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본 연구에서는 응급처치 및 중환자 처치 능력의 확충이 중증 외상환자 치료에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 두 기간 동안 대도시의 3차 병원과 중소도시의 2차 병원에서 외상치료의 적정성을 비교하였다. 응급 및 중환자 처치 능력의 확충 이후, 2차 병원은 타 병원으로의 전원 없이도 중증 외상 환자를 치료할 수 있게 되었으며, 생리학적 외상 치료 능력이 향상되어 보다 정확한 외상 치료가 가능해 졌다. 비록 특별하게 고안된 외상 센터가 아니라 하더라도, 잘 구축된 응급 의료 체계하에서 지역별로 응급 및 중 환자 처치 능력을 강화하면 외상 환자 치료 성적을 향상 시킬 수 있을 것이다. Background: This study compared the performance of trauma care in an urban and a suburban hospital before and after the enhancement of emergency and intensive care. Method: The medical records of patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit following trauma from 1994 to 1995 and from 2002 to 2003 were examined. The standardized W (Ws), the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the Ws, and the predicted survival rate (Ps) were calculated. During each period, each hospital`s actual survival rate was compared with the 95% CI of the Ps according to the revised trauma score (RTS) and injury severity score (ISS). Spell out RTS and ISS. Result: From 1994 to 1995, 225 and 121 records from the urban and the suburban hospitals were reviewed, respectively. The 95% CI`s of the Ws were -2.30 to 2.73 and -11.40 to -5.90, respectively. The actual survival rate of the suburban hospital was significantly lower than the predicted survival rate at all RTS. From 2002 to 2003, 315 and 268 records from the urban and the suburban hospitals were reviewed, respectively. The 95% CI`s of the Ws was -3.56 to 0.24 and -3.73 to 0.26, respectively. There was no difference between the actual survival rate and the predicted survival rate. Conclusion: An enlargement of the capacities of emergency and intensive care may improve the performance of trauma care at a small suburban hospital.
Purpose: Penetrating vascular trauma though less common poses a challenge to all Surgeons. This study was designed to analyse the profile, management modalities of vascular trauma and the outcomes thereof at a Trauma Care Centre in a Tertiary care setting in hostile environment in India. Methods: A prospective review of all patients with arterial and venous injuries being transferred to the Trauma Center at out Tertiary Care Center between June 2015 and May 2018 was done. Demographics, admission data, treatment, and complications were reviewed. Results: There were a total of 46 patients with 65 vascular injuries, 39 arterial injuries and 26 venous injuries. The age range was 21 to 47 years. Nineteen patients had both arterial and venous injuries. A total of 42 cases presented within 12 hours of injury and complete arterial transections were found in 33 cases (80.49%). There were three mortalities (6.52%) and three amputations (8.33%). The overall limb salvage rate was 91.67% with popliteal artery being the commonest injured artery. Poor prognosticators for limb salvage were increasing time to present to the trauma centre, hypovolemic shock, multi-organ trauma and associated venous injuries. Conclusions: Penetrating missile trauma leading to vascular injuries has not been widely reported. Attempting limb salvage even in cases with delayed presentation should be weighed with the threat to life before revascularisation and should preferably be done at a centre with vascular expertise. A team approach with vascular, orthopaedic, general surgeons, and critical care anaesthesiologists all aboard improve the outcomes manifold. Use of tourniquets and early fasciotomies have been emphasized as is the use of native veins as the bypass conduit. This is probably the largest study on penetrating Vascular trauma in anti-terrorism ops from the Indian subcontinent. It highlights the significance of prompt recognition and availability of vascular expertise in optimally managing cases of vascular trauma.
Purpose: There is increasing interest in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) in critically ill patients. This study investigated the effects and outcomes of elevated IAP in a trauma intensive care unit (ICU) population. Methods: Eleven consecutive critically ill patients admitted to the trauma ICU at Pusan National University Hospital Regional Trauma Center were included in this study. IAP was measured every 8-12 hours (intermittently) for 72 hours. IAP was registered as mean and maximal values per day throughout the study period. IAH was defined as IAP ≥12 mmHg. Abdominal compartment syndrome was defined as IAP ≥20 mmHg plus ≥1 new organ failure. The main outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. Results: According to maximal and mean IAP values, 10 (90.9%) of the patients developed IAH during the study period. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was significantly higher in patients with IAP ≥20 mmHg than in those with IAP <20 mmHg (16 vs. 5, p=0.049). The hospital mortality rate was 27.3%. Patients with a maximum IAP ≥20 mmHg exhibited significantly higher hospital mortality rates (p=0.006). Non-survivors had higher maximum and mean IAP values. Conclusions: Our results suggest that an elevated IAP may be associated with a poor prognosis in critically ill trauma patients.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the essential factors for prompt arrangement of angio-embolization in patients with pelvic ring fractures. Methods: A total of 62 patients with pelvic ring fractures who underwent angioembolization in Dankook University Hospital from March 2013 to June 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. There were 38 men and 24 women with a mean age of 59.8 years. The types of pelvic ring fractures were categorized according to the Tile classification. Patient variables included sex, initial hemoglobin concentration, initial systolic blood pressure, transfused packed red blood cells within 24 hours, Injury Severity Score (ISS), mortality rate, length of hospital stay, and time to angio-embolization. Results: The most common pelvic fracture pattern was Tile type B (n=34, 54.8%). The mean ISS was 27.3±10.9 with 50% having an ISS ≥25. The mean time to angio-embolization from arrival was 173.6±89 minutes. Type B (180.1±72.3 minutes) and type C fractures (174.7±91.3 minutes) required more time to angio-embolization than type A fractures (156.6±123 minutes). True arterial bleeding was identified in types A (35.7%), B (64.7%), and C (71.4%). Conclusions: It is important to save time to reach the angio-embolization room in treating patients with pelvic bone fractures. Trauma surgeons need to consider prompt arrangement of angio-embolization when encountering Tile type B or C pelvic fractures due to the high risk of true arterial bleeding.
