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      • KCI등재

        NPI licensing in the INP contexts - Reviving the NOA

        ( Sohn Keunwon ) 한국현대언어학회 2019 언어연구 Vol.35 No.3

        The current study aims at providing an account for the licensing of negative polarity items in the so-called INP (inherently negative predicate) contexts. Sohn (1995) claims, following Progovac (1988) and Laka (1990), that there is a negative complementizer or operator in Korean just as in English, Spanish, and Basque and this negative complementizer, selected by an INP, can license an NPI within the embedded clause. Chung (2006) reports that not just an NPI within the embedded clause, but an NPI appearing as a matrix subject can be licensed in the INP context. After showing that this is not explained by Sohn (1995), Chung proposes an alternative analysis - the complex predicate analysis. However, there are also some nontrivial problems in Chung's analysis as well, and a new analysis is proposed, which can account for the new sets of data as well as old ones. It will be shown that a slightly revised version of Sohn's negative operator analysis (a new NOA) can advance our understanding of the NPI licensing in the INP contexts. (Hannam University)

      • KCI등재

        여가라이프스타일 척도의 구성타당도 검증

        손영미(Sohn Young-Mi), 오세숙(Oh Sae-Sook) 한국체육과학회 2010 한국체육과학회지 Vol.19 No.2

        The purpose of the present study was to test the reliability and the construct validity of the leisure life style(LLS) scale developed by Woo & Sohn(2009). A convenience sample of 272 employed adults(male: 149, female: 123) was obtained in Korea. Statistical procedures included descriptive statistic, exploratory factor analysis(EFA), internal consistency, and confirmatory factor analysis(CFA). The EFA results were shown that the LLS scale was consisted with the study of Woo & Sohn(2009). Results indicated that 7 LLS factors composed in 43 items were extracted: 'reasonable planning', 'sensation seeking', leisure helplessness', 'accessability', 'relation-centered', 'family-centered', and 'work-centered'. However, the EFA results of this study was more effective than the study of Woo & Sohn(2009). For example, the cumulative % of variance was improved from 43.71 to 50.08 and factor items were reduced from 62 to 43, and reliability was improved. Next, EFA was conducted to test the factor validity of this inventory with AMOS 7.0. Several goodness of fit indices was used to assess model fit: X²/df, GFI, TLI, CFI, RMSEA. The LLS scale yielded a X²/df=1.964, GFI=.896, TLI=.913, CFI=.918, RMSEA=.062 that indicated an acceptable level of fit with no additional modification suggested.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        B${F_2}^{+/}_{11}^+$MIXED ION IMPLANTATION FOR P+ SHALLOW JUNCTION FORMATION

        Sohn,,Sohn,,Yong-Sun,Ra,,Ra,,Geum-Joo,Na,,Na,,Shang-Goon,Lee,,Lee,,Dong-Ho,Kim,,Kim,,Chung-Tae 한국재료학회 1995 Fabrication and Characterization of Advanced Mater Vol.2 No.e4

        A new method of forming shallow $P^+$-N junctions was studied by using ${BF_2}\;^{+}\;&\;_{11}B^+$ mixed ion implantaion at various mixing ratios. Mixed $P^+$ implantation enables us to control the defect profiles including the depth of A-C(amprphous-crystalline) interface, the depth density of residual dislocation loops as well as the amounts of fluorine-related cluster formation without varying the total dose of boron implanted. The residual defect density of 1.0E15 ions/$\textrm{cm}^2BF_2 \; ^+$ + 2.0E15ions/$\textrm{cm}^2\; _{11}B^+$ implanted sample was reduced about 1/3 of conventional 3.0e15ions/$\textrm{cm}^2 BF_2 \; ^+$ ion implanted one. The depth of residual defects was 13nm shallower than that of conventional $BF_2 \; ^+$ implantation with no increase in junction depth and no deterroration of electrical properties.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Identification of Acanthotrema felis (Digenea: Heterophyidae) metacercariae encysted in the brackish water fish Acanthogobius flavimanus

