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지식경제부와 한국디자인진흥원은 대한민국 디자인 산업을 이끌어갈 우수한 신예 디자이너 발굴의 장이자, 국내 산업 디자인의 미래를 조망하는 "대한민국디자인전람회" 수상작을 발표했다. 대한민국 디자인계를 이끄는 학계 산업계의 초대 추천 디자이너 542명을 배출한 이 전람회는 1995년부터 집계된 출품 수만 2만5천여 점에 달하는 국내 최대 최고 규모의 공모전이다. 이번 전람회에서는 롯데칠성 디자인팀의 김지혜 씨가 바쁜 현대인들에게 안전하고 건강한 생활 식습관을 제안한 "요리하는 즐거움, 건강한 라이프스타일을 위한 패키지디자인연구"로 국무총리상을 수상하게 됐다. 김지혜 디자이너에게 작품 소개 및 패키지디자인에 대한 견해를 들어보았다.
Background and objective: In the Republic of Korea, military service is mandatory. Some of new recruits have the stress from the special environment, which could cause psychological maladjustment. The military forces have operated education programs such as green camp and healing camp. The study was conducted to investigate changes in psychological and physiological stress by conducting forest healing activities along with plant scent treatment for soldiers participating in a green camp. Methods: A total of 52 soldiers were participated including maladjustment soldiers and those recommended by their military units to protect the unfit soldiers who participated in forest healing activities in the green camp. The programs that were certified by the Korea Forest Service between 2014 and 2019, and were applied for stress reduction and relaxation training were classified into stress-coping programs and forest experience programs. Post-hoc surveys and cortisol measurements were carried out. Results: Green camp soldiers experience and differences in the level of stress responses were found to be very statistically significant between the treatment and control groups. The techniques for coping with stress were not significantly different in the control group, and the treatment group showed statistically significant results. In addition, the results of analyzing changes in the concentration of cortisol and measuring physiological stress were very statistically significant in forest healing activities at 4 p.m. Conclusion: Once green camp soldiers face stressful situations, forest healing programs using forest plant scents for green camp soldiers can have positive responses and forest healing activities can reduce psychological and physiological stress responses, improving maladjustment behaviors caused by stress and positively affecting the reduction of cortisol.
Dental pulp is a highly vascularized tissue requiring ade-quate blood supply for successful regeneration. In this study, we investigated the functional role of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) as a perivascular source for in vivo formation of vessel-like structures. Primarily isolated SHEDs showed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics including the expression of surface antigens and in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials. Moreover, SHEDs were positive for NG2, -smooth muscle actin (SMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFR), and CD146 as pericyte markers. To prove feasibility of SHEDs as perivascular source, SHEDs were transplanted into immunodeficient mouse using Matrigel with or without human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Transplantation of SHEDs alone or HUVECs alone resulted in no formation of vessel-like structures with enough red blood cells. However, when SHEDs and HUVECs were transplanted together, extensive vessel-like structures were formed. The presence of murine erythrocytes within lumens sug-gested the formation of anastomoses between newly formed vessel-like structures in Matrigel plug and the host circulatory system. To understand underlying mechanisms of in vivo angiogenesis, the expression of angiogenic cytokine and chemokine, their receptors, and MMPs was compared between SHEDs and HUVECs. SHEDs showed higher expression of VEGF, SDF-1, and PDGFRthan HUVECs. On the contrary, HUVECs showed higher ex-pression of VEGF receptors, CXCR4, and PDGF-BB than SHEDs. This differential expression pattern suggested reciprocal interactions between SHEDs and HUVECs and their involvement during in vivo angiogenesis. In conclusion, SHEDs could be a feasible source of perivascular cells for in vivo angiogenesis.
This study re-examined the issues of Korean binding domain investigated in the previous studies (Kim and Yoon 2009, Kim 2013) by testing the validity of Tensed S Condition (TSC) in Korean binding. Hypothesizing that Korean TSC-violating anaphors are indeed exempt anaphors, the current study is designed to fix the problems of the previous studies. Twenty seven Korean native speakers were tested over Acceptability Judgment Task combined with Interpretation Task composed of 155 Korean sentences representing various binding conditions and Korean local anaphors. Overall results showed that Korean native speakers treat sentences with TSC-violating anaphors similarly to those with SSC-violating anaphors rather than the sentences representing local binding, which means that TSC-violating local anaphors are licensed as exempt anaphors in Korean, not core anaphors.
