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Ulmus davidiana Nakai (UDN) has been traditionally used as a herbal medicine to treat inflammatory diseases in Korea. In the present study, we investigated the anti-ecotoxic potential of a 116 kDa glycoprotein isolated from UDN (UDN glycoprotein) in human intestinal epithelial INT-407 cells. We demonstrated that UDN glycoprotein (20 μg/mL) could inhibit the production of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) induced by toluene, an ecotoxic substance. Additionally, we found that the toluene-induced intestinal cytotoxicity was mediated by the phosphorylation of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) via the production of intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The UDN glycoprotein significantly decreased the levels of ROS production and p38 MAPK activation in toluene-stimulated INT-407 cells. Moreover, the UDN glycoprotein inhibits the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), which is responsible for the production of LDH, in toluene-stimulated INT-407 cells. Collectively, our data indicate that UDN glycoprotein is a natural antioxidant and a modulator of ecotoxicity signaling pathways in human intestinal epithelial cells.
The main objective of this experimental investigation was CH4 recovery from biogas generated in municipal and wastewater treatment plant. The polysulfone hollow fiber membrane was prepared in order to investigate the permeation properties of CH4 and CO2. Permeability of CO2 in Polysulfone membrane was 11-fold higher than of CH4 gas. A membrane pilot plant for upgrading biogas was constructed and operated at a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The raw biogas contained 66 ~ 68 Vol % CH4, the balance being mainly CO2. The effect of the operating pressure of feed and permeate side and feed flowrate on CH4 recovery concentration and efficiency were investigated with double stage membrane pilot plant. The CH4 concentration in the retentate stream was raised in these tests to 93 Vol % CH4.
In this study, the extraction characteristics of soluble solid from Rumex crispus(Curled dock) was studied from the investigation of the effects of experimental conditions on extraction rate; extraction ratio, composition of extractants, extraction time and pH of extractant, etc. The proximate composition of Rumex crispus was 2.58% crude lipid, 5.59% crude protein, 7.39% crude ash, 6.13% moisture and 78.31% carbohydrate, respectively. Turbidity of extract by distilled water was higher and increased with extraction time and extraction temperature, where as the turbidity didn`t increase by ethanol and methanol in 20 folds of extraction ratio. Turbidity was inversely proportional to the extraction ratio for the three extractants at 25℃ and 1 hour extraction. But turbidity of extract was highest by composition of 50% methanol-water extractant than any other compositions of extractants. Eighteen and fifteen free aminoacids were detected in extracts with distilled water, methanol and ethanol extractant, respectively, and it`s contents were order of glutamic acid>proline>aminobutyric acid>alanine. The extraction rate of soluble solid from Rumex crispus was order of distilled water>methanol>ethanol within experimental extraction ratio. In extraction with distilled water, the contents of soluble solid was inversely proportional to the pH of extractant.
This study aims at choosing indicators to measure the effect of utilizing biotop map, and analyzing its effect by an indicator from the perspective of performer. The Primary performance indicators are made through specialist survey using SMART. As a result, three indicators are chosen: "Discussion of the period of an environmental effects evaluation(reduced effect)", "Plan and execution of environment and ecology plan in an urban development site", "Minimizing ecological damage in an urban development." The result in each indicator is as follows. The indicator of discussion of the period of an environmental effects evaluation(reduced effect), the average reduction rate in statistically meaningful level reduced 6.08% and 11.64% respectively in 2004-2005. In this period, environment information system was established and the reduction effect is shown in this period by reinforcing environment effect estimation using biotop map. As to the indicator of utilizing biotop map in an urban development site, the Seongnam P site case shows that biotop map was used when they set up an development plan. In case of minimizing ecological damage in an urban development, the Gwangjingu G-dong case shows that it was used to appoint preservation sit, and mediate development restrict area. Accordingly, the biotop map utilizing effect is confirmed through core performance indicators and verification of the indicators using SMART. The further research is encouraged to find evaluate indicators and verify the effect quantitatively to increase the use of biotop map.
The aim of this research was to evaluate the performance of insoluble electrode for the purpose of degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and oxidants generation [N,N-Dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline (RNO, indicator of OH radical), O3, H2O2, free Cl, ClO2)]. Methods: Four kinds of electrodes were used for comparison: DSA (dimensional stable anode; Pt and JP202 electrode), Pb and boron doping diamond (BDD) electrode. The effect of applied current (0.5~2.5 A), electrolyte type (NaCl, KCl and Na2SO4) and electrolyte concentration (0.5~3.5 g/L) on the RNO degradation were evaluated. Experimental results showed that the order of RhB removal efficiency lie in: JP202 > Pb > BDD ≒> Pt. However, when concerned the electric power on maintaining current of 1 A during electrolysis reaction, the order of RhB removal efficiency was changed: JP202 > Pt ≒ Pb > BDD. The total generated oxidants (H2O2, O3, free Cl, ClO2) concentration of 4 electrodes was Pt (6.04 mg/W) > JP202 (4.81 mg/W) > Pb (3.61 mg/W) > BDD (1.54 mg/W), respectively. JP202 electrode was the best electrode among 4 electrodes from the point of view of performance and energy consumption. Regardless of the type of electrode, RNO removal of NaCl and KCl (chlorine type electrolyte) were higher than that of the Na2SO4 (sulfuric type electrolyte) RNO removal. Except BDD electrode, RhB degradation and creation tendency of oxidants such as H2O2, O3, free Cl and ClO2, found that do not match. RNO degradation tendency were considered a simple way to decide the method which is simple it will be able to determinate the electrode where the organic matter decomposition performance is superior. As the added NaCl concentration was increases, the of hydrogen peroxide and ozone concentration increases, and this was thought to increase the quantity of OH radical.
