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김영아,서성석,김미란,황경주,박동욱,조미영,유희석,Kim, Young-Ah,Seo, Seong-Seog,Kim, Mi-Ran,Hwang, Kyung-Joo,Park, Dong-Wook,Jo, Mi-Yeong,Ryu, Hee-Suk 대한생식의학회 2001 Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine Vol.28 No.4
Objective : To investigate the efficacy of high infusion frequency of liquid nitrogen on pregnancy in human embryo after freezing and thawing. Materials and Methods: 150 infertile patients underwent 162 consecutive thawing-ET cycles. In the high infusion frequency group (Group A), 47 patients (50 cycles) underwent cryopreservation with high infusion frequency of liquid nitrogen. In the low infusion frequency group (Group B), 103 patients (112 cycles) underwent cryopreservation with low infusion frequency of liquid nitrogen. We analyzed the clinical characteristics, fertilization rates, development of embryo, good quality embryo ratio, implantation rates, and pregnancy rates between these two groups. Results: There was no difference between the groups with regard to clinical characteristics (mean age, infertility duration, infertility factors, hormone profile), mean number of oocyte retrieval, fertilization rates, and mean embryo number of transfers. The survival rates in group A was 64.9% (228 of 350 embryos), and among the 228 embryos 190 embryos (83.3%) which progressed to the two- to eight-cell stage. After thawing, the embryo numbers were 65 (34.2%), 29 (15.3%), 35 (18.4%), and 37 (19.5%) of grades 1, 2, 3, and above 4, respectively. The survival rates in group B was 63.8% (482 of 755 embryos), and among the 482 embryos 465 embryos (96.5%) which progressed to the two- to eight-cell stage. After thawing, the embryo numbers were 106 (22.8%), 94 (20.2%), 89 (19.1%), and 112 (24.1%) of grades 1, 2, 3, and above 4, respectively. There was no difference in embryo quality change after the freezing-thawing procedure between the groups. Implantation rates (31.1% vs. 34.3%) were not significant. However hCG positive rates in group A (40%) were higher than group B, but not statistically significant. Clinical pregnancy rate (26% vs. 25.9%), on going pregnancy rates (>20 weeks) were not significant (26% vs. 25%). Conclusion: We compared embryo quality change, survival rates, and pregnancy rates between high infusion frequency group and low infusion frequency group and the results were similar between the two groups. Therefore, high infusion frequency of liquid nitrogen for cryopreservation is a worthy method to preserve in human embryos.
본 연구는 학습도시 정책의 지방자치단체의 수용을 분석하려고 시도되었다. 분석모형은 학습도시 정책형성 과정을 분석하는데 초점을 주었다. 분석영역은 정책형성 환경, 정책목표 설정, 정책의견 수렴, 지원체제, 환류체제, 파트너십과 네트워크체제이다. 분석결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 학습도시 정책은 국제적, 국내적 상황에 맞추어 지방자치단체에서도 학습공동체 형성에 대한 공감을 가지고 적극적으로 대응한 정책이다. 둘째, 학습도시 정책을 달성하기 위한 비전과 이념의 명료성이 미흡하여 지방자치단체의 학습도시의 방향이 적절하며 일관성 있게 수행되기에 어려움이 있다고 분석하였다. 셋째, 학습도시 정책의 형성에서 주민의 의견이 충분히 반영되지 못했다. 넷째, 학습도시 정책에 대한 지원체제는 인적자원, 물적자원, 법령 등의 내용을 분석하면 미흡하다. 다섯째, 학습도시 정책에 대한 환류체제도 미흡하다. 마지막으로 학습도시 정책을 위한 지방자치단체의 파트너십과 네트워크체제도 미흡하다고 분석하였다. 따라서 지방자치단체에서 학습도시 정책이 성공적으로 정착하기 위해서는 이를 추진하기 위한 명확한 목표 설정, 지원체제, 환류체제, 파트너십 및 네트워크체제 등이 보다 강조되어야 할 것이다. This study was attempted to analyze learning city policies performed by the local government in Korea. Its analysis is focused on theoretical models about how to evaluate the process of policy formation for learning cities or villages, on how much the project to build a learning society is effectively planned and practiced by the local government as a wide range of regional development strategies at the time of globalization and information, and on the changes that municipalities and local administrators must make in order to improve their projects whereby individual learning becomes competitive advantage for regional and national development. As a study result, it reveals that local government authorities and organizations lacked autonomy, since they tended to construct learning towns or villages according to a guideline made by the central government. For this reason, there is few lifelong learning management systems which were constructed by human, educational, and material resources with community people living in the region. And the local government failed to form partnership and networks among administrative authorities, universities, research institutions, business enterprises, social activist groups, and so on. Thereupon, it might be said that developing a sustainable learning city depends on establishing policy feedback and dweller participation as well as on forming partnership and networks.
