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Classroom Spoken Discourse and Casual Conversation: A Comparison using Hymes's Ethno-methodological Framework Doms, David. 2003. Classroom Spoken Discourse and Casual Conversation: A Comparison using Hymes's Ethno-methodological Framework, English Language and linguistics 15, 167-190. this paper attempts to examine discourse carried out in classrooms and various naturalistic settings by using Hymes's ethno-methodological approach (1972) for exploring speech events. As compared to previous studies which have been done cross-sectionally and paid attention to describing and accounting for L2 leamers' grammatical competence mainly in a quantitative fashion, the present study attempts to tap leamers' discourse competence by qualitatively looking at ongoing conversations in various places. After summarizing the distinguishing features of an English language classroom activity and casual conversations through short real-life examples taken from my own data, I discuss the implications of the analysis for the development of learners' conversational skills and discoursal knowledge in E.F.L. classrooms. Key words: ethno-methodology, Hymes, spoken discourse, classroom talk, casual conversation
There would be no one, I believe, who havn't tried to compose on the standpoint of Korean Nationalism. The significance of the world "on the standpoint of Korean nationalism" is a composition of well selected materials from particular old folkores, histoy, nature secones or common experiences we are facing in daily life, so that all can realize it's Korean emotional feeling when listen to the piece. In course of writing Korean Music, we are blocked up by a wall of difficult problems. First, the problum of scales and modes. As we belong to the the realm of Orient, have to use Pentatone scales. With a pentatone scale we are forming five sunbubs(旋法-or modes). The five sunbubs are; Goong-sunbub (宮旋法-i.e. Do mode), Sang-sunbub(商旋法-i.e. Re mode), Gak-sunbub(角旋法-i.e. Mi mode), Chi-sunbub (徵旋法-i.e. Sol mode), and Woo-sunbub (羽旋法-i.e. La mode). Among these five modes, Sol mode is called as Gemyun-Jo (界面調) while the La mode is called as Pyung-Jo(平調), and these two modes are solely used in Korean National Music, especially the usage of Do mode is practically avoided for the reason of producing Chinese feelong. Second melody lines. As we all know, in western music, there are 12 halftones in an octave, among them the 7 tones are being used in Diatonic Scales and the 12 tones are all being used in Chromatic Scales. On the contrary, in orient, only 5 tones out of the 12 halves are used. Furthermore, with such limited tones in Korean Music can not escape from simple and monotonous melody. Therefore, it's very important and necessary to solve such existing problums. Needless to say, we need hard experiments. Third, the employment of harmonic chords. In the Diatonic Scales of Western Music, seven triade are being used, but only Tonic triad (Ⅰ) and submediant triad (Ⅵ) are used in orient pentatone scale. Therefore, the other harmonies of Western Music never can be used in Korean Music, i.e. the third note of Supertonic and Dominant triads and the fifth note of Mediant triad are never appear in Korean Music, so the reason of lacking harmonic elements that no triads can be established. In course of writing my own composition "Meodul-Ryung" and other works. Firstly, I did not limited to Gemyun-jo and Pyung-Jo and freely used 5 modes which had been constructed as pentatone scales as well as major and minor scales in Western music both Authentic and Plagal modes in Western Church Music. Secondly, even though it is very much easy to change the musical tastes by flexible tendency of modes, but I utilized the method of Church Modes of middle age by which Oriental, especially so called Korean feeling have been produced. Thirdly, In harmonic problums, I evaded from the limitation of modes in some degree; numbers of usable harmonies have been increased and used the cadences which resulted no awkwardness. In my opinion, it is a quite successful result in my work. I employed technique of chorale harmonization as possible as I can with the Church Modes. Thus, I belive, many Korean Composers would not agree or satisfy on such method I experimented, still it will give tremendous problums of writing to whom studied and dealt with mainly Western Music. Settlement of theory on Korean Music Writing can not be established in short period. Rome had not been constructed in a day.
