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본 연구에서는 응급처치 및 중환자 처치 능력의 확충이 중증 외상환자 치료에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 두 기간 동안 대도시의 3차 병원과 중소도시의 2차 병원에서 외상치료의 적정성을 비교하였다. 응급 및 중환자 처치 능력의 확충 이후, 2차 병원은 타 병원으로의 전원 없이도 중증 외상 환자를 치료할 수 있게 되었으며, 생리학적 외상 치료 능력이 향상되어 보다 정확한 외상 치료가 가능해 졌다. 비록 특별하게 고안된 외상 센터가 아니라 하더라도, 잘 구축된 응급 의료 체계하에서 지역별로 응급 및 중 환자 처치 능력을 강화하면 외상 환자 치료 성적을 향상 시킬 수 있을 것이다. Background: This study compared the performance of trauma care in an urban and a suburban hospital before and after the enhancement of emergency and intensive care. Method: The medical records of patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit following trauma from 1994 to 1995 and from 2002 to 2003 were examined. The standardized W (Ws), the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the Ws, and the predicted survival rate (Ps) were calculated. During each period, each hospital`s actual survival rate was compared with the 95% CI of the Ps according to the revised trauma score (RTS) and injury severity score (ISS). Spell out RTS and ISS. Result: From 1994 to 1995, 225 and 121 records from the urban and the suburban hospitals were reviewed, respectively. The 95% CI`s of the Ws were -2.30 to 2.73 and -11.40 to -5.90, respectively. The actual survival rate of the suburban hospital was significantly lower than the predicted survival rate at all RTS. From 2002 to 2003, 315 and 268 records from the urban and the suburban hospitals were reviewed, respectively. The 95% CI`s of the Ws was -3.56 to 0.24 and -3.73 to 0.26, respectively. There was no difference between the actual survival rate and the predicted survival rate. Conclusion: An enlargement of the capacities of emergency and intensive care may improve the performance of trauma care at a small suburban hospital.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the surgical outcome of duodenal injuries and to analyze the risk factors related to the leakage after surgical treatment. Methods: A retrospective review of 31 patients with duodenal injuries who managed by surgical treatment was conducted from December 2000 to May 2014. The demographic characteristics, injury mechanism, site of duodenal injury, association of intraabdominal organ injuries, injury severity score (ISS), abdominal abbreviated injury scale (AIS), injury-operation time lag, surgical treatment methods, complications, and mortality were reviewed. Results: Duodenal injury was more common in male. Twenty four (77.4%) patients were injured by blunt trauma. The most common injury site was in the second portion of the duodenum (n=19, 58.6%). Fourteen patients (45.2%) had other associated intraabdominal organ injuries. The mean ISS is 13.6±9.6. The mean AIS is 8.9±6.5. Eighteen patients (58.1%) were treated by primary closure. The remaining 13 patients underwent various operations, including exploratory laparotomy (n=4), pancreaticoduodenectomy (n=3), pyloric exclusion (n=3), Resection with end-to-end anastomosis (n=2), and duodenojejunostomy (n=1). Most common postoperative complications were intraabdominal abscess (n=9) and renal failure (n=9). Mortality rate was 9.7%. Conclusion: ISS, AIS>10, operative time, pancreaticoduodenectomy, sepsis, and renal failure are significant predictors of a postoperative leak after duodenal injury. Careful management is needed to prevent a potential leak in patient with these findings. [ J Trauma Inj 2015; 28: 129-133 ]
Purpose: Pyomyositis is a rare disease in temperature climate region. The diagnosis of pyomyositis is often delayed, and pyomyositis is often misdiagnosed in the emergency department. Methods: The medical records of 11 patients who were diagnosed as having traumatic pyomyositis in the emergency department at Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea, between 2000 and 2006 were reviewed. Their clinical features, such as history, symptoms, clinical findings, duration from onset of symptoms to diagnosis, medical history, laboratory data, results of imaging studies and clinical course were collected. Results: The psoas muscles were most commonly involved. Computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging aided in accurate diagnosis of the infection and of the extent of involvement. Incision, drainage, and antibiotics therapy eradicated the infectioin in all patients Conclusion: Pyomyositis should be a part of the differential diagnosis for patients with traumatic muscle pain. Radiologic evaluation, such as computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, must be considered in the diagnosis of traumatic pyomyositis. (K Korean Soc Traumatol 2006;19:81-88)
Purpose: We conducted this retrospective epidemiological study to assess the incidence and severity of lower extremity injuries in Korea Methods: For this study, we retrospectively reviewed nationwide lower-extremity injury data compiled from 2001 to 2003 based on the National Injury Database, what included National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC), Car Insurance, and Industry Insurance data. Data were standardized in terms of demographic characteristics, region, and socioeconomic status by using NHIC data. To assess the degree of the injuries, we used the Modified Abbreviated Injury Scale (MoAIS), what has been changed from the International Classification of Disease-10 (ICD-10) code. By using the Excess Mortality Ratio-adjusted Injury Severity Score (EMR-ISS), we classified the degree of severity into four categories: mild, moderate, severe and critical. Results: From 2001 to 2003, lower extremity injuries increased slightly, with a yearly average of 2,437,335. Insurance data should that lower-extremity injuries were the most common, followed by upper-extremity injuries. Significant difference were seen in the numbers of lower extremity injuries based on gender and age. As for provinces, Seoul and Gyeongi provinces had the highest numbers of cases. Junlabukdo had the highest rate of 55,282 cases per 1 million people for standardized gender and population. The annual incidence of the insured patients with lower extrimity injuries was higher than the employer`s medical insurance contributions to the medical insurance program. Daily cases occur most often in May and June, with the lowest occurrences being in January and February. Conclusion: The result of this study shows that lower extremity injuries comprised common cause of all injuries. In addition, differences associated with gender, location and socioeconomic status were observed. Further studies are needed to find reasons and then this knowledge will allow strategies to prevent the lower extremity injuries.
