P<0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that low AMH level and early gestational age were maternal age-independent markers for fetal aneuploid (P<0.001 and P=0.045, respectively). Conclusion Low maternal AMH level might be a predicting marker for fetal aneuploid in early pregnancy loss.

      • KCI등재후보

        馬祖道一 禪師의 사회의식 탐구

        차차석(Cha Cha-seok) 보조사상연구원 2005 보조사상 Vol.23 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        This paper searched social consciousness showed the Zen idea of Majo(馬祖) in the three aspects. Despite somewhat boring analysis and demonstrations, I felt they left nothing to draw a conclusion. Briefly, the pith of his thought is as follows. First, the consciousness on the stratum through Majo's Zen idea is very harmonious. Therefore, he fused the non-zen(敎宗) with Zen Buddhism(禪宗) as the central figure. Again, he unified and integrated the many affiliation of the northern Zen(北宗禪) into the southern Zen(南宗禪). These can be said to be suggestive that he switched from aristocratic or highbrow Buddhism to popular and mass Buddhism. Second, the matter is whether his social consciousness held fast to negativity indeed. This point is inconsistent and discrepant each other. That is to say, while he pursued the world of consciousness that is remarkably improved in the view of unattached idea(ie emptiness, 空) of Mahayanist Buddhism, he greatly affirmed an actuality in the stand that mind-nature(性) is in the nature(自然), and then it brought about a criticism called 'denial of free will'. Third, as you're able to know by the facts mentioned above, although Majo was willing to embrace all standing on his amalgamative thoughts, he seemed that he took an neutral attitude between an embodiment of positive idea of Bodhi-sattva(菩薩) and a circular historical view of chinese tradition. If you draw a conclusion that it's his limitations, we can say that, the ulterior thought of southern Zen had immanently and inherently a perpetual overcome about a realistic limit and had the factors which could escape from an ideology of Buddhism called actual reform.

      • KCI등재
      • 법화경에 나타난 增上慢의 사상적 연원과 그 정체성 고찰

        차차석(Cha Cha-seok) 불교학연구회 2002 불교학연구 Vol.4 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        We can found a specialised charcter in the Sutra of the Lotus of review about Adhimana(增上慢) that the criticism for belief of Lotus Sutra is the feature for some opposition party criticise thier opposition party by thier own standard. The Sutra regards these memeber make a big group and blame their good conduct is pretended truth and critices as them the memeber of Sravaka(성문승) then. Is it possible that we can regrad the member of adhimana as a opposition party for belief of Lotus Sutra(법화행자). We cannot found out the Mahayanayae Buddism in the Abidharma Buddhism. There are a lot of blames for Hinayana Buddism in the early stage of Mahayanayae Buddism material and many scholar regard that this is a shift way to achieve thier orthodoxy while campaign a new Buddism movement. We can found that there was a acute struggle between the old order and new order. While new order launched campagin for the purpose of take the poewer that was proceed by oriented for belief of Pagoda(불탑신앙). New order and old drder had great struggle to take thier friendly supporter. It was beyond the real world and very serious situation. we can define that the Mahayanayae Buddhist tried to achieve thier orthodoxy while campaign a new Buddhism movement get the launched thier campaingn m. in the same standard, acoring to the Chapter of Skilfulness(방편품), belief of Lotus Sutra regards thier opposion party as Adhimana and claimed that they will fall into Narake. They are pseudo religion and fake. in the 『小品般若經』 or 『道行般若經』, the remnant of a system of the Prajna Sutra, we cannot see the clue that they are directly regarded as Adhimana. some characterised group are named them as same as a Adhimana group. we can also see the same formation in the Sutra of the Lotus. In the same of the Pan-prajna Sutra, we can see the fact that there were Shangha of Abidharma and they were blame the Mahayana Sutra as a pseudo religion in the 『小品般若經』, 『小品般若經』, 『般舟三昧經』, 『遺日摩尼寶經』. In review above fact, we can draw a fact that it is possible to presume the belief of Lotus Sutra is a group as they opposite the Buddhist movement or Buddhist ideology. There were member of 5,000 were appeared the Chapter of Skilfulness in the Sutra of the Lotus. and they are classified as a member of Adhimana.

