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      • KCI등재

        진도홍주의 만족도와 재구매 의도에 관한 실증적 분석

        이제홍 ( Je Hong Lee ) 한국도서(섬)학회 2011 韓國島嶼硏究 Vol.23 No.1

        Dynasty period, using Ji-Cho as the main ingredient. The official name of Jindo Hong-Ju is Traditional Red Liquor. Also, Hong-Ju which is red has a unique taste. The urpose of this study is to analyze the satisfaction and re-purchase intention of Jindo Hong-Ju. This paper investigates what determines the satisfaction and re-purchase intention of Jindo Hong-Ju for a consumer. There have been 300 samples and 250 returns. 212 of them are used for this study. The 212 samples are used to analyze the Jindo Hong-Ju. he main results are as follows. First, the multiple regression result shows that the consumer`s satisfaction for the Jindo Hong-Ju is affected by the ``Taste and Perfume``, ``Sales and distribution``, ``Price service``, and Hangover and health. Second, ``Advertisement and publicity` has no effect on satisfaction. Third, Jindo Hong-Ju`s satisfaction is positively affected by the re-purchase intention.

      • KCI등재

        홍씨 앞방각측정법의 임상적 유용성

        강신희,박기호,홍철,김동명,Shin Hee Kang,M,D,Ki Ho Park,M,D,Chul Hong,M,D,Dong Myoung Kim,M,D 대한안과학회 2007 대한안과학회지 Vol.48 No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Purpose: To compare the Hong`s grading method, utilized for slit-lamp grading of the mid-peripheral angle, with other conventional grading methods. Actual angle was measured by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) for comparison. Methods: Fifteen eyes with narrow angles and eighteen eyes with wide angles were studied. The average age of thirty-three subjects was 46.8±19.2, and the male to female ratio was 1:3.7. The mid-peripheral angle was graded by Hong`s, van Herick`s and Spaeth`s grading system. The actual anterior chamber angle was evaluated by UBM and the correlation between each grading system and actual angle was investigated. Results: The results from the Hong`s grading (r=0.802, R2=0.643, p<0.01), Spaeth`s grading (r=0.728, R2=0.530, p<0.01) and van Herick`s grading (r=0.618, R2=0.382, p<0.01) methods correlated significantly with the actual angles. Conclusions: The Hong`s grading method was an easy and effective tool to evaluate anterior chamber angle. In addition, the results of the Hong`s grading method were closer to the actual angle than the other methods.