박신웅 ( Shin Woong Park ), 현성열 ( Sung Youl Hyun ), 김진주 ( Jin Joo Kim ), 임용수 ( Yong Su Lim ), 조진성 ( Jin Sung Cho ), 양혁준 ( Hyuk Jun Yang ), 박원빈 ( Won Bin Park ), 우재혁 ( Jae Hyug Woo ), 장재호 ( Jae Ho Jang ) 대한외상학회 2013 大韓外傷學會誌 Vol.26 No.3
Purpose: Trauma is one of the major cause of death in Korea. This study focused on the survival rate and the neurologic outcome for patients with traumatic cardiac arrest (CA) at one emergency center. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with traumatic CA who were seen at a regional emergency medical center from January 2010 to December 2011. From among major trauma patients at that medical center, adults older than 18 years of age who had CA were included in this study. CA included outof- hospital CA with arrival at the Emergency Department (ED) within three hours and in-hospital CA. We checked the survival rate and the neurologic outcome. Results: A total of 61 patients were analyzed: 32 patients had return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), 6 patients survived to discharge (survival rate: 9.84%), and 4 were still alive 90 days after discharge. The Cerebral performance category (CPC) scores at 6 months after discharge showed 1 good and 5 poor in neurologic outcomes. Factors such as initial rhythm of CA, part with major injury, Revised Trauma Score (RTS) and pH, were significant for ROSC, survival, and neurologic outcome in patients with traumatic CA. Conclusion: In this study, patients who had traumatic CA showed a 9.84% survival rate and a 1.64% good neurologic outcome. The results are poorer than those for CA caused by disease. Multi-center, prospective studies are needed.
김병권 ( Byoung Kwon Ghim ), 신동혁 ( Dong Hyuk Shin ), 한상국 ( Sang Kuk Han ), 최필조 ( Pil Cho Choi ), 이영한 ( Young Han Lee ), 박하영 ( Ha Young Park ), 배수호 ( Soo Ho Bae ), 송형곤 ( Hyoung Gon Song ) 대한외상학회 2009 大韓外傷學會誌 Vol.22 No.2
Purpose: Abdominal CT (computed tomography) is a principal diagnostic imaging modality for torso trauma at the Emergency Department (ED). When acute osseous pelvic injuries are detected by abdominal CT, additional three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction pelvic CT is often performed. We compared abdominal CT with pelvic CT to provide information about acute osseous pelvic injuries. Methods: A retrospective investigation of patients` electronic medical records during the five year period between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2008 among Korean soldiers who underwent pelvic CT after abdominal CT at the ED was conducted. Axial images of abdominal CT were compared with axial images and 3D reconstruction images of pelvic CT. Results: Sixteen patients underwent subsequent pelvic CT after abdominal CT. Axial images of abdominal CT showed the same results in terms of fracture detection and classification when compared to axial images and 3D reconstruction images of pelvic CT. Pelvic CT (including 3D reconstruction images) followed by abdominal CT neither detected additional fracture nor changed the fracture type. Conclusion: This study has failed to show any superiority of pelvic CT (including 3D reconstruction images) over abdominal CT in detecting acute osseous pelvic injury. When 3D information is deemed be mandatory, 3D reconstructions of abdominal CT can be requested rather than obtaining an additional pelvic CT for 3D reconstruction. (J Korean Soc Traumatol 2009;22:206-11)
Purpose: Clinically, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) occurs within 72 hours after acute exposure of risk factors. Because of its high fatality rate once ARDS progresses, early detection and management are essential to reduce the mortality rate. Accordingly, studies on early changes of ARDS were started, and serum ferritin, as well the as injury severity score (ISS), which has been addressed in previous studies, thought to be an early predictive indicator for ARDS Methods: From March 2003 to March 2005, we investigated 50 trauma patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit in Dongguk University Medical Center, Gyeongju. The patients were characterized according to age, sex, ISS, onset of ARDS, time onset of ARDS, serum ferritin level (posttraumatic 1st & 2nd day), amount of transfused blood, and death. Abdominal computed topography was performed as an early diagnostic tool to evaluate the onset of ARDS according to its diagnostic criteria. The serum ferritin