스마트.융복합 시대를 맞이하여 STEAM 교육은 교육계의 커다란 화두가 되고 있다. 이에 본고는 STEAM 교육을 활용한 주제 중심 동시 교육의 실천 방안에 초점을 두어 논의하였다. 특히, 초등학생을 대상으로 STEAM 교육을 활용한 주제 중심 동시 교육의 실천 양상 분석을 통하여 함의점을 도출하고 바람직한 동시 기반 융복합 교육의 구현 방향을 모색해보고자 하였다. 그동안 동시 교육은 아동문학의 커다란 한 축을 담당해왔으며, 폭발적인 양적 성장을 이루어왔지만 동요.동시에 관한 연구는 미진한 상황이다. 시 교육에 있어서 가장 중요한 상상력을 신장시키기 위한 교육 방법에 대한 연구는 반드시 필요한데, 학습자 차원의 동시 체험 연구, 상상력에 대한 연구가 부족하였다. 따라서 시대적.정책적 요구뿐만이 아니라 全人적 존재인 학생들의 성장에 있어서 융복합 교육이 반드시 필요하다는 전제 아래, 동시 기반 융복합적 실천을 통하여 이에 따른 상상력 신장의 문제를 고민해보고자 하였다. 융복합 교육과 관련된 교육적 담론을 살펴보기에 앞서서, 아이패드 에어의 광고인 “당신의 시(Your Verse)”와 그 광고의 나레이션(‘키팅 선생님’의 목소리)을 통해 등장하는 영화 ‘죽은 시인의 사회’와의 오버랩을 통하여 ‘시교육의 융복합적 접근’에 대한 당위성 및 가능성에 대해 고찰해보았다. 또한 실질적인 교육실천을 둘러싼 질적인 차원의 논의를 통하여 동시교육을 비롯한 문학교육의 발전방향을 모색할 필요가 있으므로, 동시 텍스트 기반 STEAM 교육의 실제 수업 사례 2가지(① 거머리산에 올랐어요. ②우리 가족 별자리 이야기 만들기)의 구안 및 적용을 통하여 함의점을 도출하고자 하였다. 이를 통해, 융복합 교육은 삶의 다양한 경험을 통하여 다양한 맥락 형성을 꾀하고, 아이들에게 문학적 영감을 불러 일으켜 아이들의 창조적인 표현력을 강화하는 강력한 촉매제로서 작용할 수 있음을 알 수 있었다. 그리고 ‘핵심역량’을 중심으로 하여 적합한 융합주제들을 설정하고, 교육과정을 재구성한다면 보다 유목적적인 융복합 교육의 실현에 다가가는 일이 될 것이라 생각한다. 이는 또한 동시교육의 측면에 있어서도 중요한 시도이며, 커다란 의미를 선취할 수 있는 부분이다. 그동안 국어교육의 경우, 사회나 도덕, 음악, 미술 교과 등과 교과 연계를 도모하는 경우는 많았으나, 과학교과와의 연대를 생각하는 경우는 드물었다. 사회적.정책적 요구로 등장하기는 하였지만, STEAM 교육을 통하여 국어교육과 과학교육이 보다 긴밀하게 통섭할 수 있는 좋은 기회로 삼을 필요가 있다. 한편 STEAM 교육의 경우, 과학기술에 대한 흥미를 높이기 위해 등장한 교육이므로 국어교과가 수단화될 가능성에 대한 걱정과 우려가 많은 것 또한 사실이다. 그러나 융복합 교육에 있어서 하나의 중심교과가 존재한다는 인식에서 탈피하여 학생들의 핵심역량 증진을 위한 배움의 과정을 더욱 중요하게 생각하는 발상의 전환 또한 필요한 시점이라 생각한다. 이와 같이, 국어교육이 갖고 있는 가장 기본적인 도구 교과적 역할을 유감없이 발휘하는 것 또한 국어교육의 외연을 확장하고 국어교육의 깊이를 더하는 길이 될 것이기 때문이다. 앞으로도, 후속과제를 통하여 다각적인 사회적 변화와 다양한 교육적 요구에 능동적으로 대응하는 국어교육, 핵심역량 신장을 위해 학생들의 총체적인 체험과 교과들 간의 밀접한 관련성을 이어주는 가교 역할로서의 국어교육 등 국어교육의 구체적인 방향정립 및 현장연구를 통하여 국어교육의 진화를 지속적으로 모색할 필요가 있다. Amid the Smart, Convergence Era, STEAM education has been sensational in the education circles. Thus, this study explores methods of developing students’ magination through convergence education based on children’s poems. In particular, this study has the following objectives:exploring children’s poem-based STEAM education method for elementary school students; analysing the status of the education to establish implications; discussing the ideal direction on children’s poem-based convergence education. So far, children’s poem education has become a major part of children’s literature. Although the education has been conducted widely, there are very few studies on children’s songs and poems. However, it is essential to explore teaching methods to develop imagination, which is the most critical in poetry education. Nevertheless, there are not many studies on children’s poems and developing imagination from the learner’s standpoint. This study was carried out under the premise that convergence education is essential to the holistic growth of students, as well as meeting the educational needs and policies of the era. This study is intended to discuss ways to develop students’ imagination through convergence education based on children’s poems. Prior to exploring the past discussions on convergence education, the necessity and potential of ‘convergence approach to poetry education’ were explored through the following: “Your Verse,” an iPad Air TV commercial narrated by ‘teacher Keating’ from the film ‘Dead Poets Society,’ overlapped