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<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Flexible electrochromic devices (ECDs) based on Li-doped ion gels and tungsten trioxide (WO<SUB>3</SUB>) are demonstrated. Colored ECDs cannot be produced using conventional ion gels comprised of copolymers and room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) due to a lack of cations that can be inserted into WO<SUB>3</SUB>. Based on considerations of the coloration mechanism, we developed Li-doped ion gels and applied these to devices. The effects of Li salt concentration are systematically examined, with respect to device dynamics, coloration efficiency, and transmittance contrast. In addition, the coloration/bleaching switching stability of the ECD produced using optimal Li salt content is investigated. The ECD exhibits distinct colored and bleached states even after 24 h operation in air. Using the described Li-doped ion gel electrolytes, flexible WO<SUB>3</SUB> ECDs were successfully demonstrated with good bending stability and no electrolyte leakage.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Non-volatile, Li-doped ion gel electrolytes are designed for flexible WO<SUB>3</SUB>-based ECDs. </LI> <LI> ECDs exhibit low voltage operation (–0.9 V) and large transmittance contrast (~85%) between colored and bleached states. </LI> <LI> Electrolyte leakage is not observed in flexible ECDs containing Li-doped gel electrolyte when bending deformation is applied. </LI> <LI> Flexible ECDs maintain ~90.3 and ~84.5% of initial optical transmittance and coloration efficiency after 1000 bending tests. </LI> </UL> </P> <P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P> <P>[DISPLAY OMISSION]</P>
사계 김장생은 조선 중기의 저명한 예학가이고 교육가이다. 그는 스승 율곡의 "기발리승설"과 "리통기국설" 리기론 사상을 계승하면서 리와 기를 혼연일체의 존재로 보았다. 또한 리는 무형무위이고 기는 유형유위라고 보았다. 사계는 퇴계의 이기호발설을 부정한다. 그는 정호의 “기가 도이고 도가 기이다'는 주장을 근거로 이기불상리를 해석한다. 또한 주희의 “리는 리이고 기는 기이다”는 주장을 근거로 이기불상잡을 해석한다. 율곡이 제창한 ‘기발 이승'을 따르면서 리와 기는 “하나이면서 둘이고 둘이면서 하나다.”는 주장을 하면서 리와 기의 조화를 강조한다. 사계는 리와 기가 둘이면서 하나인 관계를 해석할 적에 이기가 합쳐지는 것이 시간적 선후로 구분하는 것은 아니라는 점을 밝힘과 동시에 공간적으로는 기가 리를 포함한다는 입장을 견지한다. 사계는 리는 기 안에 있고 원래 떨어지지 않는다고 하는데 이런 말은 기의 능동성을 중시하는 사계의 입장을 잘 보여주며 그의 심성론과 예악사상의 이론적 기초를 구성한다. 구용에 이해 방식은 사계 사상의 독자성을 보여준다. 사계는 송강이 “구용은 리이다”라고 하는 주장을 두고 체용을 원용하여 구용을 리의 작용으로 설명한다. 따라서 사계는 율곡의 입장에 기반하여 송강의 주장을 반대하지 않는다. 그러나 “형이상자는 기이고 형이하자는 도이다”는 구절에 대한 사계의 해석은 다소 문제가 있다. 사계는 도와 형을 다른 개념으로 이해하고 형과 기를 같은 개념으로 이해하는데 이런 이해는 사실에 부합하지 않는다. 사계는 율곡사상에 기초하여 심, 성, 정, 의, 지 등 성리학 심성론의 기초 개념을 심도 있게 해석한다. 본 연구는 이후 그가 주장하는 사단칠정론과 인심도심설의 이론적 토대가 된다. Shagai Kim jang-saeng was a famous scientist and educator in the middle of the Chosun Dynasty, on Confucianism he basicly inherited Zhu xi and Lee er's overall spirits, in the view of qi he claimedLi is of intangible and inaction, while Qi is of visible and action, so he denied Lee huang's theory of which Li and Qi are inspired with each other. He cited Cheng hao's theory of that "Qi is Dao and Dao is Qi" to explain the Li and Qi are not separated, and also quoted zhu xi's theory of that "Li is Li, Qi is Qi" to explain that the Li and Qi are not mixed. He agreed the Lee er's idea of that"the Qi emits and Li follows " , he advocated "one is two, two is one", emphasizing the harmony of the Li and Qi. In the explanation of the relationship between "two is one", he was not only explained the combination of Li and Qi in chronological order, but also considered that the combination of Li and Qi was "Li was surrounded by Li"in space order. Shagai often said that "Li is in the Qi and they are not dissimilar"which reflected that he emphasised motility of the