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The education effect of environmental impact cognitive instruction on high school students was investigated. Environmental values of students could be classified into egocentric, social-altruistic and biospheric values like those of Schultz's three kinds of categories. The value distribution of students consists 44.7% of egocentric and biospheric value groups and 12.5% of social-altruistic value group, respectively. The environmental function such as knowledge and skill did not show remarkable differences between value groups. The environmental value only affected the attitude function. The biospheric value group had the higher attitude function than other value groups. The environmental impact cognitive instruction enhanced the environmental functions irrespective of the value group or instruction type. However, significant variables were different according to environmental functions. Environmental functions such as knowledge and skill were influenced by the instruction itself. The attitude function was dependent on instruction itself, value type and instruction type. The optimum application of the environmental impact cognitive instruction can be efficiently achieved through class division into egocentric value group and biospheric value group. Alternatively, the proper combination of instruction methods focused biospheric and egocentric impacts in a class can be recommended.
Examining the precipitation data collected during the period from 1960 to 1993, we found that Taegu Station represents an optimum station for explaining the interannual variations of the precipitation in Korea. Using the variations derived from Taegu, the secular trends of the precipitation in Korea have been studied. It was also found that the interannual variations of summer monsoon precipitation are consistent with those of the annual precipitation. To explore the interannual variations of the summer monsoon precipitation, comparisons of the summer precipitation in Korea with that in China and Japan were made. The results of the empirical orthogonal function analysis showed that Korea, the Yangtze River and Huaihe River valley, and the south Japan are all located in the same climate system during summer. The detailed analysis was carried out on the comparison of the summer precipitation in Korea with that in the eastern part of the the mainland China. We found that the correlation pattern is similar to the East Asia/Pacific pattern. The probable effects of the sea surface temperature on the precipitation in Korea were also discussed.
With global warming and the rapid increase in urbanization accompanied by a concentration of population, the urban heat island effects (UHI) have become an important environmental issue. In this study, rooftop greening and permeable asphalt pavement were selected as measures to reduce urban heat island and applied to a simple virtual urban environment to simulate temperature change using ENVI-met. A total of five measures were tested by dividing the partial and whole area application of each measure. The results showed that the temperature range of the base experiment is 33.11-37.11 ℃, with the UTCI comfort level described as strong heat and very strong heat stress. A case applied permeable asphalt has a greater temperature difference than a rooftop greening case, the larger the area where each condition was applied, the greater the temperature change was.
We investigated the local climatological characteristics of the mountain adjacent the Dongyeong herb garden in Chilgok. We established one set of automatic weather system (AWS) on a hill where development of herb garden is in progress. The observations were continued for 2 years(2013. 07-2015.06). In this study, we analyzed the observed data comparing the data of Gumi meteorological observatory (GMO). The results showed that the air temperature(relative humidity) of Dongyeong herb garden were lower(higher) than those of GMO. Especially the differences are more during warm climate season. It means that the gaps of thermal environment between two points are mainly caused by the evaporation effects of forest. In addition, we analyzed the warmth indices(warmth index and coldness index) with the observed air temperature. The warmth and coldness indices indicate about 107 and .12, respectively. The values correspond to warm temperature climate.
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dye wastewater treatment processes were estimated by analysing their mass and energy balances, which were then used as baseline information for environmental assessment. The total GHG emissions from dye wastewater treatment plants were divided into direct emissions from the treatment processes and indirect ones from electricity usage. The amounts of CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions were calculated according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Clime Change (IPCC) guideline for the GHG target management system. For 3 years between 2011 and 2013, direct and indirect emissions were on average 8,742.7 and 7,892.0 Ton.CO2eq/year, respectively, with the former exhibiting 52.6 %. Also, compared to 2012, in 2013, the eco-efficiency indicator by the GHG emissions was found to be more than 1, suggesting that environmental quality was effectively improved.
