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      • KCI등재

        혼합 용매 사용을 통한 고분자 태양전지의 효율 개선 연구

        노경환,박성흠,정윤경 한국물리학회 2013 새물리 Vol.63 No.7

        We report an enhancement in device efficiency of polymer solar cells composed of electron-donating regio-regular poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) and electron-accepting [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM). By using various organic solvents such as chlorobenzene (CB), dichlorobenzene (DCB) and a mixture of both solvents, we investigated morphological changes in the P3HT:PCBM active layer in the solar cells. The UV-vis absorption spectra,current-voltage characteristics and atomic force microscopy images for the P3HT:PCBM films and the devices revealed that adding a small amount of DCB to CB significantly increased the degree of crystallinity in the P3HT:PCBM active layer, resulting in a considerable efficiency enhancement for the device. 본 연구에서 우리는 혼합용매를 사용하여 고분자 태양전지의 성능에직접적인 영향을 주는 고분자 활성층의 모폴로지 (Morphology)를조절하였고, 이를 통하여 고분자 태양전지의 효율을 향상시켰다. 보다구체적으로 본 연구에서 우리는 고분자 활성층의 용액을 제조함에있어서, 보편적으로 이용되고 있는 단일 용매가 아닌, 클로로벤젠(Chlorobenzene: CB)과 다이클로로벤젠 (Dichlorobenzene:DCB)의 두 가지용매를 적정히 혼합하는 혼합용매 (cosolvent) 사용을 통해 고분자활성층 필름의 모폴로지를 조절하였다. 또한 본 연구에서 고분자활성층의 모폴로지 변화가 소자의 효율에 어떠한 영향을 주는지에 대해조사하였다. 그 결과 클로로벤젠과 다이클로로벤젠을 5:1로 혼합하여제조한 태양전지에서 가장 높은 필펙터 (Fill Factor, FF)와 효율이관찰되었다.

      • KCI등재

        상악골 전두돌기 골절 및 사골 수직판 골절을 동반한 비골골절에서 K 강선을 이용한 내고정

        노경환,윤을식,동은상,윤병민 대한성형외과학회 2009 Archives of Plastic Surgery Vol.36 No.5

        Purpose: In cases where nasal fractures involve frontal process of maxilla or perpendicular plate of ethmoid, 4 - 5 days of nasal packing may not provide sufficient support for avoiding displacement after packing removal. Therefore a single Kirschner - wire(K - wire) is used as an internal splint when nasal fractures involve the above two areas. Methods: Thirty five patients during the last 3 practical years were treated with a K -wire pinning according to the anatomic locations of nasal fractures. We performed a retrospective study using 13 nasal fractures out of total 35 patients. Among 13 cases, 10 patients involved frontal process of maxilla, and 3 patients were diagnosed as bilateral nasal side wall fractures accompanied with fractures of perpendicular plate of ethmoid. One patient of the last three cases had been augmented with dorsal silicone implant long before the trauma. We analyzed the anteroposterior displacement of key stone area and the width between both lateral walls by comparing immediate postoperative radiographs with 2 month follow - ups. To reduce the errors, the same measurements were taken by two different inspectors, and the mean of each inspector’s measurements was compared. Patient satisfaction was analyzed using a questionnaire regarding the esthetic and functional outcomes. Results: Ten patients underwent a longitudinal K - wire fixation in submucoperiosteal plane underneath the frontal process of maxilla. And three patients underwent a transverse K - wire fixation from the one side of lateral wall to the perpendicular plate of ethmoid and to the other side of lateral wall. The mean postoperative anteroposterior displacement of the key stone area measured by two inspectors were 1.84% and 3.06%; mean narrowing of bony pyramid were 1.33% and 1.48%, respectively. Subjective satisfaction scores regarding the esthetic appearance and the maintenance of nasal shape compared with immediate post - operative state with the long term ones were not different (p>0.05). Conclusion: K - wire pinning after closed reduction is a reliable and useful method for the treatment of nasal fractures involving frontal process of maxilla or perpendicular plate of ethmoid. This is because it achieves longer intranasal support after reduction. This method also leaves conspicuous external scar, and minimal soft - tissue injury. Purpose: In cases where nasal fractures involve frontal process of maxilla or perpendicular plate of ethmoid, 4 - 5 days of nasal packing may not provide sufficient support for avoiding displacement after packing removal. Therefore a single Kirschner - wire(K - wire) is used as an internal splint when nasal fractures involve the above two areas. Methods: Thirty five patients during the last 3 practical years were treated with a K -wire pinning according to the anatomic locations of nasal fractures. We performed a retrospective study using 13 nasal fractures out of total 35 patients. Among 13 cases, 10 patients involved frontal process of maxilla, and 3 patients were diagnosed as bilateral nasal side wall fractures accompanied with fractures of perpendicular plate of ethmoid. One patient of the last three cases had been augmented with dorsal silicone implant long before the trauma. We analyzed the anteroposterior displacement of key stone area and the width between both lateral walls by comparing immediate postoperative radiographs with 2 month follow - ups. To reduce the errors, the same measurements were taken by two different inspectors, and the mean of each inspector’s measurements was compared. Patient satisfaction was analyzed using a questionnaire regarding the esthetic and functional outcomes. Results: Ten patients underwent a longitudinal K - wire fixation in submucoperiosteal plane underneath the frontal process of maxilla. And three patients underwent a transverse K - wire fixation from the one side of lateral wall to the perpendicular plate of ethmoid and to the other side of lateral wall. The mean postoperative anteroposterior displacement of the key stone area measured by two inspectors were 1.84% and 3.06%; mean narrowing of bony pyramid were 1.33% and 1.48%, respectively. Subjective satisfaction scores regarding the esthetic appearance and the maintenance of nasal shape compared with immediate post - operative state with the long term ones were not different (p>0.05). Conclusion: K - wire pinning after closed reduction is a reliable and useful method for the treatment of nasal fractures involving frontal process of maxilla or perpendicular plate of ethmoid. This is because it achieves longer intranasal support after reduction. This method also leaves conspicuous external scar, and minimal soft - tissue injury.