Qi, and also laid a theoretical foundation for his theory of mindand ritual thought. The understanding of the problem of "nine looks" reflected the autonomy of Shaxi's thought. He believed that Songgang's theory of which"nine looks are Li" was the use of Li from the perspective of body and function, so he did not denid Songgang's viewpoint in accordance with Lee er's thought. But he had some problems in the understanding of that "the person who is above, what is the Dao; There are some problems with the understanding of the "Meta physics is the Dao while the opposite is Qi". He seed that the Xing and Dao are different concept, but he thought that Xing and Qi are the same concept, which was lack of science. In terms of theory of mind, he based on the Yulgok's thoughts, he made the detailed explanation for the basic concepts of neo-confucianism, such as the heart, character, feeling, idea, aspiration, whichbecame the necessary theoretical matting of the theory of four sides and seven feelings and the theory of people's mind and Dao's mind for the next step.
광서 원년에 李裕元(이유원)은 민비 소생의 아들인 李坧을 세자로 책봉하기 위해 청나라에 다녀왔다. 세자 책봉은 조선의 국정과 밀접한 관계가 있는 것이었을 뿐 아니라, 이번 출사는 청나라 광서 조 이래 양국 간의 첫 공식 접촉이기도 하였다. 이 때문에 이유원의 이번 출사는 매우 중요한 의미가 있었다. 이유원은 永平府(영평부)를 지나면서 우연히 영평 수령인 游智開(유지개)를 만났고 둘은 시로써 우정을 맺었다. 이유원은 귤나무를 좋아하여 자기의 호로 삼았는데, 사철에서 유지개의 귤나무를 보고서 그에게 귤나무를 자신에게 주기를 청하였다. 유지개가 아끼지 않고 이유원에게 주어, 귤나무는 둘의 우정의 증거가 되었다. 유지개는 이유원이 이홍장과 만나고 싶어한다는 사실을 알고 둘의 만남을 주선하였다. 이유원이 사신의 일을 완수하고 조선에 돌아갈 때, 유지개는 자신의 시집을 이유원에게 증여였으며 이유원은 그 시집을 매우 높게 평가하였다. 이유원은 귀국 후 여유가 있을 때마다 유지개의 시집을 애송하였으며 시흥이 깃들 때에는 즉흥적으로 차운하기도 하였다. 유지개와 이유원의 교제는 광서 시기 한중 문인의 첫 만남으로서 광서 중후기 한중 문인들의 왕래를 고찰하는 데 있어 매우 중요한 전환점이 된다고 하겠다. In the first year of Guangxu(the reign title of Late Qing Dynasty), Li Yuyuan, served as a Joseon envoy abroad to the Qing Dynasty, for acquiring the agreement of conferring titles of nobility on the son of Min Concubine as the future king of Joseon. This tour of Li Yuyuan was not only related to the national policy of Joseon, but also could almost be regarded as the first official exchange between the two countries since the throne of the Guangxu Emperor. Therefore, Li Yuyuan's trip is of great significance. When Li Yuyuan approached the local goverment of Yongping, he accidentally met the official of Yongping who named You Zhikai, and they exchanged poems and became friends. Li Yuyuan loved the orange tree so much that he named himself as Jushan. When he accidentally saw the orange tree in the Temple which belonged to You Zhikai, he wrote a letter to You for asking for the tree. In order to help Li to fulfill his wish, You Zhikai agreed generously, and the orange tree thus became a witness to the friendship between them. Li Yuyuan wanted make friends with Li Hongzhang,so You Zhikai make nothing of hardships to build a bridge between LI Yuyuan and LI Hongzhang.Over a long period of time, Li Zhi acted as an important link in the political affairs between China and Joseon. When Li Yuyuan completed his mission and returned to Joseon, You Zhikai gave his collection of poems to Li Yuyuan. After Li returned to Joseon, he often read the collection of You and often write and reply in poems, using the same rhyme sequence of You's poem in his leisure time. As the first contact between the Chinese and Joseon literati in the Guangxu period, the literary communication between Li and You have showed that the literary exchanges and political exchanges between the two countries have a higher degree of integration tendencies. This is an important node for us to examine the literati exchanges between China and Joseon in the middle and late Guangxu period.
