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As international tourism in East Asia has rapidly grown, major countries in the region have striven to attract more travelers. National tourism marketers have utilized Facebook as a marketing platform to create a large group of followers and build active interactions with social media users. Despite the importance of social media marketing using Facebook, little study has paid attention to the investigation on the marketing strategies using social media. This study aims to explore Facebook data of three countries in East Asia (South Korea, Japan, and China including Hong Kong and Macao) and explore various insights to develop the Facebook online community effectively. This study collected all marketer-generated contents (MGCs; 12,356 posts) and all users' and marketers' comment messages (567,172 comments) published on five Facebook pages in English from January 1 in 2010 to April 30 in 2018. To gain a better understanding of the social media performance, this study described marketing performance with MGCs such as the numbers of "likes," "comments," and "shares"; content types; text mining analysis; and engagement trends in each Facebook page. Sentiment scores of comment messages (i.e., positivity, neutral, or negativity) were measured and visualized to explore the changes over time. This research statistically examined the effects of design attributes of MGCs on facilitating the engagement actions like "likes," "comments," and "shares". Lastly, authors conducted content analysis with the most engaging MGCs and identified unique content themes of the countries. The results not only proved the significance of creating visual components for engagement management in social media, but also showed distinct patterns and effects among five Facebook communities and. Based on the findings, this paper provided tourism marketers with practical implications for the effective social media marketing. In addition, this study offered interesting and valuable research ideas to initiate future research projects.
The treatability of piggery wastewater was studied by using the anoxic~oxic process(four stage Bardenpho process). The influent average COD concentration ranged from 2,475 to 2,807mg/L. The influent average TKN concentration was betwen 692 and 725 mg/L. The influent wastewater had NH₃-N concentrations of 482 to 546 mg/L, but NO₃-N contents were found to be negligible. The experiment was operated by decreasing the aeration tank HRT from 6 to 3 days. The inner and the outer recysle ratio was 400% and 50%, respectively. The organic loading rate 0.205-0.474 KgBOD/㎡/day and F/M ratio was 0.13-0.23 KgBOD/KgMv/day. Total kjeldahl nitrogen concentration and pH of the piggery wastewater were higher than those typically found in domestic wstewater. Considering the relatively high pH of the sample, it was estimated that about 60% of free ammonia existed in a from of TKN. The primary process for nitrogen removal appeared in air stripping. At the operating conditions in this experiment, phosphorus removal was in the range of 57-67% and the BOD removal was in the range of 77-91% at organic loading rate of 0.205-0.474 KgBOD/㎡/day (0.395-0.953 KgCOD/㎡/day).
E-rosette法에 의한 T cell의 百分率과 螢光抗體法, 感作牛赤血球擔體法, 酵素抗體法 및 마우스赤血球 rosette法에 의한 B cell 의 百分率을 檢査하여 다음과 같이 요약할 수 있었다. 정상성인군의 active T cell은 26±8.2%이었고 total T cell은 72±4.9%이었다. B cell 는 螢光抗體法으로 22±5.4%, 感作牛赤血球擔體法으로 15.8±4.9%, 酵素抗體法으로 15±5.2% 그리고 mouse RBC-rosette法으로 17.2±4.1%이었다. 惡性腫瘍에 있어서 active T cell은 27.±10.4%이었고 total T cell 은 59±11.2%로서 정상인군에 비하여 유의한 감소를 보였다. 良性疾患에 있어서 T cell 은 정상인군에 비하여 유의한 차이를 볼 수 없었다. T cell percent by E-rosette and B cell by fluorescent antibody, senitized ox RBC rosette, enzyme antibody and mouse RBC rosette tests were performed. In healthy adult group the active T cell was 26±8.2% and total T cell was 72±4.9%, B cell by fluorescent antibody was 22.±5.40%, by ox RBC rosette 15.8±4.9%, by enzyme antibody 15±5.2% and by RBC-rosette 17.2±4.1%. In malignant tumor the active T cell was 27±10.4% and total T cell was 59±11.2%. In benign diseases T cell count showed no significant difference from normal adult group.
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The composting process is a suitable to dispose the livestock manure in terms of resources recovery. However the performence of composting process is greatly affected by the environmental conditions such as characteristics of manure, type of the bulking agent, initial moisture contents, temperature, recylcle and so on. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the optimum environmental conditions of composting process for livestock manures. The analytical results indicated that no bulking agent was necessary for the cow manure because of the proper C/N ratio. However the pig manure required a bulking agent since the pig manure had not only low in C/N ration but poor ventilation characteristics. In addtion, the initial miosture content for optimum composting appeared to be about 60%. The temperature control was also an essential factor to enhance the activity of thermophilic microorganisms in the laboratory composting unit. It was further found that the recycle of composts may contributed the completion of composting precess as well as C/N ratio reduction and moisture control.
