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This study has been carried out to investigate the removal efficiencies of HCl/SOx in a Spray-Dryer/Fabric-Filter system. In HCl/SOx removal, we could identify the key factors such as spray dryer outlet temperature, molar equivalence ratio(MER) and fabric filter velocity, but we couldn't find out the correlation of HCl and SOx. The removals of HCl/SOx were inversely proportional to spray dryer outlet temperature(l30~170℃) and filter velocity(l.0~1.5 m/min), at the MER, HCl removal efficiency was strongly proportional to MER, but SOx, removal efficiency was not particularly increased by MER over 1.5. The removal efficiencies of HCl/SOx were improved over 10% at the fabric filter. In this Spray-Dryer/Fabric-Filter system, HCl/SOx removal efficiencies were about 99%, 96% respectively.
A combination of process modification and various additives to a lime-based spray-dryer/fabric-filter system was evaluated for its value in promoting sorbent utilization and simultaneous removal of HC1 and SO₂ from waste incineration flue gas. The variety of operating conditions were tested to evaluate important factors such as spray drying reactor(SDR) outlet temperature, retention time, molar equivalence ratio( MER ), fabric filter velocity, etc. For the sorbent activity enhancement, additives such as KmnO₄, NaOH, NaHCO₃, CaCl₂, a mixture of NaOH and CaCl₂ were added to Ca(OH)₂ at optimum operating condition. The mixture of NaOH and CaCl₂ ( 2 : 1 by weight ) was found to be the best economic additive. When that additive, 10% of Ca(OH)₂ by weight, was added, under the condition of Ca(OH)₂ of MER 1.0, HCl/SO₂ removal efficiencies at fabric filter were 98.3% and 97.1%, respectively.
The objectives of this study are to examine combustion characteristics of E.V.A. and rubber wastes by fixed-bed incinerator. The results are as follows. Combustion temperature with time rises rapidly, and mass of E.V.A. reduces at short time in E.V.A. combustion. In variation of air-fuel ratio (m), the ideal values of m of E.V.A. and rubber are 2.5, 1.5 respectively. Mixed-waste combustion is more economic than single E.V.A. combustion, because we can get high combustion efficiency (94.0∼99.0%) at 2.0 air-fuel ratio of mixed-waste combustion. Removal efficiencies of SO_2 at cooling tower are about 20%. The combustion efficiencies of rubber are over 98.0% according to the experimental conditions.
This paper presents average method to detect Visual-Transient Evoked Potential from the human scalp electric potential measured by the ElectroEncephaloGram. To confirm the validity of average method, the average-process is performed with both stimulated and no-stimulated potentials respectively, and both results are compared. The specific waveform, which is visual-transient evoked potential, is produced only in the case of stimulated potential. It was found that a dc-drift, due to instrumentation errors and other noises, can produce significant changes in the evoked-potential waveform. This can be removed with a high-pass filter (cut-off frequency=0.5Hz).
Glaucoma is an eye disease which is caused by abnormal high IOP (Intra Ocular Pressure). High IOP is caused by the aqueous humor which is produced consistently but not drained due to malfunction of the trabecular system which has a role of draining the aqueous humor into the venous system. Currently, there are three methods to treat glaucoma-using medicines, surgical operation, and using implant device. The first and second methods are not long acting, so the use of implants is increasing in these days in order to drain out the aqueous humor compulsory. However, though conventional implants have a capability of pressure regulation, they cannot maintain IOPs desired for different patients, and too much aqueous humor are usually drained, to cause hypotony. To solve these problems, it is needed to develop a new implant which is capable of controling the IOP actively and copes with personal difference of patients. An active glaucoma implant consists of the valve actuator, pressure sensor, controller, and power supply. In this paper, firstly, we make an analysis of the operation of a conventional implant using a bond graph and show defects and limitations of the conventional valve analytically. Secondly, we design and analyze a valve actuator considering actuation principles, resistance elements, control methods, and energy sources focused on power saving problem. Finally, using simulations the possibility of the proposed valve actuator is investigated.
시각 및 손가락의 전기자극에 의해 머리표면에서 발생하는 유발전위를 검출하여 Source Tracing Method를 이용하여 뇌의 시각인지영역 및 손가락 감각인지영역을 추정하였다. 본 과정에서 유발전위 검출방식은 average method를 이용하였고, 흥분뉴런군에 대한 물리적 모델로 Single Current Dipole Model을 이용하고, 머리기하에 대한 3중구각모델을 이용하여 Forward Problem을 풀었다. Inverse Problem은 current dipole의 6개의 parameter에 대한 Least Square Error Method를 이용하여 신견흥분의 위치를 추정하였다. 이러한 결과와 생리학적으로 밝혀진 시각 및 체성감각 신경로와의 비교결과 유사성이 확인되었다. In this paper a study of neuro-pathway estimation based on visual and somatosensory evoked potential is given. The evoked potentials which are caused by visual and somatosensory stimulation are detected by an average method. The forward problem that is estimating a scalp potential from a given electrical source in the brain is solved by using a triple concentric spherical shell model of the head and a single current dipole model of the neuron activity. The inverse problem which calculates a source position is solved by a least square fit between the model predicted potential and a given evoked potential measurement. The similarities between estimated sensory neuro-pathways and physiological brain function regions are verified.