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>The structural stability and hydrogen release properties of M-doped KMgH<SUB>3</SUB> (M = Li, Na, Rb, or Cs) were examined using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The reaction enthalpies (ΔH) of the four possible dehydrogenation reaction pathways were calculated using the doped structures with different phases ( P m 3 ¯ m , P<I>nma</I>, and R3<I>c</I>). The most favorable reaction pathway among these four pathways was found. Among the dopants investigated, the most promising dopant for this reaction was Li. In addition, the application of pressure was found to be useful for tuning the reaction enthalpies of the dehydrogenation reactions. Overall, the results present an efficient means of designing new promising perovskite-type hydrides for hydrogen storage.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Perovskite-type KMgH<SUB>3</SUB> is a promising candidate for hydrogen storage. </LI> <LI> The most favorable reaction pathway of dehydrogenation reactions was examined. </LI> <LI> Li was the most useful and effective dopant to release hydrogen. </LI> <LI> Pressure can be usefully employed for tuning the reaction enthalpies of dehydrogenation reactions. </LI> </UL> </P>
Zn2+ and F- ions are successfully used to modify pure Li4Ti5O12 via a co-precipitation method followed by calcination at 400℃ for 5 h in an Ar atmosphere in order to further investigate the reaction mechanism of the fluoride modification process. Zn2+ and F- co-modified Li4Ti5O12 samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical measurements. After the modification process, no ZnF2 coating layer is formed on the surface of Li4Ti5O12, instead, F- ions react with Li4Ti5O12 to generate a new phase, composed of a small amount of anatase TiO2, rutile TiO2, LiF, and Zn2+ ions are suspected to form a ZnO coating layer on Li4Ti5O12 particles. The electrolyte reduction decomposition is suppressed in Zn2+ and F- co-modified Li4Ti5O12 due to the ZnO coating layer. 1 wt.% Zn2+ and F- co-modified Li4Ti5O12 exhibits the best rate capability, which leads to a charge capacity of 236.7, 227.8, 222.1, 202.7, 188.9 and 150.7 mAh g -1 at 0.2C, 0.5C, 1C, 3C, 5C and 10C, respectively, between 0 V and 3 V. Furthermore, 1 wt.% Zn2+ and F- comodified Li4Ti5O12 exhibits 96.0% charge capacity retention at 3C rate after 200 cycles, which is significantly higher than that of pure Li4Ti5O12 (78.4%).