1981년 본 대학 부속병원 임상병리 細菌檢査室에 의뢰된 검체에서 분리된 35種의 총 菌株수는 891株이었으며 소변에서 분리된 것이 301株(33.8%)로 가장 많았고 다음은 喀痰, 膿 및 咽喉순이었다. 100株 이상씩 분리된 菌種은 S. epidermidis, Micrococcus, S. aureus와 E. coli 순이었고 S. epidermidis는 小便과 喀痰, Micrococcus는 喀痰에서 S.aureus는 膿과 小便에서 E. coli는 小便에서 분리된 것이 대부분이었다. Streptococcus는 α-hemolyticus가 99株로서 喀痰에서 주로 분리되었고 50株 내외로 분리된 K. pneumoniae, Ent.cloacae, Ps. fluorescens, Citrobacter freundii와 Acinetobacter calcoaceticus는 각각 小便과 喀痰, 小便과 膿, 膿과 小便, 小便 및 小便에서 대부분 분리되었고 기타 菌種은 소수에서 분리되었다. 7種의 중요 菌種으로 부터 각각 무작위로 선택한 총 258株를 대상으로 하여 9種의 抗生劑에 대하여 disk diffusion(DD)와 agar dilution(AD)법으로 感受性을 조사하였다. E. coli 는 amikacin(AMK)에 매우 높은 感受性을 gentamycin(GAM)과 tobramycin(TOB)에 비교적 높은 感受性을 보였고 ampicillin(AMP), chloramphenicol(CAM) 및 tetracyaline(TET)에 비교적 높은 耐性을 나타내었고 K. pneumoniae는 AMK에 높은 感受性을 CEP, GAM 및 TOB에 비교적 높은 感受性을 보였고 AMP에 고도의 耐性, CAM과 TET에는 비교적 높은 感受性을 CAM과 GAM에는 중등도의 感受性을 penicillin과 TET에 고도의 耐性을 보였다. Ser. marces-cens 는 AMK에 중등도의 感受性을 GAM에 낮은 感受性을 보이나 나머지 抗生劑에 고도의 耐性을 보였다. Ps. aeruginosa는 AMK에 비교적 높은 感受性을 GAM, TOB 및 carbenicillin에 비교적 낮은 感受性을 보였고 Salmonella group A는 AMK, GAM, AMP, CEP, CAM 및 TOB에 매우 높은 感受性의 경향을 나타내었고 TET에도 비교적 높은 感受性의 경향을 나타내었다. Shigella group B는 AMK CEP, GAM 및 TOB에 매우 높은 感受性의 경향을 그리고 AMP, CAM 및 TET에 매우 높은 耐性의 경향을 보였다. Amikacin이 모든 供試菌들에 대하여 가장 强한 抗菌力을 보였고 Serratia 菌種과 Pseudomonas菌種은 다른 供試菌種에 비하여 확실히 耐性의 傾向을 나타내었다. Agar dilution 法과 disk diffusion 法에서 이 두방법은 서로 잘 일치하는 경향이나 DD법이 AD법에 비하여 안정성을 보이는 것 같았다. 검체에 의한 각 菌種사이에 있어서 感受性의 차이는 볼 수 없었다. Total numbers of isolated bacteria were 35 species and were 891 strains. The highest isolates were 301 strains (33.8%) which were from urine specimens and followed by sputum, pus and throat. S. epidermidis, Micrococcus, S. aureus and E. coli in order were over 100 strains. S.epidermidis strains were isolated mainly from urine and sputum, Micrococcus strains from sputum, S. aureus strains from pus, and urine and E. coli from urine, and Streptococcus (α-hemolyticus) were 99 strains which were isolated from mainly sputum. K. Preumoniae, Ent. cloacae, Ps. fluorescens, Citrobacter freundii and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were more or less 50 strains and isolated mainly from urine and sputum, urine and pus, and urine, urine and urine respectively. Others were in small numbers. Totally 258 strains selected at random from 7 important bacteriae which were selected recently and antibiotic susceptibility testings to these orgamisms were performed. E. coli was very sensitive to amikacin (AMK), moderately sensitive to gentamycin (GAM) tobramycin (TOB) and moderately risistant to ampicillin (AMP), chloramphenicol (CAM) and tetraciclin (TET). K. pneumoniae was highly sensitive to AMK, moderately sensitive to cephalothin (CEP), gentamycin (GAM) and TOB, very highly resistantce to ampicillin (AMP) and highly resistant to CAM and TET. S. aureus was very sensitive to AMK, and CEP, moderately sensitive to CAM and GAM, and very highly resistant to penicillin and TET. Ser. marcescens revealed low sensitivity to AMK and GAM but resistances to the other antibiotics. Salmonella group A showed very high sensitivity to AMK, GAM, AMP, CEP, CAM and TOB and high sensitivity even in TET. Shigella group B were very highly sensitive to AMK, CEP, GAM and TOB, but very highly resistant to AMP, CAM and TET. AMK showed the highest sensititity to the most organism but Serratia and Pseudomonas revealed distinctively high resistances to antibiotics even in the new potent antibiotics of broad spectrum. The disk diffusion and agar dilution method were generally corresponding but the former appeared to be more reliable. There were no remarkable difference in susceptibility from specimen to specimen.