Background: Multiple laboratory tests are used in the diagnosis and management of patients with diabetes mellitus. The quality of the scientific evidence supporting the use of these assays varies substantially. Approach: An expert committee compiled evidencebased recommendations for the use of laboratory analysis in patients with diabetes. A new system was developed to grade the overall quality of the evidence and the strength of the recommendations. A draft of the guidelines was posted on the Internet, and the document was modified in response to comments. The guidelines were reviewed by the joint Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine Committee of the AACC and the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry and were accepted after revisions by the Professional Practice Committee and subsequent approval by the Executive Committee of the American Diabetes Association. Content: In addition to the long-standing criteria based on measurement of venous plasma glucose, diabetes can be diagnosed by demonstrating increased hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations in the blood. Monitoring of glycemic control is performed by the patients measuring their own plasma or blood glucose with meters and by laboratory analysis of Hb A1c. The potential roles of noninvasive glucose monitoring, genetic testing,and measurement of autoantibodies, urine albumin, insulin, proinsulin, C-peptide, and other analytes are addressed. Summary: The guidelines provide specific recommendations based on published data or derived from expert consensus. Several analytes are found to have minimal clinical value at the present time, and measurement of them is not recommended.
In conversation with Hijoo Son, Phillips Academy, and Jooyeon Rhee, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Y. David Chung is an artist and filmmaker known for his film and video works, installations, performances, drawings, prints, and public artworks. This interview combines two conversations on the concept of Korean identity and diasporic art: one that took place in 2008, after Chung finished filming his documentary Koryo Saram: The Unreliable People, co-directed with Matt Dibble, and the other in 2018. Hijoo Son and Jooyeon Rhee jointly designed the questions, interviewed Professor Chung, and redacted the transcript into its present form.
Background: Firefighters are required to use self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), which impairs ventilatory mechanics. We hypothesized that firefighters have elevated arterial CO2 when using SCBA. Methods: Firefighters and controls performed a maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer and two graded exercise tests (GXTs) at 25%, 50%, and 70% of their maximal aerobic power, once with a SCBA facemask and once with protective clothing and full SCBA. Results: Respiratory rate increased more in controls than firefighters. Heart rate increased as a function of oxygen consumption (V : O2 ) more in controls than firefighters. End-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) during the GXTs was not affected by work rate in either group for either condition but was higher in firefighters at all work rates in both GXTs. SCBA increased ETCO2 in controls but not firefighters. Conclusions: The present study showed that when compared to controls, firefighters’ hypoventilate during a maximal test and GXT. The hypoventilation resulted in increased ETCO2, and presumably increased arterial CO2, during exertion. It is proposed that firefighters have altered CO2 sensitivity due to voluntary hypoventilation during training and work. Confirmation of low CO2 sensitivity and the consequence of this on performance and long-term health remain to be determined.
Ascertaining the actual growth rate of the population is an issue that has generated a lot of arguments amongst various scholars in the process of determining the actual census count. As such, this has had a pronounced effect in the determination of the actual growth rates for different urban populations in the country. But the effect centres much when it comes to accurately determining the major components or the factors contributing to the rapid growth of urban populations. The problem of rapid population growth centres much on its effects on the available basic social services and amenities provided for the people in these areas. Factors such as levels of medical knowledge and services, nutrition, quantity and quality of housing etc. to some extent influence the quality and duration of lives of the people. As such, their importance cannot be overemphasized when dealing with the issue of population growth. The study aims to examine the rate of population growth in the Federal Capital City, Abuja with respect to the available public provision of basic social services among other objectives. The findings from the data obtained from the Population Survey conducted in the city in 1985 show that the health care facilities available in the capital city are grossly inadequate to serve the entire inhabitants of the city. Moreso, the volume of in-migration into the city also compounds the health problems facing the city. The conclusion is that there is need for more resources to be allocated to the health sector to guarantee adequate and functional health care services in the city.
purpose: A pneumatic tourniquet is commonly used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to improve surgical field visualisation but may result in quadriceps muscle ischaemia. We performed this study to analyse the effect of the tourniquet on recovery following TKA. materials and methods: A prospective randomised single-blinded trial was undertaken to examine the effect of the tourniquet on post-operative pain, swelling, blood loss, quadriceps function and outcome following TKA. Twenty patients with osteoarthritis of the knee were randomised to tourniquet or no tourniquet groups. Quadriceps function was assessed using surface electromyography (EMG) during active knee extension. results: The no tourniquet group had significantly less pain in the early post-operative period compared to the tourniquet group. There was no difference in Oxford knee score, range of motion, or thigh and knee swelling up to 12 months post-operatively. Quadriceps function, measured by surface EMG, was compromised for the first six months post-surgery by tourniquet use. The radiological cement mantle at the bone prosthesis interface at 12-month follow-up was not affected by the absence of a tourniquet. conclusions: We believe that it is safe and beneficial for our patients to routinely perform TKA without a tourniquet.