        Sohn,,Woon-Mok,Han,,Eun-Taek,Seo,,Min,Chai,,Jong-Yil The Korean Society for Parasitology 2003 The Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol.41 No.2

        The metacercariae of Acanthotrema felis Sohn et at., 2003 (Digenea: Heterophyidae) were discovered in a species of the brackish water fish, Acanthogobius flavimanus, in the Republic of Korea. They were experimentally fed to kittens, and adult flukes were harvested 7 days later. The adults were morphologically characterized by the presence of a bipartite seminal vesicle, the ventral sucker associated with a ventrogenital sac enclosing 3 sclerites (2 long and pointed, and 1 short and thumb-like), and an unarmed gonotyl. The adult flukes were identified as A. felis Sohn et al., 2003, and the brackish water fish A. flavimanus has been verified as one of its second intermediate hosts.

      • INFORMATION CONSTRUAL IN SOCIAL MEDIA: THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL RELATIONS ON MESSAGE ASSESSMENT AND CHOICE

        Dongyoung,Sohn 글로벌지식마케팅경영학회 2017 Global Fashion Management Conference Vol.2017 No.07

        Introduction Literally explosive is the growth of social media. The estimated number of monthly active Facebook users by the fourth quarter of 2016 is around 1.86 billion, almost a quarter of the world population, meaning that one in four people on the globe uses Facebook to read news, share gossips, communicate ideas, and build relationships with others. In the United States alone, 72% of all Internet users are reported to use Facebook (Pew Research, 2015), and to many, Facebook is no longer a small part of the Internet, but rapidly becoming the Internet itself. As peer-to-peer information sharing becomes a global mainstream, concerns about the credibility of information shared online is growing fast as well. With no gatekeeper in a traditional sense, rumors and fabricated information lacking reliable evidences (e.g., fake news) may spread wide and fast, and individuals are left alone to assess and judge which among them is likely to be true (Metzger, Flanagin, & Medders, 2010). Unfortunately, we know very little about how individuals assess information fed through online social networks, and how such processing of information in the social media environment differs from those in traditional media environment. In social media like Facebook where individuals and organizations interact through direct or indirect social relationships, what people can give and take is partly determined by with whom they have relationships and their locations in the entire network (Brands, 2014). For example, if one's network consists mostly of college students, the network may be flooded with gossips, news, and information particularly appealing to them (e.g., how to pull an A from the hideous professor). If the network is made up of people from diverse backgrounds, meanwhile, the information shared therein will be as diverse as heterogeneous are the members' characteristics and preferences. Network topology may, therefore, be a crucial factor that shapes not only what you encounter in your own network, but also the way you assess the information found therein (Sohn, 2014). An identical message may be construed differently depending on how it has been encountered (e.g., who liked/shared in Facebook) as well as where it originates (e.g., who are the original source of the message). For instance, the news regarding the effectiveness of alternative medicine on curing cancer may be assessed differently depending on whether it is shared by lay people with similar interest or medical experts, which subsequently affects one's decision to share it. Whereas it is already well-founded that the original source quality plays an important role in communication (Visser & Cooper, 2007), relatively little attention has been devoted to unveiling the role of intermediate social environment lying between the original source and the final recipients. This study is aimed at examining systematically the role of social relations in individuals' assessment of and decision to share information encountered in social media. More specifically, the focus will be on testing in an experimental setting how social relationship properties, reflecting psychological distance, shape individuals' assessment of risk/benefit associated with the information received. Psychological Distance and Decision under Risk We are routinely exposed to a myriad of information from our immediate social circles including close friends and acquaintances as well as mass media. Some of them could be about the opportunities for earning extra profits (e.g., stock or real estate investment opportunities), while others about how to maintain better health (e.g., avoiding harmful chemical-intake). Whether it is about money, health or others, the decision to take an action on the information is a function of how to assess the risks involved. According to the prospect theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979), people have an inherent tendency of being more sensitive to the loss than benefit of anything, making them prefer avoiding loss to having an equivalent amount of gain. This loss-aversive tendency also implies that people prefer the possible to sure loss, even if the former is greater than the latter. In other words, people become risk-seeking to avoid any loss with certainty. Suppose, for example, you are given a choice between losing $750 for sure and doing a gamble such that you lose $1000 with 75% chance or lose nothing with 25% chance. Despite the identical expected value ($1000 x .75 + $1000 x 0 = $750), people tend to lean over to the gamble rather than the sure loss. This may work in the opposite way for benefit – you may prefer the sure to possible gain, meaning that you become risk-aversive when benefit is at stake. An interesting question is whether such a risk-seeking or aversion tendency is malleable (Tversky & Simonson, 1993). It is widely known that a message with identical contents can be construed differently depending on whether it is stated or framed in terms of benefit or loss (Slovic, 1995). Then, we might ask whether