This study is to analyze the characteristics of golf course water usage using groundwater and rainwater data obtained from 17 golf courses in Jeju Island during 2007~2009. The groundwater usages were 246,275 ㎥/year, 213,062 ㎥/year, 155,235 ㎥/year, and 126,666 ㎥/year in the west, south, east, and north regions, respectively. Monthly rate of the amount of groundwater usage to the amount of permission was 29.5%. The rainfall usages were 386,591 ㎥/year, 326,464 ㎥/year, 251,248 ㎥/year, and 232,061 ㎥/year in the south, west, east, and north regions, respectively. Monthly rate of rainwater usage to the amount of water retention of golf courses was 19.6%. The average annual water usage in the 17 golf courses was 499,377 ㎥/year. From the average usage, it was found that the rainwater usage (305,126 ㎥/year) was 1.6 times higher than that of groundwater (194,251 ㎥/year). That means the annual average rainwater usage to the entire water usage was 61.1%, which was above the criteria of 40%.
This study selected 6 river reach, which have various curved-channel, included in an object of study as making the Nakdong River, which is a real nature river, as a point of an object of study by using SMS RMA-2 model, a 2D numerical analysis model, and applied project flood and analyzed and examined characteristic of hydrological property and super-elevation, which includes characteristic of the velocity of a moving fluid. As a result, in a river reach, whose width is wide, angle of curved-channel has impact on the velocity of a moving fluid of inside of curved-channel and in a river reach, whose width is narrow, the radius of curvature and width of the river have impact on the velocity of a moving fluid of inside of curved-channel. Also it found out that the ratio of reduction in water-level of inside of curved-channel is more bigger than ratio of increasing in water-level of outside of curved-channel when project flood is increasing and angle of curve is increasing. Based on this, this study would be used as a expectation of danger and preliminary data in planning real river or a business, that creates an environment.
In this study, occurrence status of nonpoint pollutants and characteristics of discharge by each nonpoint pollutants were examined through monitoring on nonpoint pollutants caused when raining in vineyard belonging to the agricultural area of various land use patterns. Also, the first flush analysis limited to studies on the existing non-percolation area was applied to percolation area to ascertain availability and criteria of study. Various water quality and sluice of nonpoint pollutants were analyzed, based on which discharge of nonpoint pollutants in agricultural area was ascertained to be influenced greatly by artificial factors such as period, cultivation, management, etc. Meanwhile, the first flush phenomenon at agricultural area was ascertained to occur, and the first flush was quantified through calculation of the first flush ratio. If MFF30 is based, discharge load by each nonpoint pollutants caused when raining was investigated to include 40.8% on the basis of total discharge. In case of SS in pollutants showed the highest first flush phenomenon of 64.8%. Through such a result, calculation possibility of the initial rain criteria was ascertained, and it was determined that reliability-assured criteria were calculated through further monitoring.
The objectives of this study are to examine the processing of oils contamination soil by means of using a micronano- bubble soil washing system, to investigate the various factors such as washing periods, the amount of micro- nano bubbles generated depending on the quantity of acid injection and quantity of air injection, to examine the features involved in the elimination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) contained in the soil, and thus to evaluate the possibility of practical application on the field for the economic feasibility. The oils contaminated soil used in this study was collected from the 0~15 cm surface layer of an automobile junkyard located in U City. The collected soil was air-dried for 24 hours, and then the large particles and other substances contained in the soil were eliminated and filtered through sieve No.10 (2 mm) to secure consistency in the samples. The TPH concentration of the contaminated soil was found to be 4,914~5,998 mg/kg. The micronano-bubble soil washing system consists of the reactor, the flow equalization tank, the micronano- bubble generator, the pump and the strainer, and was manufactured with stainless material for withstanding acidic phase. When the injected air flow rate was fixed at 2 L/min, for each hydrogen peroxide concentrations (5, 10, 15%) the removal percents for TPH within the contaminated soil with retention times of 30 minutes were respectively identified as 4,931 mg/kg (18.9%), 4,678 mg/kg (18.9%) and, 4,513 mg/kg (17.7%). And when the injected air flow rate was fixed at 2 L/min, for each hydrogen peroxide concentrations (5, 10, 15%) the removal percents for TPH within the contaminated soil with retention times of 120 minutes were respectively identified as4,256 mg/kg (22.3%), 4,621 mg/kg (19.7%) and 4,268 mg/kg (25.9%).
The purpose of this study is to verify the physiological and psychological benefits of indoor garden to humans and to analyze the comparison according to Type A behavior pattern. The subjects included 18 male university students. Heart rate variation was used as a parameter of physiological assessment, and Semantic Differential (SD), Profile of Mood States-Brief (POMS), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used as tools for psychological evaluation. The participants were subjected to a psychological evaluation when they were present in a garden. As a result, the parasympathetic nervous activity was increased in the indoor garden. In the analysis of psychological evaluation, indoor garden improved the positive mood states and decreased negative feelings with significant changes only in Type A group. This study supported that indoor garden can have physiological and psychological relaxing effects, which could be more significant in Type A group than Type B.