Ciliates are a speciose protozoan group and their diversity is still not well investigated in Korea. From our field surveys, 18 unrecorded ciliate species were collected from a total of nine localities in Korea. The field surveys were conducted in 2018 and 2019, and the unrecorded ciliates were found from terrestrial (moss and soil samples) and inland water (river and lagoon samples) habitats. The morphology of these ciliates was studied using the observation of living and silver impregnated (protargol) specimens. The present species belong to five classes as follows: 1) class Spirotrichea - Gonostomum kuehnelti, Quadristicha setigera, Lamtostyla decorata, L. islandica, L. longa, Anteholosticha brachysticha, Pseudobirojimia muscorum; 2) class Litostomatea - Apocoriplites lajacola, Epispathidium amphoriforme, Protospathidium muscicola, Phialinides australis, Paraenchelys wenzeli, Rimaleptus similis; 3) class Nassophorea - Drepanomonas revoluta; 4) class Colpodea - Bryometopus triquetrus; and 5) class Oligohymenophorea - Cyclidium glaucoma, Epistylis pygmaeum, Pseudovorticella vestita. The globular macronuclear nodules of P. vestita were observed for the first time in the Korean population.
The purpose of this paper is to systematically analyze the contents of grammar education in college writing textbooks to diagnose the current grammar education contents and to identify contents that need to be corrected or supplemented. The contents of sentence-level grammar education for 13 textbooks for writing classes were analyzed, and a direction for improving the quality of grammar education contents in writing education was suggested. Results of analyzing the 13 textbooks showed that improvement and supplementation were needed for four major issues. First, “inappropriate correspondence” is used to check whether the grammatical relationship between the sentence constituents correspond appropriately. This can be seen as broadly encompassing “inappropriate constituent,” “inappropriate word order,” and “inappropriate conjunction.” Therefore, it is necessary to include the contents of these three characteristics in the item of “inappropriate correspondence.” Second, it is desirable to educate students on how to use the correct passive expression according to one’s intention in the educational content of “inappropriate passive use.” Third, “inappropriate postposition” and “inappropriate ending” refer to the structural elements of sentences, and they should be taught in coordination. Fourth, “translationese” needs to be included in the educational content only when it is clear that there is translationese occurring. 본 연구에서는 대학 글쓰기 교재의 표현 교육 내용을 체계적으로 분석함으로써현재의 표현 교육 내용을 진단하고 수정⋅보완이 필요한 내용을 파악함으로써 표현 교육 내용의 개선 방향을 제안하고자 하였다. 이를 위하여 대학 글쓰기 수업의 교재 13종을 대상으로 문장 차원의 표현 교육 내용을 분석적으로 검토하고, 이를 통해 글쓰기 교육에서의 표현 교육 내용의 질적 개선 방향을 제안하였다. 13종의 교재를 분석한 결과 크게 네 가지 사항에 대한 개선 및 보완이 필요함을 알 수 있었다. 첫째, ‘부적절한 호응’은 문장 성분 간의 문법적인 관계가 적절하게 호응하는가를 점검하는 것이므로 넓은 범위에서 ‘부적절한 성분’과 ‘부적절한 어순’, ‘부적절한 접속’을 포괄한다고 볼 수 있다. 따라서 ‘부적절한 호응’의항목에서 ‘부적절한 성분, 부적절한 어순, 부적절한 접속’의 내용을 포함하여 교육할 필요가 있다. 둘째, ‘부적절한 피동’의 교육 내용에서 피동 표현의 사용 자체를 남용으로 지적할 것이 아니라, 의도에 따른 정확한 피동 표현의 사용 방법에 대해 교육하는 것이 바람직하다. 셋째, ‘부적절한 조사’와 ‘부적절한 어미’는문장의 형태적 요소로서 함께 교육이 이루어질 필요가 있다. 넷째, ‘번역 투’는번역 원어가 분명히 파악되어 번역 투임이 분명하며 국어다운 표현으로 대체 가능한 경우에 한하여 ‘번역 투’의 교육 내용에 포함할 필요가 있다.