The National Environmental Specimen Bank (NESB) has been sampling and cryogenically preserving various wildlife specimens to monitor bio-accumulations of chemical pollutants since 2010. Recently, the NESB set up a plan to develop reference materials at their facility to assure the analytical quality of and validate the analytical methods for their monitoring samples. One of the crucial characteristics of reference materials is intra- and inter-bottle homogeneity. In this study, we used ANOVA for total mercury concentrations in some samples to validate their homogeneities after milling and homogenization. We examined the intra- and inter-bottle homogeneities of two cryogenically-milled samples (Korean mussel (Mytilus coruscus) and black-tailed gull's egg (Larus crassirostris). The variations in the total mercury concentrations were not significantly different intra- and inter-bottle (mussel: F=0.74, p=0.67; gull egg: F=1.96, p=0.10). Additionally, the relative standard deviations of the total mercury concentrations showed low values (mussel: 2.02%, gull egg: 1.78%). Therefore, the cryogenic-milling process statistically proves the homogeneity of the materials of mussels and sea gull eggs for chemical analysis for total mercury.
To estimate the thermal effect of the vegetation canopy on the surface sublayer environment numerically, we used the combined model of Pielke's^1) single layer model for vegetation and Deardorff's^2) Force restore method(FRM) for soil layer. Application of present combined model to three surface conditions, ie., unsaturated bare soil, saturated bare soil and saturated vegetation canopy, showed followings; The diurnal temperature range of saturated vegetation canopy is only 20K, while saturated bare soil and unsaturated bare soil surface are 30K, 35K, respectively. The maximum temperature of vegetation canopy occurs at noon, about 2 hours earlier than that of the non-vegetation cases. The peak latent heat fluxes of vegetation canopy is simulated as a 600Wm^-2 a at 1300 LST. They have higher values during afternoon than beforenoon. Furthermore, the energy redistribution ratios to latent heat fluxes also increased in the late afternoon. Therefore, oasis effect driving from the vegetation canopy is reinforced during late afternoon compared with the non-vegetated conditions.
This study is an attempt to classify climatic regions of Korea based on the data of sunshine duration and to clarify the characteristics of sunshine for each divided regions. The data used in this study are the mean values of monthly and ten-daily sunshine duration, sunshine percentage, solar radiation and cloud amount obtained from 63 weather stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration during the period of 1974∼1993. The characteristics of annual change of sunshine percentage, annual duration of sunshine, percentage of sunshine, annual radiation, amount of cloud, days of sunshine percentage above 80% and days of sunless are investigated by the mean values of the stations belong to divided regions. The ward method of hierarchical cluster analysis is adopted to the analysis of data for the regional division. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows. (1) The sunshine regions of Korea can be divided into six regions of the central west, central east, south west, south east, Ullung-do and Cheju-do. These are strongly affected by the distribution of inclined slopes taking account of the topographic characteristics of Korea. (2) Annual distribution shows the sunshine duration of 1777∼2287 hours, sunshine percentage of 40∼53%, solar radiation of 3469∼4637 MJ/㎡, cloud amount of 5.0∼6.1, days of sunshine percentage above 80% of 53∼116days and sunless days of 46∼71days. (3) The types of annual change of sunshine percentages is classified with four types of minimum in July and maximum in October, minimum in July and maximum in December, high in May and October and low in July and January, high in May and November and low in June and January. (4) The Iong-term trend of sunshine duration decrease in peninsula area but increase in island area and the long-term inclination of cloud amount is almost zero. The author believe this tendency is related to a pollutional turbidity than a cloud amount in inland area.
At the close of the year 1990, tombs in south Korea will cover the area of 940 ㎢, which is 0.9% of the entire landspace. Annual increase of 200,000 tombs is encroaching on landspace by 10 ㎢. It is estimated that the decrease in the forest area caused by tombs results a decrease both in the production of O_2 by 912,000 tons and in the absorption of CO_2 by 1,254,800tons per year. As a result, there will be an increase in the amount of CO_2, which is one of the factors that cause the greenhouse effect.