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Two groups of rats were exposed to the o-chlorobenzylidine malononitrile(CS) being used in the control of riots, and sacrificed to examine histological and histochemical changes of the cornea and conjunctiva. 1. In animals exposed to the CS gas (50mg/min./㎥) for 20min., reversible histological changes were observed in the cornea. Epithelial and endothelial Na,^(+) K^(+) -ATPase activity were reduced, wing cells of the epithelium were transformed to the squamous shape and mitotic activity occurred actively in the basal layer. 2. In animals exposed repeatedly to the CS gas (50mg/min./㎥) for 20min. once a day for 10 days, Na^(+), K^(+)-ATPase, Mg^(2+)-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase activities of the corneal epithelium and endothelium were reduced. And there was epithelial shrinkage, irregular basement membrane and irregularly arranged collagen fibers were also observed in the stroma. 3. In animals exposed to the CS gas (50mg/min./㎥) for 20min., reversible histological changes were observed in the conjunctiva. Mucin secreting activity of the goblet cells was reduced and lymphocytes, eosinophils were infiltrated. 4. In animals exposed repeatedly to the CS gas (50mg/min./㎥) for 20min. once a day for 10 days, irreversible changes were observed. Desquamation with oedema and shrinkage of the epithelial cells, and loss of some basement membrane were observed. Mucin secreting activity of the goblet cells was reduced and lymphocytes, eosinophils were infiltrated significantly. As a result when eyes are temporally exposed to the CS gas reversible degenerative changes, desquamation with oedema of the epithelium and infiltration are produced. And when eyes are repeatedly exposed to the CS gas histopathologic changes such as desquamation with oedema of the epithelium, infiltration, and reduced mucin secreting activity are occurred.
Purpose: This study was to evaluate the casual relationship between the factors in the Pender's model and to explain health promoting behaviors among middle-aged women in order to facilitate nursing interventions for this population group. Method: 116 women between 40~60 years old living in Incheon were asked to complete a questionnaire about their health. The data was collected between March and November, 2003. The data was analyzed by descriptive statistics and the correctional analysis SPSSWIN 11.5 program. The LISREL 8.12 program was used to find the best fit model which explained a causal relationship of the variables. Results: The climacteric symptoms of middle-aged women negatively correlated with health promoting behaviors. However, marital satisfaction positively correlated with health promoting behaviors. Conclusion: Marital satisfaction and climacteric symptoms had an effect on health promoting behaviors. Therefore, based on this study, we plan to develop a health education program to decrease climacteric symptoms and to promote marital satisfaction for health promotion