      • KCI등재후보

        돈황본 『六祖壇經』에 나타난 법화사상

        차차석(Cha Cha-seok) 보조사상연구원 2005 보조사상 Vol.24 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          The ideas of the Saddharma-pundarika-sutra(法華經) mentioned in the Sutra calle《Youkjo-Dangyoung(육조단경)》 and Hyeneung(慧能)‘s standpoint about the thoughts are as follows.   The first is the idea of sudden awakening(頓悟). Everyone has the Buddha-nature of wisdom(般若佛性) in his own interior and it called ‘Jasungbul(自成佛)' - to become Buddha by oneself. But Hyeneung said that they could reveal their Buddha-nature of wisdom if people had entire mind on emptiness(空) without preoccupation and non-dualistic(不二的) cognizance beyond a relative dualism. In terms of that, he interpreted Sahong-seowon(四弘誓願) - The four universal vows of a Buddha or bodhisattva - was what people wanted to live a non-dualistic life to reveal their interior Buddha-nature.   The Second is what his thought is based on popularization of Buddhism. His standpoint is not Buddhism of an intellectual-oriented but easily becoming Buddha whoever comprehend their own nature(自性), which made an epoch in the aspects of the secularization movement of Buddhism. It doesn"t matter whether they read the discourses of Buddha or not. It is important how realize the Buddha-nature of wisdom that they have innately. The Sutra, in terms of that, expressed by the letters cannot be the ultimate objective. It is just what we need because the Sutra help us make sure becoming Buddha by themselves. So does reading Saddharma-Pundarika(法華經).   Thirdly, he thought the three vehicles(三乘) and the vehicle of one-ness(一乘) were an skillful means to explain the differentiation appearing in phenomenon. A human being isn"t identical. Everything like personality or appearance and so forth is different. However, that differences are substantially same when we take a side view of having Jasungbul(自成佛). An essential value of life hasn"t any distinction although there are some differences of phenomenon in Jasungbul which is represent as one-Buddha vehicle or the method of realizing the Buddha-nature of wisdom or existence of defilements and so on. Not only recognizing each difference but also emphasizing the identity in the essential dimensions is both respecting the relative values and recognizing the worldly values. The whole things can be understood in the same view, either a metaphor on trees nad plants or explanation about Dharma of the four vehicles(四乘), the goat, deer, ox carts and the great white-bullock cart of the Lotus Sutra.   Finally, Hyeneung‘s standpoint about the idea of the Dharma-flower mentioned above is so much creative. But we shouldn"t lookover that the pioneering thinkers of Dharma-flower as Chuntae-Jieui(天台智?) and Gasang- Giljang (嘉祥吉藏) etc. pave the way for bringing out that ideology. Even if there are no direct materials which can give us the proof of mutual-relationship of influences, some resemblance is found in both the way of thinking and the thinking system.

      • KCI등재

        불교 조상의례의 사상적 특징과 전개

        차차석(Cha Seuk Cha) 한국종교학회 2012 宗敎硏究 Vol.69 No.-

        This paper aims to considerate features and aims of the ancestral rites in buddhism. In short, it is like this. Firstly, the substance of the ancestral rites in buddhism connotes that it seeks a good fortune. This point is inconsistent with the position of the early buddhism which stresses the law of cause and effect. But the ancestral rites are a religious ritual which spiritualizes the connection between the dead and the living, and it is expressed in the spirit of the total dedication(廻向) which is stressed in the mahayana buddhism. In this regard, we could find the meaning of the ancestral rites in buddhism. If buddhism had clung to just the law of cause and effect, it might stay the level of ethics or philosophy, and could not improve to the religion that gives the hope to people. Secondly, because mahayana buddhism and buddhist tantra seek to be popularized, they become to need many skillful means. In this point, we think that they created the ritual which have a connection with the concept of the cycle of rebirth which is ordinary one among Indian people in that time. But because they should keep the substance and identity of buddhism as a religion, we can guess that the aim of the ritual has been concluded to the good fortune for the dead. Thirdly, buddhism in China needed the fusion with the traditional culture of loyalty and filial piety(忠孝) of China, in this point, we can guess that buddhism in China produced such concept as the buddhist filial piety. From such demands of the times, many fabricated sutras for the filial piety were produced. The appearance of such sutras reflects the spirit of the age, namely, the sinicization of buddhism. We can call it as the fusion of Indian culture and traditional Chinese one. Through many different buddhist sutras which were made in China such as Ullambana-sutra(盂蘭盆經), the sutra of the original vow of Ksitigarbha bodhisattva(地裝菩薩本願經), new buddhist culture in which China is a hub was borne, and went around other countries, and created new buddhist ceremony fused with each country `s culture. We can say that the buddhist culture in the Northeast Asia associated with the ancestor rites has a common denominator, namely, the filial piety and the achievement of the truth in the feature appeared above. Finally, The develop of industrialization and the expansion of urbanization shows different cultural aspects compared with old culture. Especially, by the rigorism and complication, the ritual for the dead in Confucianism have been on the ebb in the busy modern people, and the buddhist ritual is appearing as the alternative. We think that the ritual for the dead in buddhism will be more popular, because it has the simplicity on which was put emphasis by modern people, and connotes the filial piety for the dead and the concept of good fortune.

