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In order to investigating the pulmonary toxicity of the O-chlorobenzyledene malononitrile (CS), lacrimating agent, $2.6g/m^3$ of CS was inhalated to Sprague-Dawley rats in the plastic chamber for 20 minutes. The ultrastructural changes of type II pneumocytes in the lung were observed with Hitachi 600 transmission electron microscope. The results obtained were as follows: 1. 3 hours after exposure to CS the fusion of surface microvilli, dilatation of cristernae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, atrophy of Golgi complex and condensation, deletion of lamellated membranes in lamellar bodies were observed in type II pneumocytes. 2. One and 2 days after CS-exposure, disorganization of mitochondrial double membranes, fragmentations of rough endoplasmic reticulum were found in the great alveolar cells. In addition, decrease in amount of polyribosome granules and deletion or condensation of lamellated membranes in lamellar bodies were also observed. 3. 4 days after exposure to CS, the type II pneumocyte revealed new whorled lamellar membranes in lamellar bodies, a few intact rough endoplasmic reticulum and restoration of polyribosome granules. It is consequently suggested that CS induces degenerative changes of cytoplasmic organelles in the type II pneumocytes.
Interleukin-2, T-cell growth factor, is a glycoprotein produced by the lymphocytes and it is widely used as an immunotherapeutic agent on the hepatoma and various carcinoma. Interleukin-2 mediate antitumor effect by stimulating the proliferation of helper and cytotoxic T-cells and increasing the generation of lymphokine activated killer cells. Thus interleukin-2 was administered to the cancer patients and experimental animals, it could also effect on the lymphoblasts and reticular cells in the spleen. In this experiment, the author pursued the effect of interleukin-2 on the ultrastructure of the reticular cell of the mouse spleen. Albino mice, DDY strain, weighing 20gm were used as experimental animals. The experimental animals were killed at 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after administration of 2,000,000 unit/kg interleukin-2. The specimens obtained from the spleen were prefixed in 2% glutaraldehyde-2.5% paraformaldehyde solution and postfixed in the 1% osmic acid. After dehydration, the specimen were embedded in Epon 812 and then ultrathin sections(600-800A??) were made and stained with urarnyl acetate and lead nitrate. And these preparations were observed with JEM 100cx-II electron microscope. The results were as follows. 1. Medium sized lymphocytes, large lymphocytes and reticular cells were increased in the white pulp of the 3, 6 and 12 hours interleukin-2 treated mouse spleen. A few rod shaped rough endoplasmic reticulum were observed and mitochondria and vesicles were abundant in its cytoplasm. 2. Small lymphocytes, medium sized lymphocytes, large lymphocytes and reticular cells were seen as regular shapes and their cytoplasmic organelles were normal in the white pulp of the spleen in 24 and 48 hour interleukin-2 treated Mice group. Consequently, it is suggested that interleukin-2 would induce the development of the cytoplasmic organelles in the reticular cells but the cytoplasmic organelles in the reticular cells would return to its normal state as the time goes by.
Although frog spleen is generally structurally similar to that of mammals, the following differences were observed in our study. . 1. There is only one trabecula in the middle zone of tissue, and the capsule of the frog spleen does not contain smooth muscle fibers. . 2. The white pulp does not have uniform complete nodules, the lymphocytes in the white pulp are not packed close together, the white pulp contains large numbers of erythrocytes, and there are no central arteries or germinal centers in the spleen of frogs. 3. The arteries of frog spleen, unlike those in mammalian spleen, do not branch into central arteries in the white pulp, or into sheathed arteries in the red pulp. 4. Reticular tissue appears near the venous sinuses, but is not widely distributed throughout other splenic tissue. 5. Veins of frog's spleen are distributed beneath the capsule and periphery of trabecula.