was measured by using a VIDAS(R) Ferritin (bioMeriux, Marcy-1` Etoile, France) kit with an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay method. For statistical analysis, Windows SPSS 13.0 and MedCalc were used to confirm the probability of obtaining a predictive measure from the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. Results: The ISS varied from 14 to 66 (mean: 33.8) whereas the onset of ARDS could be predicted with the score above 30 (sensitivity: 90.0%, specificity: 60.0%, p<0.05). On the posttraumatic 1st day, the serum ferritin levels were measured to be from 31 mg/dL to 1,200 mg/dL (mean: 456 mg/dL), and the onset of ARDS could be predicted when the value was over 340 mg/dL (sensitivity: 80.0%, specificity: 65.0%, p<0.05). On the posttraumatic 2nd day, the serum ferritin levels were measured to be from 73 mg/dL to 1,200 mg/dL (mean: 404 mg/dL), and the onset of ARDS could be predicted when the value was over 627 mg/dL (sensitivity: 60.0%, specificity: 92.5%, p<0.05). The serum ferritin levels and the ISS were significantly higher on the posttraumatic 1st and 2nd day in the ARDS group, suggesting that they are suitable indices predicting the onset of ARDS, however relationship between the serum ferritin levels and the ISS was not statistically significant. Conclusion: In this study, we discovered increasing serum ferritin levels in multiple- trauma patients on the posttraumatic 1st & 2nd day and concluded that both the serum ferritin level and the ISS were good predictors of ARDS. Although they do not show statistically significant relationship to each other, they can be used as independent predictive measures for ARDS. Since ARDS causes high mortality, further studies, including the types of surgery and the methods of anesthesia on a large number of patients are essential to predict the chance of ARDS earlier and to reduce the incidence of death. (J Korean Soc Traumatol 2007;20:57-64)
Traumatic tricuspid regurgitation is a rare complication of blunt chest trauma caused by chordal rupture, anterior papillary muscle rupture and anterior leaflet tear. Since clinical symptoms are vague, early diagnosis is difficult and some patient exhibit symptoms of right heart failure. Right heart failure has been the traditional indication for surgical treatment, such as tricuspid valve replacement. Recently, early detection using transthoracic echocardiography and surgical treatment, like valve repair, prior to overt right heart failure have been shown to better prognosis. We report a case of traumatic tricuspid regurgitation with chordal rupture in patient due to traffic accident. [ J Trauma Inj 2015; 28: 67-70 ]
Purpose: Pancreatic injury is rare in abdominal trauma patients (3%~12%). but it could result in significant morbidity and even mortality. Early and adequate decision making are very important in the management of patients with traumatic pancreatic injury. The purpose of this study was to assess the kinds of management and outcome through the review of our experience of pancreatic injury with multiple trauma. Methods: We reviewed 17 patients with traumatic pancreas injury via electronic medical records from Jan. 2002 and April. 2011. We collected demographic findings; the type, location and grade of pancreas injury, the treatment modality, and patient`s outcomes, such as complications, length of hospital stay (LOS), and mortality. Results: Total 17 patients were reviewed, and man was 13 (88%). Traffic accident was the most common cause of injury. Pancreas neck was the most common injured site, and occured in 5 patients. Ductal injury was detected in 7 cases. Eleven patients were treated by surgical procedure, and in this group, 3 patients underwent the endoscopic retrograde pancreas drainage procedure coincidently. ERPD was tried in 8 patients, and failed in 2 patients. The major complications were post-traumatic fluid collection and abscess which accounted for 70 % of all patients. The hospital stay was 35.9 days, and it was longer in patient with ductal injury (38.0±18.56 vs. 34.5±33.68 days). Only one patient was died due to septic shock associated with an uncontrolled retroperitoneal abscess. Conclusion: Early diagnosis is the most important factor to apply the adequate treatment option and to manage the traumatic pancreas injury. Aggressive treatment should be considered in patients with a post-operative abscess.