people construe messages differently depending on where they are from – whether they are from close-knit groups, distant acquaintances or some anonymous others. Prior studies have seldom considered such social contextual influence, which is essential to understanding communication in social media (Sohn, 2014). Suppose you are considering taking an alternative medicine for treating a chronic illness of yours, which will surely get worse with no treatment (i.e., loss with certainty). The alternative medicine's effectiveness is largely unknown and has never been under rigorous scientific tests. You post your thought about adopting it and have just got replies from two different sources in your Facebook network – a close friend and a mere acquaintance. Your friend says that using the alternative approach can be detrimental to your health (i.e., loss frame), while the acquaintance mentions that s/he trusts the medicine's benefits (i.e., benefit frame). What would be your choice given the comments? Would your choice be reversed if your friend says its benefit, while the acquaintance warns its side effects? It is posited in construal-level theory that “people use increasingly higher levels of construal to represent an object as the psychological distance from the object increases” (Trope & Liberman, 2010, p. 441). When there are pros and cons with respect to a course of action, people perceive cons (i.e., losses) psychologically closer than pros (i.e., benefits), which provides an explanation of why loss aversion occurs. In addition, it has been found that pros become more salient than cons as temporal distance to the action increases (e.g., buying a computer a year later; Eyal, Liberman, Trope, & Walther, 2004). Taken together, it may be inferred that the cons are salient when the action of interest is thought psychologically proximal, but the pros become more salient as it gets more psychologically distant. This inference can be applied to other distance dimensions including social distance as well. Combining benefit-loss frames and social distance perceptions, we can come up with the following four different conditions as summarized in Table 1. With all other things held equal, people tend to feel loss psychologically closer than benefit. However, the salience of either benefit or loss in a person's mind may also depend on how the information is presented -- whether a message with the information comes from a proximal or distant source. For example, if a message with emphases on an alternative medicine's benefit came from a proximal source (BP), further decrease in psychological distance might make salient its potential side effects, and thus lessen the benefit's influence on decision. Similar inferences can be made to the case when a message with emphases on loss came from a distant source (LD). Due to the increase in psychological distance, it might become difficult to think of the negative aspects of the target (Herzog, Hansen & Wanke, 2007). If the message emphasizing either benefit or loss is aligned respectively with a distal (BD) or proximal source (LP), in contrast, they will become more salient in the person's mind, which would exert a disproportionate influence on decision. Given the discussion, the following hypotheses can be proposed: H1a. People perceive the benefit more salient, and thus are more likely to make a risky choice when it is supported by socially distant others than when no information of the social distance to the source is given (i.e., control condition). H1b. People perceive the benefit less salient, and thus are less likely to make a risky choice when the benefit is supported by socially close others than when no information of the social distance to the source is given (i.e., control condition). H2a. People perceive the loss more salient, and thus make a risky choice less when the loss is warned by socially close others than when when no information of the social distance to the source is given. H2b. People perceive the loss less salient when the loss is warned by socially distant others than when no information of the social distance to the source is given. Experimental Design A 2 (message frames) x 3 (social distance) between-subjects online experiment will be conducted as follows. Subjects will be given multiple hypothetical risky choice situations with respect to such issues as making an investment, adopting a new medical treatment, purchasing a product. After being exposed to the choice scenarios, they will be asked a series of questions for measuring their issue-involvement levels, attitudes to the issue presented, thoughts related to benefits and losses, and final choices, along with relevant psychological and demographic characteristics. Implications No communication ever occurs in a social vacuum. Just as our everyday behaviors are shaped and often constrained by the physical places in which they are performed (e.g., rooms, streets, buildings), we communicate in a social setting consisting of direct and/or indirect relationships among people (Gifford, 2013). The knowledge of one's social surroundings becomes more important in social media due to the manifest location dependency—meaning one's position in a relationship network basically defines what can be seen and done. No matter whether information originally came from a newspaper, television program, or blog, the information is eventually transmitted via one of the network members, highlighting the importance of relationship patterns and qualities in communication processes. That is, in any socially-networked environment, people rely not only on inferences about the original source quality (e.g., authority, expertise), but also on the social contexts through which the information is received and shared. Most previous research has focused mainly on the former (i.e., source quality) while overlooking both the latter (i.e., social contexts) and any possible interactions between the two (Metzger, Flanagin, & Medders, 2010). The current study is believed to bridge the gap so that communication processes in the social media environment could be understood in a more systematic fashion.