포유류의 임파기관의 조직내에 대식세포들에 대한 연구는 식작용과 면역반응에 관련하여 오랜 기간동안 진행되어 왔다. 저자는 흰쥐의 태아 비장에서 대식세포의 발생, 분포 및 효소 특히 acid phosphatase 활성을 추적하기 위하여 본 연구를 시도하였다. 본 실험에서는 임신 17일된 태아비장으로부터 출생 후 8일이 경과된 흰쥐 비장까지를 연구 대상으로 하여 대식세포의 발생을 추적했다. 실험동물로는 Wistar 종(Rattus norvegicus var. albus Fitzinger) 의 흰쥐를 사용하였으며, 임신한 흰쥐는 태령 제 17일, 20일 및 21일째 희생시켰으며 출생한 흰쥐는 출생 2일, 4일 및 8일에 희생시켰다. 각 비장 조직의 발생단계를 관찰하기 위해 H·E 염색을 하였으며, 태아와 출생 흰쥐의 비장에 분포한 대식세포의 acid phosphatase 활성을 비교 검출하기 위해 Gomori 방법에 따라 acid phosphatase 염색법을 사용하였다. 본 실험에 의한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 태령 17일된 태아 비장에서는 acid phosphatase 활성을 나타내는 세포가 드문드문 나타났으며, 이러한 세포는 불규칙적인 세포질 돌기를 가지고 있다. 2. 태아기간을 통해, 비장의 acid phosphatase 활성은 출생 직전에 강하게 나타났다. 출생 후 2~4일이 경과한 흰쥐 비장의 acid phosphatase 활성은 태아보다 약하게 나타났으나, 출생 후 7일이 경과된 흰쥐 비장의 acid phosphatase 활성은 적수에서 강하게 나타났다. The studies about macrophages in the mammalian tissue, especially lymphatic organs, have been worked for a long time in point of its phagocytosis and immune reactions. The present study proposes to determine the development, distribution and acid phosphatase activities of macrophages in the fetal rat spleens. These rat spleens were studied from the initial stage of development in the 17 days old rat embryo up to the 8 days old rat newborn. The albino rats, Wistar strain (Rattus norvegicus var. albus Fitzinger), were used as the experimental animals. The pregnant albino rats were sacrificed at day 17, day 21, of fetal life and at day 2, day 4, day 6, day 8, of neonatal life. The spleen tissues of each developing stage were prepared by the paraffin method for hematoxylin and eosin stain. And in order to detect the acid phosphatase activities of macrophages in each spleen of fetuses and neonatal rats, the Gomori method for acid phosphatase was used. These preparations were observed with light microscope. A series of results have been obtained as follow: 1. The cells with the acid phosphatase activities are sparsely scattered in the 17th day fetal spleens and these cells have irregular cytoplasmic processes. 2. The acid phosphatase activity in the spleen through the fetal period was strong at previous to the birth (day 21 of fetus). After birth (day 2 to day 4), the acid phosphatase activities are weaker than that of fetal life but from 1 week of neonatal life, the acid phosphatase activities are strong and distributed in the red pulpes of neonatal spleen.
Problems of the follicular capillaries and the marginal sinuses in the white pulp of the spleen have long been a matter of general interest in relation to the production of the antibody in the spleen. It has been reported that the histologists in the field of the spleen studies (Altschul and Hummason '47, Snook '50 '64, Andrew '46, Galindo and Imaeda '62, and Weiss. '73) have defined that the follicular capillaries are branched from the central arteries of the white pulp and that the blood from the central arteries are supplied into the germinal center and marginal zones. As follows, a series of different results have been obtained in the present study of the developing spleen tissue of the neonatal albino rats. 1.The capillaries from the cetral artery in the neonatal rat spleen did not branch within 13 days after birth. 2.At the stage of the 3rd day after birth, the follicular capillaries began to branch from the penicillar arterioles in the zone between the periphery of the white pulp and red pulp. 3.At the stage of 3rd day after birth, the reticular fibers in the white pulp began to form; and at the stage of 7th day after b]rth, a reticular fiber formation was completed almost as that of the adult rat. 4.At the stage of 14th day after birth, the central artery began to locate peripherally in the white pulp : and the germinal center was formed completely. 5.At the stake of 14th day after birth, the formation of the marginal zone and marginal sinuses was completed: and the follicular capillaries and marginal sinuses began to anastomose.