      • KCI등재

        만해의 『조선불교유신론』에 나타난 포교관(布敎觀)과 그 지향점(指向點)

        차차석 ( Cha Cha-Seuk ) 한국불교선리연구원 2020 禪文化硏究 Vol.28 No.-

        이 논문은 만해의 『조선불교유신론』(이하 『유신론』)에 나타난 포교관과 그 지향점의 특징이 무엇인가를 분석하고자 한다. 만해의 『유신론』은 조선말기 불교계의 개혁과 갱생을 위해 저술되었다고 평가 받는다. 이 책에 나타난 만해의 포교관은 근대세계로의 전환이라는 시대적 부응, 불교의 본질이 무엇인가에 대한 근원적 통찰, 대중과의 소통을 통한 사회성의 회복 등을 모색하고 있다. 논자는 먼저 이 책의 정확한 성격과 포교를 중시하게 된 배경을 그의 개혁적인 사상의 특징에서 살펴보고자 했다. 따라서 이에 대한 대표적인 연구서의 성격과 특징을 분석하고자 시도했다. 즉 당시의 국제정세와 국내 불교계의 현실 속에서 개혁과 포교가 지니는 상관성을 분석하고자 하는 시도이다. 『유신론』에는 포교라는 항목이 별도로 설정되어 있었지만 중요성을 인식하는 정도였다. 이후 1931년 10월 ≪불교≫ 88호에 발표한 「조선불교의 개혁안」에서는 ‘경론의 번역과 대중불교의 건설'이라는 항목에서 포교에 대한 필요성이나 유관 내용을 상세하게 밝히고 있다. 또한 1931년 8월 ≪불교≫ 86호에 실린 「불교 청년 총동맹에 대하여」<sup>1)</sup>라는 글에서도 ‘사회적 진출의 필요'를 포교와 연계해 강조하고 있다. 논자는 이상의 글과 여타 다른 자료를 참조하면서 만해가 지닌 포교관의 핵심, 포교의 방식, 포교를 통해 지향하고자 했던 불교적 가치가 무엇인가에 대해 살펴보고자 했다. This article tries to analyze the characteristics of the Korean Buddhist mission and its orientation described in Manhae's “Joseon Buddhism Yushin theory” (hereinafter referred to as “Yushin theory”) of Manhae. Manhae's “Yushin theory” is considered to have been written for the reform and rehabilitation of the Buddhist community during the late Joseon Dynasty. The Manhae's mission appearing in this book seeks a timely response to the transition to the modern world, fundamental insights into what Buddhism is supposed to be, and restoration of sociality through communication with the public. The writer first attempted to examine the exact nature of the book and the background behind its emphasis on missionary work from the characteristics of his reformist ideas. Therefore, an attempt was made to analyze the nature and characteristics of a representative study. In other words, it is an attempt to analyze the correlation between reforms and missionary work in the international situation of the time and the reality of the Korean Buddhist community. Although the topic of missionary work was set separately in the “Yushin theory,” it merely recognized the importance of missionary work. Subsequently, in October 1931, “the Reform Proposal of Joseon Buddhism”, which was published in the No. 88 issue of the Buddhism, detailed the necessity and related details of missionary work in the section titled “Translation of Buddhist Scriptures and Construction of Public Buddhism.” The article, “About the General Alliance of the Young People of Buddhism,” which was published in the Buddhism's August 1931 issue, also demonstrated the importance of Buddhist missionary work in conjunction with the need for social advancement. Referring to the above articles and other materials, the writer tried to look at the core of Manhae's mission, the method of missionary work, and what Buddhist values he wanted to pursue through missionary work. Preaching mission is still an important topic for contemporary global Buddhism. As the society is getting more complex, the method of missionary work has to be realized through a very complex method. Experts point out that it is necessary to find ways to constantly communicate with the public by converging education, welfare and culture. Given that, the significance of missionary work claimed by Manhae does not end with problems in the past, but is still appealing.