      • 홍순언 행적과 기억과정

        박홍갑 ( Park Hong-gab ) 청계사학회 2021 청계사학 Vol.23 No.-

        조선 선조 조에 살았던 홍순언은 종계변무에 공을 세워 역관으로서는 이례적으로 공신에 책봉되었고 당릉군이란 작호까지 받았다. 그 후 임진왜란이 일어나 명나라 원군을 요청할 때에도 뇌물에 의존하지 않고 정도를 걷는 외교로 일관하였는데, 그의 공적은 후일 위정자들에게도 자주 회자되곤 했다. 아울러 그가 사신으로 파견되었을 당시 거금을 들여 어려움에 처한 명나라 지인을 도운 적이 있었는데, 이 미담이 최초로 언급된 것은 한 마을에 살았던 유몽인의 『어우야담』이었다. 그런데 지인을 도운 단순했던 미담은 시간이 흐르면서 확대 재생산되어 여러 야담집에 오르게 되었으니, 임란 파병 당시 도움을 준 명나라 병부상서 석성과의 연결이 바로 그것이다. 즉, 홍순언이 사신단 일행으로 명을 방문했을 당시 어려움에 처한 여인을 구해 준 일이 있는데, 이 여인이 후일 석성 후실이 되어 홍순언에게 은혜를 갚는다는 서사구조로 발전해 간 것이다. 여기에는 한양 광동방의 홍순언이 살았던 보은단동이란 유래가 석성 후실이 은혜를 갚기 위해 비단에 ‘보은단’이란 글자를 수놓아 보낸 것 때문이라는 그럴듯한 내용까지 포함되어 있다. 민담이라 할지라도 사실에 근거한 모티브는 있어야 한다. 서인집권 이후 광해군 외교를 폄하하는 과정에서 자연스레 홍순언의 의로운 외교방향이 각광을 받게 되었다. 여기에다 조선후기 숭명 사상이 확대되면서 자연스레 임란 파병의 주인공 석성을 추모하는 사회가 되었다. 이런 정치 사회적 분위기가 반영된 기억과정에서 또 다른 문화 양상으로 표출된 것이 바로 홍순언 민담이었다. 따라서 전승된 기억이 역사적 사실과 그 모습을 달리한다 할지라도, 기억과정 그 자체가 커다란 역사적 의의를 가진다 할 것이다. Hong Sun-eon, an official interpreter in King Seonjo’s reign, was in-stalled as a meritorious minister based on his contribution to settling the matter of “clarifying the royal lineage.” He was also given the honor-ific title Dangreung-gun. Then when the Japanese invasions occurred, he played a key role in requesting military aid from Ming China without paying a bribe. Such achievement gave him a reputation for integrity, and since then his work was often talked about among the officials. There is a story about him helping a Chinese acquaintance when he was dispatched to Ming as an envoy. It was recorded first in the Eou’s Unofficial Stories by Yu Mong-in, who lived in the same town as him. However, the simple story got expanded and embellished as time went on, and a different version of it is included in other story books. For example, in the Gukdang’s Amusing Story by Jeong Tae-je, the Chinese acquaintance turned into a woman. In the story, Hong was on a diplo-matic mission to Ming and rescued the woman from her predicament. She later became a concubine of Minister Shi Xing and repaid Hong’s kindness by asking her husband to provide assistance to him in both “clarifying the royal lineage” and obtaining the promise from the Ming court to send troops against the Japanese invasions. The story was likely developed after the Westerners ousted King Gwanghaegun from power in order to disparage the deposed king’s diplomatic policy toward Ming and at the same time praise Hong’s diplomatic achievements. As the pro-Ming stance became dominant, Shi Xing’s assistance was also hon-ored in Joseon society. This political and social situation must have in-fluenced the collective memory, which is reflected in the story. Although the memory differs from the actual history, the memory process itself contains historical significance.

      • KCI등재

        Hong JeongHa's Tianyuanshu and Zhengcheng Kaifangfa

        홍성사,홍영희,김영욱,Hong, Sung Sa,Hong, Young Hee,Kim, Young Wook The Korean Society for History of Mathematics 2014 Journal for history of mathematics Vol.27 No.3

        Tianyuanshu and Zengcheng Kaifangfa introduced in the Song-Yuan dynasties and their contribution to the theory of equations are one of the most important achievements in the history of Chinese mathematics. Furthermore, they became the most fundamental subject in the history of East Asian mathematics as well. The operations, or the mathematical structure of polynomials have been overlooked by traditional mathematics books. Investigation of GuIlJib (九一集) of Joseon mathematician Hong JeongHa reveals that Hong's approach to polynomials is highly structural. For the expansion of $\prod_{k=11}^{n}(x+a_k)$, Hong invented a new method which we name Hong JeongHa's synthetic expansion. Using this, he reveals that the processes in Zhengcheng Kaifangfa is not synthetic division but synthetic expansion.