The electronic, mechanical and acoustic properties of Li17Si4-xGex (x=0, 2.3, 3.08, 3.53, and 4) have been investigated by using first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT). The research shows that the bulk modulus B, Young's modulus E, shear modulus G, and hardness Hv gradually decrease with the increasing Ge content. Li17Si4-xGex have the brittle nature from the analysis of B/G ratio and Cauchy pressure. The maximum Young's moduli are all along [1 1 0] plane, and the sequence of degree of anisotropic property is Li17Ge4 > Li17Si0.48Ge3.52 > Li17Si0.92Ge3.08 > Li17Si1.7Ge2.3 > Li17Si4. The analysis of acoustic velocity shows that all the sound velocities decrease with the increasing Ge content for Li17Si4-xGex (x=0, 2.3, 3.08, 3.53, and 4), and the longitudinal wave along  direction is fastest for the studied compounds. Debye temperature ΘD, vt and vl decrease with the increasing Ge content. The minimum thermal conductivity decreases with the increasing Ge content, and Li17Si4-xGex have low thermal conductivities and are not potential thermal conductors. The analysis of electronic properties indicates that Li17Si4-xGex have the metal nature and anisotropic electrical conductivity. The electric conduction is improved with the increasing Ge content.
This paper focuses on the internalization of the national spirit in Tiger Cliff written by Li Genquan who was the representative Chinese Ethnic Korean writer of the first generation appeared in the 1950s. Compared with Jin Xuetie who appeared at the same time but was evaluated as the master of the Chinese Ethnic Koreans' literature, although Li Genquan was active in the creation and left a lot of works, he couldn't draw the attention of the Ethnic Korean academics. The main reason was that as an influential local leader of the Communist Party of China, Li Genquan not only faithfully enforced the various politics and culture policy but also strove for incorporating the literary works with the mainstream of Chinese society, which were reflected from his works. The criticism and the indifference from the Ethnic Korean academics were the results of his consciousness of "Party Centralism" which was out of tune with the national consciousness. However, this paper indicates that standing on the Chinese political reality and Yanbian's situation in the early 1960s, considering about Li Genquan's political experience and his novels which drew materials from the Ethnic Koreans' history, the one-sidedness of the above evaluation can be found. The major theme of the novel Tiger Cluff written by Li Genquan in the early 1960's was that under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, Ethnic Koreans highly united to defeat the reactionary of Nationalist Party and finally got the thorough liberation, which definitely adhered to the "Party Centralism" and "Directivity of China", but the works at the same internalized Ethnic Koreans' history of their struggles even the history of Ethnic Koreans in China. In the early 60s, national problems were prohibited in political reality of Yanbian area. So Li Genquan's courage could only be explained by his national consciousness and his subject consciousness. Spreading out the national history under the leadership of Party and establishing the position in the big frame of country were probably called "internalization" of national consciousness. This kind internalization of national consciousness was the way of living which chose the Chinese Ethnic Koreans including Li Genquan, meanwhile chosen by them after National Independence. This paper discusses the way of "internalization" of national consciousness and national consciousness with this kind of "internalization" embodied in the Li Genquan's novel Tiger Cliff. Li Genquan's novel Tiger Cliff published in the early 60s did not simply express the policy of Party and the education of national history but finally pointed to the establishment of Ethnic Koreans' national rights.
