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The 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has been used as a synthetic antineoplastic agent with the synthesis of nucleic acid in the cell. Unfortunately this drug is known to cause toxic reaction in normal tissue also. In this experiment, the authors studied the effect of 5-FU on the rat liver histochemically observing the change in the activities of acid phosphatase and adenosine triphosphatase. Healthy albino male rats (Wistar strain) were used as experimental animals which were divided into the control and 5-FU treated groups. All experimental animals were given food and water unlimited. The animals of experimental group were administered 5-FU, in a dose of 50mg per kg of body weight by intraperitoneal injection. The animals of control groups were administered only water for injectio. The experimental animals were sacrificed at 6, 12, 24 and 36 hours after administration of 5-FU, respectively. The liver specimens, sectioned by cryostat were stained by Gomori method and by Wachestein and Meisel method for studying changes in the activities of acid phosphatase and that of ATPase, respectively. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The acid phosphatase activity was increased in the hepatic parenchymal cells of the 5-FU treated rat liver. 2. The adenosine triphophatase activity was decreased in the intralobular bile canaliculi of the 5-FU treated rat liver. Consequently, it is suggested that 5-FU would induce the change in the activities of possibly from production of toxic metabolites and subsequent damage in rat liver.
This report was analysis of clinical records of 387 patients who were operated upon for abdominal trauma at C.A.F.G. H. during 4 years from january 1989 to april 1993. We obtained following results: 1. Causes of trauma were vehicle accident(24. O%), gun shot wound(19.6%), exercise trauma(17.6%), in order of freqency. 2. Predominant clinical manifestations were abdominal pain (93.2%), abdominal tenderness (80.8%), rebound tenderness (58.6%), rigidity (43.4%), in order of freqency, 191 cases(63.3%) noted systolic blood pressure below 120mmHg on admission, 147 cases(38.8%) were not transfused. The mortality was increased with transfused blood volume, and preoperative hypotension was related to the mortality. 3. Preoperative leukocytosis (more than 10, 000/mm2) were noted in 296 cases (76. 5%), the sensitivity rate of Ultrasound, abdominal C. T was respectively 90.6%, or 92.9%, the specific rates were respectively showed 95.0%, 100%. The sensitivity and specific rate of abdominal paracentesis was 79.4%, 86.7%, so the diagnostic methods were usable cooperatively. 4. Operations performed within 4 hours from trauma were 184 cases(47.5%), above 48 hours were 15 cases(3.9%), and the mortality in thoses cases were respectively 7.6%, 13.3%. The duration of operation was 2 4 hours in 164 cases(42.4%), and the mortality was 3.6%, so the delayed operation was related to the mortality. 5. Injuried organs were small bowels, spleen, liver, retroperitoneum, colon, kidney, pancreas in order of frequency. The single injuried organs were 277 cases(58.7%), 5 or more injuried organs were 14 cases(3.6%), and the mortality was relatively high (64.2%). 6. 169 cases (43.7%) were associated with extraabdominal injuries e. g, chest injury(45.0%), long bone fracture(29.0%), pelvic bone fracture(12.4%), head injury(7.1%), vertebral injury(6.5%), the mortality rate was high when injuries were associated with vertebral and pelvic bone(respectively 36.0%, 24.0%). 7. The operation performed according to general principle, postoperative complications developed in 148 cases(38.2%);pulmonary complication(12.1%), wound infection(8.0%), intraabdominal abscess(4.1%) enterocutaneous fistula(4.l%), in order of freqency. The cleaths were 35 cases in 387 cases and the overall mortality was 9.0%. The causes of death were hemorrhagic shock, sepsis, renal, or hepatic failure, in oder of freqency. 8. Contributiing factors of mortality included the mechanism of injury, delayed operation and preoperative state(blood pressure), transfused blood volume, injuried organs and nurnber, associated injuried organ.