      • KCI등재후보

        엮기의 조형을 통한 "매달기" 설치오브제의 생명 개념에 관한 연구 - 박홍필의 작품을 중심으로

        박홍필 ( Hong Pil Park ) 한국영상미디어협회 2015 예술과 미디어 Vol.14 No.3

        박홍필의 매달기의 조형개념은 설치미술의 영역을 확장하는 작업으로서 인체에서 벗어나 생물과 인간 사고의 대상인 사물과 유기적으로 연결되어 있는 생명의 실체를 탐구하고 있다. 박홍필의 ‘엮기’는 들뢰즈의 리좀과 같이 인간과 자연의 생명들을 보이지 않게 연결시키는 망을 표현하고 있다. 엮기는 지속적인 반복을 통하여 형태를 만들어 내며, 형태는 원초적인 단순한 고리의 형태를 벗어나 새로운 형태를 만들어 낸다. 이러한 형태는 들뢰즈의 리좀의 개념과 같이 형태와구조상에서 위계적이지 않고 어느 것이 먼저고 어느 것이 나중이라는 개념으로서 원초적인 단순한 고리의 형태를 벗어나 새로운 형태를 만들어 낸다. 박홍필의 매달기의 조형 개념은 엮기의 오브제의 개념과 밀접한 관련을 맺고 있다. 박홍필의 조형 개념은 공산품보다는 자연 재료를 소재로 가느다란 그물망으로 제작한 엮기의 오브제에서 비롯된다. 박홍필의 엮기 오브제와 매달기의 조형 개념은 엮기의 형태가 끊임없이 반복되며, 바람에 흔들리는 순간 움직임이 있으며 관람자가 그 앞을 지나는 순간에도 움직임이 있다. 그렇기에 박홍필의 엮기의 오브제는 니코스 스탠코스가 현대미술의 특징이라고 말한 ‘우연’의 요소를 지니고 있다. 엮기 오브제의 매듭에 있는 원형의 사각형과 설치를 통해 생기는 그림자의 형태 또한 박홍필의 매달기의 조형 개념을 구성하는 주된 요소이다. 원형의 사각형은 생명체의 상징을 의미하며, 그물망은 생명체 간의 보이지 않게 연결되어 있는 유기적인 선들을 표현 한 것이다. 그림자는 생명체의 죽음 이후의 세계 이다. 이러한 조형의 상징은 들뢰즈의 개념을 수용하였으며, 살아있는 생명의 이미지를 상징적으로 표현하고 있는 것이다. 그것은 들뢰즈. 가타리의 생명의 개념을 차용한 것으로써 생명인 동시에 죽음으로써의, 생명의 실체라고 말할 수 있는 데, 들뢰즈의 의미에서 해석하자면 이 신체나 저 신체의 죽음은 전혀 부정적인 것이 아니며, 유기체의 죽음이 없다면 변화도 진정한 생명도 그 근본적인 의미에서 존재하지 않는다는 것을 의미하는 것이다. 즉 박홍필의 매달기의 조형 개념은 인체에서 벗어나 유기적으로 연결되어 있는 생명의 실체를 엮기의 오브제를 통해 상징적으로 표현한 것이며, 현대 미술의 주된 주제가 되는 생명의 개념을 인간 중심에서 벗어나 생물을 비롯하여 인간사고의 대상인 사물과 죽음이후의 세계까지 확장하고 있는 것이다. Park Hong-pil, whose modeling conception of Hanging is the extending work for the installation art. I have made a study for the true of life on connecting to the organism with free to human``s body and the object on the subject with human``s thought.My ``weaving`` which is expressed as the net on connecting the human as like Gilles Deleuze’s ``rhizome`` to life of nature invisibly. ``Weaving`` has to create forms trough the repetition continuously and forms has to create another new forms departing from the form, that is basic and simple linked with. This form,as like the conception of rhizome by Deluze,is not hierarchical on the form and the structure as like the conception, also, that is creat to new form depart form the basic, simple link with as the concept what comes first or later. The modeling conception of ``hanging`` by Park Hong pil means closely related to the conception of ``weaving`` object. My modeling concept derived from the woven object with thin nets made of natural materials, not from any industrial products. I have incarnated both of my modeling concepts of hanging and weaving with recurring square nets. Moreover, there are the movent at the moment when the wind blows, also, they repetitively move back and forth and even when a viewer passes in front of thework, the square nets also move. This explains that my work depends on the element of ``contingency`` Nikos Stangos referred to as one of the hallmarks of Contemporary art. The shadows shifting every minute by the movement of woven and suspended squares and nets are also a primary element of shaping on Park’s modeling concept of hanging. The squares in my works stand for life while the nets stand for organic lines invisibly linking life forms to one another. The shadows are the world after death for life. These modeling symbols are founded on the notion Deleuze underlined, symbolically representing the image of living bodies. They are also based on the notion appropriated from Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of life, referring to the nature of life. In Deleuze’s view, the death of bodies is by no means negative: it means that in an elemental sense any change and life would not exist without the death of organisms. That is, Park’s modeling concept of hanging is to represent the true of life on connecting to the organism and the object on the subject with human``s thought and the world after death for life.