We performed 70 proceudres of transarterial chemoembolization (TAE) through extrahepatic collateral vessels (n=27) or parasitic feeders (n=18) in 45 hepatocellular carcinoma patients. The collaterals developed after inerruption of the hapatic artery due to repeated TAE (n=17) surgical ligation (n=7) and primary celiac occlusion (n=3) Radiologic findings suggesting the existence of parasitic or collateral supply for hepatocellular carcinoma were 1) a focal defect of Lipiodol retention on CT or plain film after TAE via the hepatic artery, 2)dilated and tortuous vessels around the mass on angiography, 3) persistent elevation of the level of serum alpha-fetoprotein or continuous clinical symptoms in spite of sufficient devascularization of the tumor via the hepatic artery, and 4) radiological findings of direct invasion into adjacent organ. The sites of the catheter placement were the inferior phrenic artery (n=19), omental branches (n=16). periportal collaterals (n=6), pancreaticodenal arcade (n=3). gastroduodenal artery (n=3), internal mammary artery (n=2). intercostal artery (n=2) lateral thoracic artery (n=1), bronchial artery (n=1), and colic branches (n=1) Masses feeded by the inferior phrenic and chest wall collaterals were usually located at the dome area of the liver, and the omental and gastrocuodenal collaterals developed in the masses located at the inferior tip of the liver. After TAe via collateral vessels, 37 patients underwent follow-up study. In 18 cases (48%), the tumor favorably responded to TAE. Specific complications of collateral tAE were epigastric soreness (n=10), severe shoulder pain (n=4) and embolization of the spinal artery during embolization through the intercostal artey (n=1) In conclusion, various extrahepatic collaterals are important alternative or additional routes for effective chemoembolization in patients with advanced hepatoma, and early recognition of the parasitic supply and the effort to perform TAE via collaterals is very important for effective management of the patients with the hepatoma.
팔라뮴 계 막의 경우 수소에 대한 선택 투과도가 매우 높아서 고온에서의 수소 정제 및 분리에 효과적으로 이용될 수 있으며, 고온 막 반응기용 분리막의 개발에 대한 연구가 활발히 진행되고 있다. 또한 막의 생산성을 높이고, 재료비 절감을 위해 다공성 지지체 위에 팔라듐 계 박막을 입힌 복합막 제조에 관심이 집중 되고 있다. 본 연구에서 사용한 진공을 가한 전기 도금법은 매우 간단한 공정에 의해 치밀한 박막을 제조 할 수 있으며, 막의 구조를 용이하게 조절할 수 있으므로, 기존의 방법에 의해 제조된 팔라듐 계 막에 비해 성능이 우수한 막 제조가 가능하였다. 한편 투과 메커니즘상 핀흘이 없는 치밀한 팔라듐 계 막의 제조시 완벽한 수소 분리를 기대할 수 있으나, 순수한 팔라듐 막은 일정 압력 및 온도 이하에서 α→β상 변이에 의한 금속 격자 팽창으로 막의 변형이 발생하는 성질이 있어서 합금 사용이 반드시 요구된다. 합금 금속의 첨가에 의해 투과도의 감소를 초래할 수 있으나, β상 팔라듐의 생성량을 억제할 필요가 있다. 따라서 팔라듐/니켈(Pd/Ni) 의 이원 합금 및 팔라듐/은/니켈(Pd/Ag/Ni) 의 삼원 합금막을 제조함으로써 장시간 운전에 따른 막 변화 및 성능을 관찰하고자 한다. 제조된 복합막의 구조과 조성을 알아보기 위해 XRD, EDS, SEM 을 이용하였으며, 수소와 질소 기체의 투과실험을 통하여 투과 성능을 관찰하였다.
We performed both peripheral and coronary angiographies in 52 patients with an arteriosclerosis in lower extremities. The severity of arteriosclerotic narrowing of the coronany and peripheral anteries were compared on angiographies. An angiographic vascular score (AVS, 0-5) reflecting the number and the degree of strenosis in 12 lower extremity arteries and three major coronary arteries was assigned to each angiogram and the sum of scores in the lower extremity arteries was compared with the incidence of significant coronary artery disease (more than grade 3) and coronary score. Relation of incidence and severity of vasular stenosis and four risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia) was also analyzed. Thirty-four of 52 patients (65%) had an angiographically significant coronary artery disease. Thirteen of these 34 patients (38%) had no clinical symptom and sign of the ischemic heart disease. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence and severity of coronary artery disease between high (more than 30) and low AVS group in lower extremity(p<0.14) All patients had at least one risk factor and 49 of 52 patients (94%) had multiple risk factors. Coronary angiography was normal in three patients with only one risk factors, and angiographically significant coronary artery disease existed in nine of 16 cases (56.3%) with two risk factors. 13 of 17 cases (76.5%) with three risk factors, and 12 of 16 cases (75.0%) with all four risk factors. There were no significant correlations between individual risk factors and incidnece, severity of arteriosclerosis in coronary and lower extremity arteries. In conclusion, angiographic evaluation of the coronary artery disease in patients with lower extremity arteriosclerosis is neccessary because of the high chance of coronary artery disease and difficulty in the prediction of coronary artery disease with a severity of the peripheral arteriosclerosis, presence of various risk factors, and clinical symptoms.