Background : The diagnosis of malaria has been usually made using microscopic examination of Wright stained thin blood films in Korean army. This method is labor-intensive, time consuming and requires the microscopic expertise. Therefore, the alternative techniques, rapid diagnostic test, have been sought for use in Korean army. We performed a comparison of the OptiMAL test with GENEDIA Malaria (P. vivax) Ab Rapid I, II to assess its sensitivity and specificity of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Methods : Blood specimen were collected from 51 patients who were presented and initially diagnosed for P. vivax by the microscopy of blood smears and from 30 control patients without malaria infection at the Capital Armed Forces General Hospital (CAFGH) between October 2000 and February 2001. Among the 51 patients, we also collected 24 samples from 24 patients at 2 or 3 days after therapy. The OptiMAL test and GENEDIA Malaria (P. vivax) Ab Rapid I, II were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions on all samples respectively. Results : Compared with the blood firm, sensitivities and specificities of the OptiMAL test, GENEDIA Malaria (P. vivax ) Ab Rapid I and GENEDIA Malaria (P. vivax) Ab Rapid II were 94.1∼100% (29/29), 80.4∼83.3%, 96.1 ∼96.7% respectively. One case was interpreted as 'undetermined' by OptiMAL test. In 24 patients during therapy, the sensitivities of the OptiMAL test, GENEDIA Malaria (P. vivax) Ab Rapid I and GENEDIA Malaria (P. vivax) Ab Rapid II on 8 specimens with mean 120/□ parasitemia and 16 specimens with negative parasitemia were 75∼43.8%, 87.5∼81,3%, 100∼100% respectively. Conclusion : Our data demonstrated that the sensitivity and specificity of the GENEDIA Malaria (P. vivax) Ab Rapid I were not satisfactory, but the sensitivity and specificity of the OptiMAL test and GENEDIA Malaria (P. vivax) Ab Rapid II were relatively high and useful diagnostic tests for diagnosis of , P. vivax in areas like the militaries where laboratory facilities are poor or non-existent. (Korean J Infect Dis 33:267∼272, 2001)
방사선조사후 나타나는 손상은 물분자의 분해시 형성되는 자유산소기에 의한 것이며, 뼈대근육에서는 방사선의 조사량에 따라 시간이 경과하면서 합병증이 나타나는 것으로 알려져 있다. 이에 저자들은 방사선조사후와 DMTU 전처치후 방사선조사시 에너지 획득방법과 혈관의 분포가 서로 다른, 대부분이 백색근육으로 구성된 앞정강근과 대부분이 적색근육으로 구성된 가자미근에서 나타나는 미세구조의 변화를 관찰하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. 30Gy의 방사선조사로 앞정강근과 가자미근에서 근육원섬유사이의 거리가 증가하였으며, 사립체에서는 사립체바탕질의 전자밀도가 감소하고 사립체능선이 팽대 혹은 불분명해졌으며, 근육세포질세망의 수조가 팽대하였다. 이러한 변화는 시간이 경과할수록 심해져 방사선조사후 2주 경과시에는 근육원섬유용해가 나타났으며, 4주 경과시에는 두 근육 모두 정상대조군과 유사한 소견이 나타났다. 2. 30Gy의 방사선조사후 1일 및 3일 경과시에는 가자미근에서, 7일 및 2주 경과시에는 앞정강근에서 미세구조의 변화가 다소 심하게 나타났으며, 이러한 변화는 근육섬유내 당원과립의 분포의 감소와 동반되어 나타났다. 3. DMTU 투여 대조군의 경우 앞정강근과 가자미근에서 근육원섬유사이의 거리가 증가하였으며, 사립체바탕질의 전자밀도가 감소하고 사립체능선이 불분명하며 근육세포질세망의 수조가 팽대하였다. 4. DMTU 전처치후 앞정강근과 가자미근에서 30Gy의 방사선조사후 나타나는 형태학적 변화가 약하게 나타나 2주 경과시부터 정상대조군과 유사한 소견을 나타내었다. 이상의 결과를 종합하면 30Gy의 방사선조사로 앞정강근과 가자미근에서는 가역적 손상이 일어났으며, 방사선 조사후 초기에는 가자미근에서, 후기에는 앞정강근에서 미세구조의 변화가 심하게 나타났고 이러한 변화는 당원과립의 감소와 연관이 있으며, DMTU를 전처치하면 방사선조사후 나타나는 미세구조의 변화가 약하게 나타났다. Free radicals, formed by ionization of water molecules, cause significant increase of morbidity and mortality in irradiated humans. The skeletal muscle is relatively radio-resistant because of its few content of proliferating cells. But the incidence and severity of muscular damage depends on the dose of radiation and time lapse. This study is aimed to investigate the ultrastructural changes and the effect of radiation and DMTU on two muscles, the tibialis anterior and the soleus muscle; the former is dominantly composed of white muscles while the latter is mainly composed of red muscles. Each muscle also show differences in energy production and distribution of capillaries. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing from 200g to 250g were used as experimental animals. Under urethane(1.l5g/kg, i.p.) anesthesia, 30Gy irradiation to lower extremities with PICKER -C9 cobalt 60 teletherapy unit was done. DMTU(500mglkg, i.p.) was administered lhour prior to irradiation. The animals were sacrificed 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after irradiation. The muscular tissues in midbelly of tibialis anterior and the soleus muscles were obtained and sliced into 2mm in length, 1 mm in width and thickness. The specimens were prepared by routine method for electron microscopy. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Widening of interfibrillar space, mitochondrial changes of eletron-lucent matrix and dilated cristae, and cisternal dilatation of sarcoplasmic reticulum were observed in both muscles after irradiation. More severe ultrastructural changes with time course were observed by 2 weeks. But those were recovered to normal at 4 weeks after irradiation. 2. More severe ultrastructural changes in soleus were observed I and 3 days after irradiation, and in tibialis anterior at 7 days and 2 weeks. Those findings were associated with reduction of glycogen contents in the myofibers of both muscles. 3. Widening of intermyofibrillar space, mitochondrial changes of electron -lucent matrix and indistinct cristae, and cisternal dilatation of sarcoplasmic reticulum were observed in both muscles after DMTU treatment. 4. Pretreatment of DMTU attenuated the ultrastructural changes induced by irradiation. Those were recoved normally by 2 weeks. Consequently, DMTU attenuates the ultrastructural changes in tibialis anterior and soleus muscle after irradiation. The more severe morphological changes in soleus muscle at 1 day and 3 days, and in tibialis anterior at 7 days and 2 weeks after irradiation are associated with the reduction of glycogen contents.