Minimal change disease (MCD) in children has a favorable long-term prognosis, and development of end-stage renal disease is very uncommon; less than 5%. In the first case of its kind, we report a 21-year-old female with a history of MCD at the age of 6, who had late relapse subsequent to a motorcycle accident resulting in a de-gloving skin injury and intensive care unit admission. MCD was confirmed by normal light microscopy, podocyte effacement on electron microscopy and absence of any deposits on immunofluorescence 3 weeks after the incident due to critical illness. It is postulated that the skin injury is what caused the relapse of MCD.
Bilateral chylothorax due to blunt trauma is extremely rare. We report a 74-year-old patient that developed delayed bilateral chylothorax after falling off a ladder. The patient had a simple 12th rib fracture and T12 lamina fracture. All other findings seemed normal. He was sent home and on the 5th day visited our emergency center at Halla Hospital with symptoms of dyspnea and lower back pain. Computer tomography of his chest presented massive fluid collection in his right pleural cavity and moderate amounts in his left pleural cavity with 12th rib fracture and T11-12 intervertebral space widening with bilateral facet fractures. Chest tubes were placed bilaterally and chylothorax through both chest tubes was discovered. Conservative treatment for 2 weeks failed, and thus, thoracic duct ligation was done by video assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Thoracic duct embolization was not an option. Postoperatively, the patient is now doing well and happy with the results. Early surgical treatment must be considered in the old patient, whom large amounts of chylothorax are present.
Although hemothorax and pneumothorax are common complications seen in rib fractures, focal extrapleural hematoma is quite rare. We report a 63-year-old female patient that developed large focal extrapleural hematoma after falling off a second floor veranda. The patient had sustained 3, 4, 5th costal cartilage rib fractures and a sternum fracture. She had developed suspected empyema with loculations with small amount of hemothorax. She underwent a planned early decortication/adhesiolysis by video assisted thoracoscopic surgery at the 12th post-trauma day due to failed drainage. Unexpectedly, she had no adhesions or any significant retained hematoma mimicking a mass, but was found with the focal extrapleural chest wall hematoma. She was discharged on postoperative 46th day for other reasons and is doing fine today.
Purpose: To compare the time intervals to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surgical treatment in patients having traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) with and without bony lesions. Methods: Retrospectively analyzed adult patients visited Kyungpook National University Hospital and underwent surgical treatment for cervical SCI within 24 hours. The patients who were suspected of having cervical SCI underwent plain radiography and computed tomography (CT) upon arrival. After the initial evaluation, we evaluated the MRI findings to determine surgical treatment. Waiting times for MRI and surgery were evaluated. Results: Thirty-four patients were included. Patients’ mean age was 57 (range, 23-80) years. Patients with definite bony lesions were classified into group A, and 10 cases were identified (fracture-dislocation, seven; fracture alone, three). Patients without bony lesions were classified into group B, and 24 cases were identified (ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, 16; cervical spondylotic myelopathy, eight). Mean intervals between emergency room arrival and start of MRI were 93.60 (±60.08) minutes in group A and 313.75 (±264.89) minutes in group B, and the interval was significantly shorter in group A than in group B (p=0.01). The mean times to surgery were 248.4 (±76.03) minutes in group A and 560.5 (±372.56) minutes in group B, and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.001). The American Spinal Injury Association scale at the time of arrival showed that group A had a relatively severe neurologic deficit compared with group B (p=0.046). There was no statistical significance, but it seems to be good neurological recovery, if we start treatment sooner among patients treated within 24 hours (p=0.198). Conclusions: If fracture or dislocation is detected by CT, cervical SCI can be easily predicted resulting in MRI and surgical treatment being performed more rapidly. Additionally, fracture or dislocation tends to cause more severe neurological damage, so it is assumed that rapid diagnosis and treatment are possible.
Purpose: The author’s trauma center implemented Mobile Trauma Units (MTU), which are ground transportation automobiles constructed with advanced medical equipment, in an attempt to improve the survival rate of severe trauma patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of MTU as a means of inter-hospital transfer of patients in urban environments.Methods: Patients with an injury severity score (ISS) of 16 or more were enrolled in this study. The participants must also be patients who were transferred with the MTU in the 18 months between January 2017 and June 2018. To assess the survival probability, the revised trauma score (RTS), trauma and injury severity score (TRISS), and w-score were used as the outcome indices.Results: Forty-four (86.3%) of the severe trauma patients with an ISS of 16 or more were male and 7 (13.7%) were female. The number of patients from the territory were 32 (62.7%), and patients from the others were 19 (37.3%). All the patients received their injury from blunt force trauma. The average time of from the scene of the accident to the trauma center was 176 minutes. In 13 deaths, 10 (76.9%) of the RTS values were below 4 points. Among the 51 patients, TRISS was more than 0.5 in 32 patients (62.7%). The w-score was 13.25 and the actual survival rate of a patient was 74.50%.Conclusion: Ground transportation automobiles that use MTU for severe trauma patients in urban areas are more economically beneficial and more efficient. The survival rate while using MTU was also shown to be higher than that of medical helicopter transfers.