      • KCI등재

        구글 기계 발음번역에서의 구조적 중의성의 문제: 영어 사역명령문과 완료의문문의 사례

        홍성심 ( Hong¸ Sungshim ) 한국현대영어영문학회 2021 현대영어영문학 Vol.65 No.1

        According to Schmelzer (Feb., 2020), there are at least 45 Machine Translation (MT) companies operating around the world, letting alone the super cloud vendors such as Amazon, Google, Microsoft, and Facebook, etc. Although the accuracy of machine translation has always been a challenge, the recent technological advances seem quite striking. Among those, an AI-enhanced Google Neural Machine Translation (GNMT) is perhaps the most versatile MT in the world, as many have accepted. In 1999, Jackendoff has argued that no matter how simple grammatical matters might seem at first sight, even the most advanced computers are no match for the abilities of the human brain. Jackendoff (1999), not having done any actual implementation of his data-set, Hong (2020) has tested what is referred to as, “Jackendoff’s problem”, using AI-based Google Neural Translate (or GNMT). In this paper, on the basis of Hong’s pivot study, it is confirmed that GNMT makes a series of errors in its phonetic outputs of particular words in some specific constructions. As a sequel of Hong’s study, the current paper thoroughly compares English Causative Imperatives and Perfective Aspectual Interrogatives, arriving at the conclusion that in spite of the phonetic errors that GNMT has produced, the corresponding semantic interpretations are normal and non-erroneous. It is argued that GNMT’ erroneous phonetic outputs are closely related to the structural ambiguity between the causative imperative construction and the perfective aspectual interrogatives, whereas its matching semantics is with no such errors. The implications of this research apparently show that GNMT, as the way it is at least, has separate parsing algorithms for semantics from its phonetic/phonological components.

      • KCI등재

        Chosun Mathematics in the early 18th century

        홍성사,홍영희,Hong, Sung-Sa,Hong, Young-Hee The Korean Society for History of Mathematics 2012 Journal for history of mathematics Vol.25 No.2

        1592년과 1636년 양대 전란으로 전통적인 조선 산학의 결과는 거의 소멸되어, 17세기 중엽 조선 산학은 새로 시작할 수밖에 없었다. 조선은 같은 시기에 청으로 부터 도입된 시헌력(時憲曆, 1645)을 이해하기 위하여 서양수학에 관련된 자료를 수입하기 시작하였다. 한편 전통 산학을 위하여 김시진(金始振, 1618-1667)은 산학계몽(算學啓蒙, 1299)을 중간(重刊)하였다. 이들의 영향으로 이루어진 조태구(趙泰耉, 1660-1723)의 주서관견(籌書管見)과 홍정하(洪正夏, 1684-?)의 구일집(九一集)을 함께 조사하여 이들이 조선 산학의 발전에 새로운 전기를 마련한 것을 보인다. After disastrous foreign invasions in 1592 and 1636, Chosun lost most of the traditional mathematical works and needed to revive its mathematics. The new calendar system, ShiXianLi(時憲曆, 1645), was brought into Chosun in the same year. In order to understand the system, Chosun imported books related to western mathematics. For the traditional mathematics, Kim Si Jin(金始振, 1618-1667) republished SuanXue QiMeng(算學啓蒙, 1299) in 1660. We discuss the works by two great mathematicians of early 18th century, Cho Tae Gu(趙泰耉, 1660-1723) and Hong Jung Ha(洪正夏, 1684-?) and then conclude that Cho's JuSeoGwanGyun(籌 書管見) and Hong's GuIlJib(九一集) became a real breakthrough for the second half of the history of Chosun mathematics.