      • KCI등재

        Wh-operator and phonological phrasing in North Kyungsang Korean

        Hyang-Sook,Sohn 한국음운론학회 2004 음성·음운·형태론 연구 Vol.10 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Based on the end-based approach, in conjunction with optimality theory, this paper provides an account of the prosodic phenomena of phonological phrasing and dephrasing triggered by the wh-operator in North Kyungsang Korean. Advancing the basic tenet in Kenstowicz and Sohn (1997) and Sohn (1999) that focus triggers the onset of a phonological phrase and dephrasing of the following phonological phrases, this paper claims that focus is attracted by the wh-operatoras well. A phonological phrase is created flush against the wh-operator, which in turn dephrases the following phonological phrases. Supporting evidence is drawn from wh-movement in simple and complex question sentences. Also claimed in this paper is that the interrogative verb, located in the sentence-final position, also attracts focus, but that the one in the wh-question is systematically dephrased by the preceding wh-operator. Phonological phrasing of complex sentences, where by the sentence-final main verb is dephrased by the wh-operator although the intervening lower clause is exempt from dephrasing, serves to establish the argument that dephrasing triggered by the wh-operator spans over the entire IP. The domain of dephrasing, i.e. the domain of IP is crucially determined by the overt interrogative verbal ending, which marks the presence or absence of correspondence between the wh-operator and the main verb. Also discussed in this paper is a correlation between the directionality of the stacked branching structure and the obligatory or optional propensity for eurythmy.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Two new species of Stenoloba (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from East Asia with the first description of S. nora female genitalia

        Jae-Cheon,Sohn,Han-Rong,Tzuoo 한국응용곤충학회 2012 Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology Vol.15 No.2

        Two new species of Stenoloba Staudinger, 1892 are described: S. ronkayi Sohn and Tzuoo sp. nov. from Taiwan and S. hystrix Sohn sp. nov. from northern Vietnam. The relationships of the new species with the actual species groups of Stenoloba are discussed. The formerly unknown female of S. nora Kononenko and Ronkay, 2001 and its genitalia are described here for the first time.

      • Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Ferritin Heavy Chain Subunit of the Cricket Teleogryllus emma

        Mi,Ri,Sohn,Nam,Jung,Kim,Hung,Dae,Sohn,Byung,Rae,Jin 한국응용곤충학회 2009 한국응용곤충학회 학술대회논문집 Vol.2009 No.05

        We describe here the cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the ferritin heavy chain homologue (TeFerHCH) from the cricket Teleogryllus emma. The TeFerHCH gene spans 1,009 bp and consisted of four introns and five exons coding for 217 amino acids residues. The TeFerHCH subunit contained the conserved motifs for the ferroxidase center typical of vertebrate ferritin heavy chains and the iron-responsive element (IRE) sequence with a predicted stem-loop structure was present in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of TeFerHCH mRNA. TeFerHCH was grouped with the S type (HCH) in a phylogenetic tree. The TeFerHCH cDNA was expressed as approximately 27 kDa polypeptide in baculovirus-infected insect Sf9 cells. Northern blot analysis revealed that TeFerHCH exhibited ubiquitous expression and was upregulated by wounding and iron overload in the fatbody, suggesting a functional role for TeFerHCH in iron metabolism.

      • KCI등재SCIESCOPUS

        Direct Writing of a 1-to-4 Optical Splitter and Packaging Technology Using a Femtosecond Laser

        Ik-Bu,Sohn,Sohn,Hyoung-Jong,Lee,Hyoung-Ju,Park,이만섭 한국물리학회 2008 THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY Vol.52 No.4

        A 1-to-N optical splitter was fabricated using a focused 785-nm femtosecond laser to directly write a series of 1-to-2 Y-junction splitters in fused silica. The femtosecond laser direct writing technique has the potential to generate not only channel waveguide, but also three-dimensional optical devices. In this paper, a 1-to-4 optical splitter and U-grooves, which are used for fiber alignment, are simultaneously fabricated in fused silica glass by using near-IR femtosecond laser pulses. The obtained splitter was characterized in terms of its optical properties at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The fiber-aligned optical splitter has a low insertion loss, less than 9 dB, including an intrinsic splitting loss of 6 dB and an excess loss due to passive alignment of a single-mode fiber. A 1-to-N optical splitter was fabricated using a focused 785-nm femtosecond laser to directly write a series of 1-to-2 Y-junction splitters in fused silica. The femtosecond laser direct writing technique has the potential to generate not only channel waveguide, but also three-dimensional optical devices. In this paper, a 1-to-4 optical splitter and U-grooves, which are used for fiber alignment, are simultaneously fabricated in fused silica glass by using near-IR femtosecond laser pulses. The obtained splitter was characterized in terms of its optical properties at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The fiber-aligned optical splitter has a low insertion loss, less than 9 dB, including an intrinsic splitting loss of 6 dB and an excess loss due to passive alignment of a single-mode fiber.

      • KCI등재

        Wh-operator and phonological phrasing in North Kyungsang Korean

        Hyang-Sook,Sohn 한국음운론학회 2004 음성·음운·형태론 연구 Vol.10 No.2

        Based on the end-based approach, in conjunction with optimality theory, this paper provides an account of the prosodic phenomena of phonological phrasing and dephrasing triggered by the wh-operator in North Kyungsang Korean. Advancing the basic tenet in Kenstowicz and Sohn (1997) and Sohn (1999) that focus triggers the onset of a phonological phrase and dephrasing of the following phonological phrases, this paper claims that focus is attracted by the wh-operator as well. A phonological phrase is created flush against the wh-operator, which in turn dephrases the following phonological phrases. Supporting evidence is drawn from wh-movement in simple and complex question sentences. Also claimed in this paper is that the interrogative verb, located in the sentence-final position, also attracts focus, but that the one in the wh-question is systematically dephrased by the preceding wh-operator. Phonological phrasing of complex sentences, whereby the sentence-final main verb is dephrased by the wh-operator although the intervening lower clause is exempt from dephrasing, serves to establish the argument that dephrasing triggered by the wh-operator spans over the entire IP. The domain of dephrasing, i.e. the domain of IP is crucially determined by the overt interrogative verbal ending, which marks the presence or absence of correspondence between the wh-operator and the main verb. Also discussed in this paper is a correlation between the directionality of the stacked branching structure and the obligatory or optional propensity for eurythmy.

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