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>A novel approach was employed to study removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in a baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration (OMBR-MF) hybrid system under oxicanoxic conditions. The performance of OMBR-MF system was examined employing three different draw solutes (DS), and three model OMPs. The highest forward osmosis (FO) membrane rejection was attained with atenolol (100%) due to its higher molar mass and positive charge. With inorganic DS caffeine (94–100%) revealed highest removal followed by atenolol (89–96%) and atrazine (16–40%) respectively. All three OMPs exhibited higher removal with organic DS as compared to inorganic DS. Significant anoxic removal was observed for atrazine under very different redox conditions with extended anoxic cycle time. This can be linked with possible development of different microbial consortia responsible for diverse enzymes secretion. Overall, the OMBR-MF process showed effective removal of total organic carbon (98%) and nutrients (phosphate 97% and total nitrogen 85%), respectively.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> A hybrid OMBR-MF examined for OMPs and nutrient removal from simulated sewage. </LI> <LI> Performance of inorganic and organic draw solutes in OMBR-MF system assessed. </LI> <LI> Baffled OMBR-MF achieved high removal for nutrient and OMPs. </LI> <LI> Persistent OMP like atrazine exhibited high anoxic removal compared to oxic. </LI> <LI> Atenolol showed highest forward osmosis rejection due to high molar mass. </LI> <LI> Large microbial flocs contributed to lower membrane fouling propensity. </LI> </UL> </P> <P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P> <P>[DISPLAY OMISSION]</P>
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>We investigated the effect of poly-dispersed nanostructures on concentration polarization (CP) phenomena in ion exchange membranes through fabrication of poly-dispersed interconnecting channels (Pd-ICs) integrated microfluidic chip and characterized the CP phenomena which happens near the interconnecting channel and main microchannel interface. Current-voltage (<I>I-V</I>) characteristics and depletion (enrichment) layer formation behavior within Pd-IC system are examined. We found that “Electric field focusing” affects the <I>I-V</I> characteristics of Pd-IC system, and Pd-IC system follows the “Limiting current occurrence” criterion. The visualization results show that the depletion layer thickness at the anodic side decreases with an increasing dispersity and also for increasing bulk concentration. We attribute this phenomena to the high electroosmotic flow in the sub-microchannel and “Electroosmosis of the second kind” at the electrolyte-membrane (Pd-IC) interface. The perm-selectivity of interconnecting channels also play an important role. At the cathodic side, we observed that fluorescent dye depleted at the microchannel and sub-microchannel interface due to the ejecting flow and current balance at the corner wedge of sub-microchannels. We hope these working mechanisms of Pd-IC system to be beneficial to model pseudo-ion exchange membrane and to develop high efficiency ion exchange membranes.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Investigation of effect of poly-dispersed nanostructures on concentration polarization (CP) phenomena through poly-disperse interconnecting channels (Pd-IC) integrated microfluidic chip. </LI> <LI> Electric field focusing” affects the <I>I-V</I> characteristics of Pd-IC system. </LI> <LI> Pd-IC system follows the “Limiting current occurrence” criterion. </LI> <LI> Depletion layer thickness at the anodic side decreases with an increasing dispersity and bulk concentration. </LI> <LI> Concentration depleted at the microchannel and sub-microchannel interface at the cathodic side. </LI> </UL> </P>
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Unintended defects are a significant problem for mass production of graphene membranes. Herein, we report a method to fabricate scalable CVD graphene polymer membranes through the formation of a polysulfone (PSf) supporting layer, which is capable of duplicating the Cu morphology. Unintended defects were limited by minimizing defects associated with graphene wrinkles and eliminating polymer residues used in the transfer process. Consequently, the KCl leakage by diffusion of raw graphene membranes fabricated with this method was only ~ 0.5% that of the supporting membrane; there was also no water flux under a pressure of 20 bar. Excellent ion selectivity was achieved by controlling the duration of H<SUB>2</SUB> plasma treatment. The selectivity of KCl over NaCl was 2.61, the selectivity of KCl over MgCl<SUB>2</SUB> was 15.62, and the selectivity of NaCl over MgCl<SUB>2</SUB> was 5.98.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Polysulfone formed in Ethanol coagulation bath performed better permeability comparing to that formed in water coagulation bath. </LI> <LI> Cu foil morphology was duplicated by liquid phase PSf solution to minimize additional graphene wrinkles and unintended defects. </LI> <LI> ~ 0.5% KCl leakage by diffusion of raw graphene membranes that of the supporting membrane. </LI> <LI> Artificial graphene defects were enlarged and controlled with hydrogen plasma. </LI> <LI> The membrane exhibited an excellent selectivity among KCl, NaCl, MgCl<SUB>2</SUB> salts. </LI> </UL> </P>