with the movie. It is necessary to explore ideal directions on developing literature education including children’s poetry education by discussing the actual education practices from quality standpoint. Thus, the following two cases of children’s poem-based STEAM education are introduced in terms of its planning and execution to establish implications (① Climbing the Leech Mountain ② Making a star sign story of my family). The findings are as follows. First, convergence education facilitated the linkage to diverse life experiences. Also, the education provided literary inspirations for children. Thus, the education was effective in developing the creative expressiveness of children. In addition, the young learners get to experience of ‘joy’ of life and literature through a series of processes. Second, children’s poetry education had the potential to be linked to ‘creative experience activities’ of students aimed developing their key competencies including creativity and character. ‘Key competencies,’ a major topic for recent education discussion, are not developed through a single class or project. Also, it is not possible to develop all competencies simultaneously. However, convergence education can be highly useful if proper topics are selected with focus on ‘key competencies’ to be developed and reorganizing the curriculum into integrated learning. It is a crucial step for children’s poetry education and can be significantly meaningful. Korean language education has often been integrated with other subjects such as social studies, ethics, music, and art. However, linkage to science has been fairly rare. Therefore, STEAM education should be utilized to link Korean language education to science education, although STEAM education was created by social and political demands. Meanwhile, some people are concerned that STEAM education may manipulate Korean education to be used as a tool for science education, since STEAM is aimed at boosting the interest in science and technology. However, STEAM is not the only part of convergence education. It can facilitate diverse integrated learning through multiple subjects to enhance the key competencies of students. Therefore, convergence education providers should steer away from the belief that there is one course that outweighs all others. Also, educators should perceive the learning process of students more importantly for boosting their key competencies. When Korean language education plays its fundamental role of facilitating the learning of other subjects, the education can be improved in terms of quality and quantity. Besides science, STEAM education is highly beneficial to integrating other subjects. Therefore, the following are suggested to provide better convergence education. First, diverse methods to integrate multiple subjects should be explored for better education. Second, Korean language education should actively respond to the diverse social changes and educational needs. Third, Korean language education should serve as a liaison among multiple subjects to provide holistic experience and enhance key competencies. Based on those suggestions, Korean education should be improved on an ongoing basis by setting ideal directions and conducting a field study at schools.
