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In this research, we develop and suggest branch and bound algorithms for a two-machine permutation flowshop scheduling problem with the objective of minimizing makespan. In this scheduling problem, after each job is operated on the machine 1 (first machine), the job has to start its second operation on machine 2 (second machine) within its corresponding limited waiting time. In addition, each job has its corresponding ready time at the machine 1. For this scheduling problem, we develop various dominance properties and three lower bounding schemes, which are used for the suggested branch and bound algorithm. In the results of computational tests, the branch and bound algorithms with dominance properties and lower bounding schemes, which are suggested in this paper, can give optimal solution within shorter CPU times than the branch and bound algorithms without those. Therefore, we can say that the suggested dominance properties and lower bounding schemes are efficient.
We proposed a novel method for the morphological shape change of dimpled wrinkles using water-soluble powders to modify surface characteristics. Ultraviolet (UV)-curable resin was coated thinly on an aluminum plate and three water powders with 70, 100 and 200 µm in average diameters were dredged on each resin-layered plate. After a short exposure in UV light for less than 15 s on the plate and subsequent thermal curing, we observed microscale wrinkles with diverse morphological structures. Next, dimpled wavy structures were observed by dissolving water-soluble powders on the skin using water rinsing. Through experimental results, wrinkle morphology was affected by the powder size and resin layer thickness. Using this simple approach, various types of dimpled wavy structures can be realized and may be utilized in engineering applications, such as hydrophobicity control.
We give a constructive proof that a (partial) evaluation of a multivariate algebraic function with algebraic numbers is again an algebraic function. Especially, we obtain a bound on the degree of an evaluation with the degrees of the original algebraic function and the algebraic numbers evaluated. Furthermore, we show that our bound is sharp with an example.
The Korean Ministry of Environment and Daegu Metropolitan City are establishing the Korea Water Cluster, which will focus on promoting and escalating Korean water industries. The water industry, a future-oriented and promising business sector, is continuously growing each year worldwide, so the project is very timely. In reality, however, challenges still need to be addressed, such as accessibility, logistics systems, social infrastructures, and attracting good companies. For the Korea Water Cluster to be successful, those issues should be solved, but it is difficult to untangle the matters only with efforts of the Korean Ministry of Environment and Daegu Metropolitan City since some issues will require a great deal of both money and time. Therefore, it is important for the Korean federal government to administer support and finances for certain parts of the project, and for the Korean Ministry of Environment and Daegu Metropolitan City to take on other issues to ensure the Korea Water Cluster is successful long-term. The success of the Korea Water Cluster project will result in the Korea Water Cluster becoming a global hub for the future water industries.