      • KCI등재

        사카모토 료마의 국가 건설사상

        임태홍(Lim Tai-hong) 한국정치사상학회 2004 정치사상연구 Vol.10 No.2

        이 연구는 사카모토 료마의 ‘선중팔책’이 나오게 된 배경과 그 사상적인 특징을 살펴본 것이다. 그의 제안은 단순한 구상에 머문 것이 아니라 이후 ‘대정봉환’이나 ‘메이지유신’ 등으로 현실화되었다. 그의 정치적 입장은 분열되어 있는 각 정치세력을 하나로 묶어 강력한 통일정부를 만드는 데에 있었기 때문에, 그에 대한 연구는 일본 근대의 정치사상을 이해하는데 있어 그리고 아직도 진정한 의미의 민족국가 수립을 못하고 있는 우리 민족에게는 매우 중요하다고 할 수 있다. 본론에서는 ‘선중팔책’을 중심으로 사카모토 료마의 행적과 그 배경을 살펴보고 ‘선중팔책’의 내용과 특징을 고찰하였다. 특징을 명확히 하기위해서 멀리 중국과 한국의 사례와 비교해보았다. 중국의 경우는 태평천국시기에 룽훙(容?)이 태명천국에 제시한 방안과 청말의 쑨원(孫文)이 리홍장(李鴻章)에게 제출한 건의안, 그리고 한국은 동학 운동시기의 폐정개혁안과 갑신정변시 개화파가 제시한 신 정령 14개 조항을 참고하였다. 사카모토 료마의 ‘선중팔책’은 메이지 유신 직전에 제시되었는데, 그 당시 일본의 대표적인 건국 방략이라고 할 수 있다. 그의 제안은 국가의 정체(政體), 사법, 행정, 의회, 외교, 헌법, 군대 등 범위가 광범위하며 어느 한쪽으로 편증되어 있지 않다. 그리고 지국의 문제를 일본을 넘어선 국제적인 시간에서 파악하려는 특징이 강하다. 또한 ‘선중팔책’에는 서구의 의회정치나 법률, 외교 등의 제도를 적극적으로 받아들이려고 한 사카모토 료마의 노력이 뚜렷이 드러나 있다. 중국이나 우리나라의 개혁안과 비교해 보면, 사카모토 료마와 그 주변 사람들의 상황인식이 얼마나 폭이 넓고 깊이가 있었는가를 잘 알 수 있다. ‘선중팔책’은 이미 서양에서 진행되고 있었던 근대 국가 건설의 핵심을 정확히 짚어내고 또 그러한 시대적인 방향을 정확히 제시하였다는 점에서 매우 평가할 만한 방책이었다고 할 수 있을 것이다. This paper examines the Sakamoto Ryoma's "Great Plan at Sea" or eight-point plan, which he wrote aboard ship in 1867. Especially, It is focused on the background of the plan's formation and its feature as a nation building thought. Sakamoto's plan was very important. Because it was not merely an idea, but became a real after a few months. For example by his proposal, Yoshinobu Tokugawa, the 15th Shogun of the Tokugawa Shogunate, returned his political power to the Emperor, that is the so-cold "The Return of Sovereignty"(Taisei Houkan) of November 1867. In the main part, the writer examines the Sakamoto Ryoma's circumstance and analyzes the contents and the feature of the Sakamoto's plan. In order to clarify the plan's feature, this paper attempts to compare the plan to the Long Hong's(容?) proposal to Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the Sun yatsen's(孫文) suggestion to Lee Hong-Chang(李鴻章), the Jeon Bong-Jun's(全琫準) reforming politics plan in the Dong Hak movement, and the reformists' 14 suggestions of the Military Revolution (the Kapshin coup) in 1884. The eight-point plan of Sakamoto Ryoma was suggested right before Meiji Restoration(1868). It was a representative plan for nation building in the era of Modern Japan. Sakamoto's proposal broadly included the system of government, judicature, administration, assembly, diplomacy, constitution, and troops, etc. Although the plan was concern with the domestic affairs of Japan, it had the international judgment, and was most distinctively beyond the boundary of the country. In the Sakamoto's plan, there was a remarkable effort to receive the Westem civilization of the times. Comparing with the cases of Long Hong's, Sun yatsen's, and Jeon Bong-Jun's, Sakamoto's recognition about the era and the circumstance around his country was very spacious and very deep. In conclusion, Sakamoto Ryoma seemed to have a clear grasp of the essence of nation building movement of Western Countries, and his eight-point plan for Modern Japan showed his country the correct way of the new times.

