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The structure of Cu precipitates in a Cu-bearing High Strength Low Alloy steel has been characterized by using high resolution electron microscopy and with the combined use of a computer-aided image processing system. The twinned 9R and distorted intermediate structures were found in the precipitates smaller than about 10 nm in diameter. In the precipitates of about 15 nm in diameter, two kinds of structures, which are the 3R transformed from 9R and the multitwinned f.c.c. formed directly from coherent b.c.c. particle by the lattice shear deformation were observed. The f.c.c. precipitates have a Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relationship to the matrix, and the diffuse characterization of atoms was observed within twin band with 2-3 atomic layers is observed. The distorted f.c.c. structure was found in rod shaped precipitates of about 30 nm in length.
Recently, the demands of digital camera and miniature camera module for mobile-phone is increased significantly. Lenses which is the core component of optical products are made by the injection molding(plastic lens) or GMP(glass lens). Plastic lens is not enough to improve the resolution and performance of optic parts. Therefore, the requirement of glass lens is increased because it is possible to ensure the high performance and resolution. In this paper, the thermal stress analysis of 3 cavity GMP mold for molding glass lens was performed for estimating the thermal stress and amount of deformation. Finally, the modification plan based on the analysis results was deducted.
Generally, metal working fluids (MWFs) are used to reduce friction in metalworking processes. In addition to mineral oils, MWFs contain many chemical substances, such as anticorrosive agents, extreme-pressure additives, and stabilizers, as well as high concentrations of organics and ammonia nitrogen. Accordingly, MWFs must be managed to advanced treatment for hydro-ecological conservation. This study investigated the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen from MWFs according to operating time, applied voltage, distance between electrodes, and NaCl concentration using aluminum in a batch-type reactor. The experimental results were as follows: First, without NaCl, removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen were 69.6%, 37.9%, and 22.7%, when the distance between electrodes was adjusted to 1, 4, and 7 cm, respectively, at 15 V for 60 min. Secondly, without NaCl, removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen were 49.5 and 90.9% when the voltage was adjusted to 5 V and 10 V, respectively, for 60 min and 94.6% at 15 V for 40 min. Lastly, with the addition of NaCl 10 mM, the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen was 40.3% and 11.5% greater than that of no addition of NaCl at 5 V for 60 min and at 10 V for 30 min.
This study was conducted to identify the runoff characteristics of non-point source according to rainfall in Nam watershed. Land-uses of the Nam watershed were surveyed paddy field 9.1%, crop field 13.4%, mountainous 61.6%, urban 8.8%, and etc. 7.1%. Mean runoff coefficients in each area were observed Ⅰ area 0.06 and Ⅱ area 0.06. In the relationship between the rainfall, peak-flow, and correlation coefficients(r) were investigated Ⅰ area 0.7449, and Ⅱ area 0.7669. In the relationship between the antecedent dry period, first flow runoff, and correlation coefficients(r) were investigated Ⅰ area -0.4419 and Ⅱ area -0.2054. The discharge of pollutant concentrations relates the flow rate of storm-water. In the relationship between the rainfall, watershed loading, exponent values of BOD, COD, SS, T-N and T-P were estimated to 0.9743, 0.8947, 1.3964, 1.2797 and 1.5939, respectively.
Cerebral concussion and mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been used interchangeably,although the two terms have different definitions. Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a more severe subtype of TBI than concussion or mild TBI. Regarding the evidence of TAI lesions in patients with concussion or mild TBI, since the 1960's, several studies have reported on TAI in patients with concussion who showed no radiological evidence of brain injury by autopsy. However, conventional CT and MRI are not sensitive to detection of axonal injury in concussion or mild TBI, therefore, previously, diagnosis of TAI in live patients with concussion or mild TBI could not be demonstrated. With the development of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the 1990's, in 2002, Arfanakis et al. reported on TAI lesions in live patients with mild TBI using DTI for the first time. Subsequently, hundreds of studies have demonstrated the usefulness of DTI in detection of TAI and TAI lesions in patients with concussion or mild TBI. In Korea, the term “TAI” has rarely been used in the clinical field while diffuse axonal injury and concussion have been widely used. Rare use of TAI in Korea appeared to be related to slow development of DTI analysis techniques in Korea. Therefore, we think that use of DTI analysis techniques for diagnosis of TAI should be facilitated in Korea.