This research aims to improve the previous trench process. The modified process is consist of 3 processes; first setting tank, 3-staged second contact-filter, and last trench system. The experiments was operated by varying the HRT 8, 6 and 4 hours in trench. The results of laboratory experiments showed removal rate of 97~98% of TKN 91~98% do T-P. From the results of this research, organic materials were removed in settling setting tank and nutrients in the trench stage. Therefore it is recommended to replace the previous 3-staged contact-filter to 1-staged one, and to increase contact-time in trench system.
My own reading of difference & ambivalence in Ulysses studies race & colonialism in the metropolitan cultural space, arguing that Joyce wrote his work incessantly from the perspective of a colonial subject of an oppressive empire. Joyce represents race & colonialism in its relationship to imperialism, constituting a significant political commentary on imperial ideologies as well as on colonial discourses in Ireland. Exploring postcolonial theory, minority discourse, & cultural studies, & intertwining cross-cultural perspective on racial & cultural liminality, this essay extends a suggestive representation of cultural study on Joyce's Ulysses.
A laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the mine drainage treatment using the biological sulfate reduction. An acetate- added synthetic wastewater was used because of low organic content in the acid mine drainage. The Presence of heavy metals in the synthetic wastewater was an operational variable for the laboratory experiment. On the basis of series of experiment, it was found that the sulfate reduction rate and or-ganic removal rate increased with an increment of hydraulic retention time in the laboratory reactors. It was also note that the reactor fed with wastewater containing heavy metals showed a better Performance. It was reasoned that the reduction of sulfide(S^(2-)) toxicity due to the heavy metal complexation, resulting an enhanced microbial activity in the reactor fed with wastewater containing heavy metals, Total removal rate of heavy metals in the lab re-actor was highly correlated with the sulfate reduction rate, and the sulfate reduction rate was closely related with COD removal rate. In addition, an order of heavy metal removals during the sulfate reduction was found as follows : Zn >Pb >Co>Ni>Cu
Using rotating biological contactor(RBC) with artificial endofleneus stage and aerobic fixed biofilm reactor(AFBR), organic material removal and biological nitrification of piggery wastewater has been studied at a pilot plant RBC was operated in the endogenous phase at a interval of every 25 days, The concentration of COD, BOO and TKN in influent wastewater were from 2,940 to 3,800 ㎎/L, from 1,190 to 1,850 ㎎/L and from 486 to 754 ㎎/L respectively, The maximum active biomass content represented as VSS per unit aera was 2.0㎎/㎠ and biofilm dry density of 17 ㎎/㎤ was observed at biofilm thickness of 900 ㎛. It was observed that the pilot scale RBC/AFBR process exhibited 72 percentage to 93 percentage of BOD removal, In order to obtain more than 90 percentage of BOD removal, the organic loading rate to the RBC/AFBR Process should be maintained less than 0,09 ㎥/㎡. day(125,9 gBOD/㎥.d), The TKN removal efficiencies was from 455 to 90,9 Percentage according to vary influent loading rate, It was estimated that the RBC/AFER Process consumed approximately 6,2 ㎎/L(as CaCO_(3) ) of alkalinity per 1 ㎎/L a of N_(3)-N oxidized as the nitrification took piace.
This essay comparatively studies the ways of Joycean narrative styles, including narrative irony & cyclic parody, in Joycean fictions, A Portrait of the artist as a Young Man, Ulysses, & Finnegans Wakd, in which narrative indeterminacy decenters subjects for the absence of textual meaning oscillating through the cyclic Joycean texts. This article also shows that multileveled narrative techniques & themes metacritically evolving from the earlier text Finnegans Wake develop Joycean intertextual narrative styles such as Viconian (cyclic) parody with the indeterminate perspectives & narration intermixed. Thus writing the text means inevitably the interpolation process beyond the text itself, in which readers must play active roles in searching for the intertextual/disseminated meaning in the text.