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本稿では、日本語の副詞教育のための一考察として、副詞習得に関する研究の現状と課題を見るため、まず、従来の日本語の副詞に関する研究の傾向や特徴を概観し、次に、日本語教育における副詞研究の成果と課題を踏まえ、最後に、今後の日本語の副詞の習得研究方法と実際の日本語教育現場への運用できる方案について考察する。韓国での副詞研究を研究焦点として、日本語教育のための指導や注意点に関する研究と学習者の習得状況·誤用などを対象にした日本語の副詞習得状況に対する研究に分けて日本語教育的な立場からの副詞研究の成果と特徴をまとめた。 日本語の副詞習得研究のための課題として、第一に、韓国での日本語教育における副詞研 究が副詞の意味·用法の使い分けを明らかにすることや指導法に片寄っていたが、学習者のニーズと日本語の学習レベルに応じた的確な副詞習得に関する研究に広げること、第二に、文法論的視点からみた研究成果を生かし、日·韓副詞の対照研究に拡張すること、第三に、実際の日本語教育現場で運用できる副詞学習の効果的な指導方案の模索が必要であることを指摘した。 In this article, I aim to clarify the current state of studies on the teaching of Japanese adverbs and its issues. For this purpose, I first present an overview of previous studies on Japanese adverbs, then sum up the results and prospects of research on Japanese adverbs in the context of Japanese language education, and finally propose a teaching method which can be made use of for acquisition studies on Japanese adverbs and actual practices of Japanese language education. Building on studies on adverbs in Korea, I characterise previous studies on adverbs from the perspective of Japanese language education, by dividing them into those based on instructions for Japanese language education and those based on learners’ acquisition data and errour analyses. There are three challenges for acquisition studies on Japanese adverbs. Firstly, Japanese language education in Korea has been mostly based on the meaning and usage patterns of adverbs, and we must broaden research in order to cater for learners’ needs and learning stages. Secondly, we must make most of grammatical research on adverbs and pursue Japanese-Korean contrastive analyses. Finally, we need to present a method for effectively teaching adverbs that can be implemented in actual classes.
This paper is review on the biblical comparison between Korea and Japan on the flipped learning which is the class managing method spot lighted at domestic and foreign education fields recently. Flipped learning is a model developed from online study and blended learning that connects theonline and offline aspects before the start of the class. Although its importance has been emphasized in university education, it has not been implemented in many cases due to the difficulties inimplementation such as the actual class design, textbook contents development, and operation. Therefore, the status and issues faced in the studies on flipped learning were explored in Korean and Japanese university education. Its advantages and problems were analyzed by comparing and reviewing case studies on the use of flipped learning in Japanese language education. The essential factors were studied for the flipped learning class to perform and extend to actual education of Japanese language effectively.
The monthly-mean irradiance of ultra violet (UV)-B and UV-A observed from 2005 to 2014 and 2012 to 2014, respectively, at noon in Gosan, Jeju, South Korea are analyzed. We compare cloudiness, total ozone, visibility, and relative humidity with an emphasis on the four months from May to August (MJJA), which shows the largest UV radiation. While the incoming UV-B radiation at the top of the atmosphere in Gosan is the largest in June due to the small solar zenith angle, the observed surface UV-B shows an unexpected smaller value in June than those in May, July or August. In June, the meteorological conditions affecting Gosan are completely dominated by cloudiness and thus, frequent overcast seems to determine the minimum UV-B. Another important UV-determining factor is the total ozone, which exhibits a monotonic decrease during MJJA without agreeing to the characteristic feature of UV. The ratio of UV-B to UV-A is not generally influenced by cloudiness. Thus, the ratio is a useful indicator of atmospheric turbidity showing larger values for increasing visibility, except in June. A simple model has been used to estimate surface UV by using the observed ozone and visibility in the cloudless condition. The result shows that UV has the lowest value in June with small variation during MJJA. Model estimation also shows that the different characteristic features observed in July between surface UV-B and UV-A is the result of less absorption of UV-B by ozone than that of UV-A by a smaller amount of total ozone.