      • KCI등재

        A note on T-sum of bell-shaped fuzzy intervals

        Hong, Dug-Hun Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems 2007 한국지능시스템학회논문지 Vol.17 No.6

        The usual arithmetic operations on real numbers can be extended to arithmetical operations on fuzzy intervals by means of Zadeh's extension principle based on a t-norm T. Dombi and Gyorbiro proved that addition is closed if the Dombi t-norm is used with two bell-shaped fuzzy intervals. Recently, Hong [Fuzzy Sets and Systems 158(2007) 739-746] defined a broader class of bell-shaped fuzzy intervals. Then he study t-norms which are consistent with these particular types of fuzzy intervals as applications of a result proved by Mesiar on a strict f-norm based shape preserving additions of LR-fuzzy intervals with unbounded support. In this note, we give a direct proof of the main results of Hong.

      • KCI등재

        투명인간 모티프에 나타난 젠더 정치성 연구

        홍단비(Hong, Dan-bi) 중앙어문학회 2015 語文論集 Vol.64 No.-

        This paper studies the gender politics of the invisible man motif shown in Kim Young-ha’s "High-tension Wires," Son Hong-gyu’s "Invisible Man," and Song Sok-ze’s "Invisible Man." The concept, closely related to flexible gender and social structure, shows the gender politics of an unconscious level in the text. Therefore, this paper studies the gender politics of our society by focusing on the relationship between the male gender and specific periods of modern and contemporary history, including the 1997 economic crisis and the 2008 candlelight vigil. Kim Young-ha’s "High-tension Wires" depicted a man who admitted only customary masculinity, as the economic leaders of the male gender met their downfall into the invisible man during the 1997 economic crisis. As a result, he tries to recover his “crashed” masculinity through sexual deviation, such as pornography, with a female classmate--but such attempts are frustrated due to the reversal of gender structure. Son Hong-gyu’s "Invisible Man" has showed the father wandering as he was unable to secure a new gender role as required in the era of de-authoritarianism and the “candlelight vigil.” The novel portrays the solidarity of anxiety leading up to the relationship between the father and the son, by focusing on the son’s psychological changes as he watches his father’s authority collapse. In these texts, we can see the flexible gender roles; whereas a loss of masculinity occurs among men, women occupy a dominant position by acquiring masculinity. Further, Song Sok-ze’s "Invisible Man" presents the possibility of another male gender. The men appearing in Kim’s and Son’s novels have to be invisible by adhering only to the customary male gender (masculine). Kim Man-soo, the hero of Song Sok-ze’s novel, was able to "care for his family by simultaneously performing “feminine” duties such as “care, embracing, and sacrifice,” as well as the masculine duty of “economic stimulus.” The role Kim Man-soo inhabits is different from the authoritarian masculinity and submissive femininity of the dichotomous gender structure. By subsumed masculinity and femininity, he has the appearance of a “man who sacrificed voluntarily” (masculinity and femininity of men). Through this, we are able to rediscover the meaning of flexible gender, and find the possibility of a new male gender required for contemporary times.

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