      • KCI등재

        Stereoimage Optical Topometer System을 이용한 새로운 창상 계측 방법

        노경환,한승규,김우경 대한성형외과학회 2008 Archives of Plastic Surgery Vol.35 No.6

        Purpose: In order to determine the amount of wound healing, objective sequential assessments of changes in wound size and depth are essential. Although a variety of measurements for wound healing have been proposed, a gold standard for quantifying day-to-day changes in healing has not been established. We present here a simple and non-invasive wound measurement method that quantitatively and accurately documents changes of the size of a raw surface and the volume of a soft tissue defect using a stereoimage optical topometer(SOT) system. Methods: Using a 5mm diameter biopsy punch, four circular wounds were created on abdominal area of a diabetic mouse. Photographs were taken using SOT system at baseline, 5th day and 10th postoperative day. The wound margin was traced on a digitalized photo and evaluated the area and the volume of the wound by SOT system. Received March 28, 2008 Revised May 26, 2008 Accepted June 16, 2008 Address Correspondence: Seung-Kyu Han, M.D., Department of Plastic Surgery, Korea University Guro Hospital, 97 Guro-dong, Guro-gu, Seoul 152-703, Korea. Tel: 02) 2626- 3333/Fax: 02)868-6698/E-mail: pshan@kumc.or.kr * 본 논문은 2007년 대한성형외과학회 추계학술대회에서 구연 발표되었음. Results: The SOT system calculated a mean wound surface of 15.93±0.29mm2 and volume of 827.50± 88.86 intensity/pixel×area(I/PA) immediately after wounding. On the 5th day after the operation wound surface declined by 10.73mm2 and on the 10th day declined by 5.95mm2. The wound volume also declined from 827.50 I/PA to 161.75 I/PA and 30.50 I/PA on 0, 5th and 10th day, respectively. Conclusion: The SOT system described in this study represents a reliable, simple, practical, and non-invasive technique to accurately monitor and evaluate wound healing. Purpose: In order to determine the amount of wound healing, objective sequential assessments of changes in wound size and depth are essential. Although a variety of measurements for wound healing have been proposed, a gold standard for quantifying day-to-day changes in healing has not been established. We present here a simple and non-invasive wound measurement method that quantitatively and accurately documents changes of the size of a raw surface and the volume of a soft tissue defect using a stereoimage optical topometer(SOT) system. Methods: Using a 5mm diameter biopsy punch, four circular wounds were created on abdominal area of a diabetic mouse. Photographs were taken using SOT system at baseline, 5th day and 10th postoperative day. The wound margin was traced on a digitalized photo and evaluated the area and the volume of the wound by SOT system. Received March 28, 2008 Revised May 26, 2008 Accepted June 16, 2008 Address Correspondence: Seung-Kyu Han, M.D., Department of Plastic Surgery, Korea University Guro Hospital, 97 Guro-dong, Guro-gu, Seoul 152-703, Korea. Tel: 02) 2626- 3333/Fax: 02)868-6698/E-mail: pshan@kumc.or.kr * 본 논문은 2007년 대한성형외과학회 추계학술대회에서 구연 발표되었음. Results: The SOT system calculated a mean wound surface of 15.93±0.29mm2 and volume of 827.50± 88.86 intensity/pixel×area(I/PA) immediately after wounding. On the 5th day after the operation wound surface declined by 10.73mm2 and on the 10th day declined by 5.95mm2. The wound volume also declined from 827.50 I/PA to 161.75 I/PA and 30.50 I/PA on 0, 5th and 10th day, respectively. Conclusion: The SOT system described in this study represents a reliable, simple, practical, and non-invasive technique to accurately monitor and evaluate wound healing.

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