      • KCI등재

        智의의 無道可修와 馬祖의 道不用修의 比較

        차차석(Cha Cha-Seok) 보조사상연구원 2004 보조사상 Vol.22 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        This study inquired into a system of thought, both the theory of Mudogasu(無道可修論) by Wondon-Jigwan(圓頓止觀) of Chuntae(天台), and the theory of Dobulyongsu(道不用修論) by Majo-Doil(馬祖道一) who established the denomination of Hongju(洪州宗) and also considered two ideas in their similarities. Althought two great thinkers each belonged to the different sects, it is instructive what there are so many analogousness in their thoughts. Prior to Jieui of Chuntae, in other words, the prominent Buddhist philosophers in China shared the thought foundation of Jeuksaeedo(卽事而道) which was established by refinedly uniting the theory of Cheyong-sangjeuk(體用相卽論) with the theory of Daeseung-gyong(大乘經論) by tradition of China. However, because they belonged to the different sects, it goes without saying that we can also find some points of difference between two philosophers, but it looks a bit detailed for their similarities on generalization of spiritual discipline. Also, which is not that large when we take consideration into the difference of religious personality and their background of culture and thought. These differences result from unlike vision about the world of two philosophers. It is natural that we have to assume a cautious attitude to jump to the conclusion how the prominent Buddhist philosophers or campaigners effect on each other sequentially. Before all, they were around two hundred years away from one to another. In the next place, it is difficult to demonstrate how two philosophers have an effect and were influenced by each other through philological materials. If one was influenced by another, Of course, it is in the right that Majo was affected by Chuntae. It was known that many Buddhist monks like Budaesa(孚大士), Udu-bubyung(牛頭法融), Nam yang-Hyechung(남양혜충) and so on were influenced by Zen of Chuntae(天台禪) throughout that 200 years. However, we cannot also draw a conclusion that they have an effect and were influenced, assuming various probabilities on their mutual influence. Two philosophers-both Chuntae and Majo-are outstanding philosophers to contribute greatly in the history of the Chinese Buddhism. The thoughts as Dobulyongsu which was known Majo asserted himself for the first time were already in Wondon-Jigwan of Chuntae and these thoughts had enormously affected Namjongsun(南宗禪) in the Dang(唐) and Song(宋) dynasty since then. Therefore, I think it involves consideration from various angles for these reasons. In my thought, again, it is instructive that it became an opportunity to trace the origin of thought that made way for generalization, post-absolutization and post-popularization of spiritual discipline.

      • KCI등재

        震默一玉의 선사상과 그 연원 고찰

        차차석(Cha, Cha Seuk) 한국불교연구원 2011 佛敎硏究 Vol.34 No.-

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        본 논문은 조선 중후기에 활동한 진묵스님의 법맥과 선사상의 특징, 그리고 사상적 연원이 무엇인가에 대해 살펴보는 것이 목적이다. 전체적인 내용은 몇 단계로 구분해 파악하고 있다. 법맥의 경우 진묵스님은 휴정서산에게 닿아 있지만 그것은 당시 일반적인 불교계의 조류와 무관하지 않다. 혹은 후학들에 의해 휴정과 연결되었을 가능성을 배제할 수 없다. 그렇지만 사상적으로 상통점이 있다는 점에서 또 다른 가능성도 배제할 수 없다. 진묵스님의 선사상의 특징은 離 樂三昧와 楞嚴三昧에서 발견할 수 있으며, 특히 능엄삼매는 송 대 이후 전개된 중국의 선사상과 깊은 관계가 있다. 그런 점을 고려한다면 진묵스님은 일반적인 선사상의 흐름에 편승하면서도 자신의 사상적 지평을 구축하고 있다. 또한 진묵스님의 선사상은 이분법적 구별을 지양하고 우주와 자연, 너와 나를 하나로 인식하는 불이삼매의 연장선상에 있다. 그리고 이것을 다시 세분해 고찰하면 진속일여, 이입과 행입의 일치, 평상심시도와 自家寶藏등이다. 그리고 이러한 특징들은 모두 남종선의 연장선상에 있으며, 가르침을 보다 철저하게 현실 속에서 구현하고자 한 것이 그의 선사상에 내재된 본질적 특징이다. 진묵스님은 선승으로서 깨달음의 세계를 구축했지만 그것은 실천적인 入世로 표출되고 있다. 민중들의 지지를 받고, 그의 삶 자체가 신화화되었다는 것은 불교적 가치를 현실 속에 구현하고자 노력했다는 것을 상징한다. The aim of the present work is to review dharmic genealogy of Master Jinmook, who lived middle and late Chosun Dynasty. Moreover, characteristics of his meditative thought and origin of his thought are also examined. My arguments briefly are summarized as following, First, it is said that dharmic genealogy of Master Jinmook is Master Seosan. However, it might be reflection of general tendency of that period. Most probably, this genealogy was invented by the ages to come. Though it is intellectual similarity between the two. That is why, it has also possibility. Second, dharmic characteristics of Master Jinmook are lirak(離樂)-samadhi and Neungum(楞嚴)-samadhi. Especially, Neungum(楞嚴)-samadhi is a deep relation with Chinese meditative thought, which spread out post-Sung Dynasty. It maintains he seems to be jumping on that period and organized his idea at the same time. Third, Master Jinmook sublateed a dichotomous way of thinking. He did not divide between universe and nature, the subject and the object according to non-dualistic samadhi. In detail, there are ordinary mind is the way, the unitary between the mundane and the supramundane etc.. All these thought are descended from the Southern tradition in Ch'an school. Those are essential characteristics of his meditative thought. Fourth, he is as Ch'an master, who was following his own enlightenment and displayed into practical engagement of the mundane world. The general populace supported him and his life is mythologized by them. It represents that he tried Buddhist value into the mundane world.

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