문제행동을 보이는 아동의 의뢰과정을 이해하기 위해 아동문제에 대한 성인들의 태도를 조사하였다. 초등학교 교사 375명과 학부모 261명에게 아동문제의 사례를 제시하고, 그 사례의 빈도와 심각성, 원인과 처치 등에 관한 질문으로 이루어진 설문지를 실시하였다. 모두 두 사례을 제시하였는데, 외현화 문제를 보이는 아동과 내현화 문제를 보이는 아동에 대한 사례였다. 한국성인들은 외현화 문제를 보이는 아동이, 더 심각하며, 부모나 교사의 입장에서 더 염려되고 예후도 좋지 않을 것으로 지각하고 있었다. 문제의 원인으로는 내외현 문제 모두에서 환경적 스트레스를 뽑았고, 필요한 처치로는 심리상담을 선택하였다. 이러한 결과를 태국과 미국의 성인들을 대상으로 한 기존의 연구결과와 비교하였는데, 태국과 미국 성인들도 역시 외현화 문제를 내현화 문제보다 더 심각하게 생각하고 있으나, 염려의 정도나, 문제의 원인에 대한 지각, 그리고 선호하는 처치에 있어서 차이를 보였다. 특히 아동문제의 원인이나 처치에 대한 판단은 아동문제 자체의 특성만이 아니라 그 성인들이 속하는 문화권이 큰 영향을 미치는 것으로 보인다. 아동의 정신건강 프로그램을 계획할 때, 이러한 성인들의 태도가 아동을 의뢰하는 과정에 미치는 영향이 충분히 고려되어야 할 것이다. Korean teachers` and parents` attitudes concerning child`s psychological problems were investigated in order to understand the referral process for professional evaluation and treatment. 375 of elementary school teachers and 261 of parents were given 2 vignettes and asked to give their opinions about the prevalence, degree of their concern and expected prognosis, cause and treatment of choice for each of the cases described in the vignettes. One of the vignettes described a child with externalizing problem, while the other described a child with internalizing problem. The results can be summarized as follows: 1) Korean adults reported that the number of boys with externalizing problem was larger than those with internalizing problem while there was no significant difference for girls. They also rated the child with externalizing problem as more serious, more worrisome to teachers and parents, and less likely to improve than the child with internalizing problem. 2) The Korean adults chose stress as the most likely cause of the child`s problem regardless of the problems type, 3) As for treatment, they chose psychological counseling. The above results were compared with the data obtained from Thai and American adults. Thai and American also rated externalizing problem as more serious than internalizing problem. But, for level of concern, perceived cause and treatment of choice, there seemed to exist considerable differences among the cultures. These cultural differences in the adults` attitudes concerning the cause and treatment of child psychological problem are likely to have significant influence on the referral process of children with psychological problems and thus need to be considered when designing mental health programs for children.
Political theology is a distinctly modern problem as it takes seriously the recurrence of religious patterns that continue to animate forms of political thinking and organization in the modern world. What prompted the current focus on political theology was the end of the Cold War, which brought with it not the victory of the liberalism but a resurgence of religious fundamentalism and a war on terror justified as a holy cause. It was in this context that intellectuals have begun to probe with vigor the theological underpinnings of the modern state. Shakespeare`s dramas and his period have played an important role in modern recurrences of political theology as the 16th and 17th centuries witnessed “the entanglement of the political and the theological” our of which modern concepts of politics were born, and his dramas are the records and the exploration of the historical transition. Then how do Shakespeare`s dramas help to explain the character and persistence of political theology in modernity? How does the reemergence of political theology in the 20th and 21m centuries help to reshape our understanding of Shakespeare`s period and dramas? This article aims to answer these questions by reading Carl Schmitt`s Hamlet or Hecuba. Schmitt is one of the modern thinkers who have investigated the persistence of religious forms within a modern political order founded on the neutralization of religion. According to Schmitt, theology and the modern state have the same systematic structure, whose salient feature is its dependence upon a certain transcendence. He criticizes the liberal theory of the state for effacing the originary relationship of the political to transcendence and insists that the rule of law ultimately hinges on an act of violence in the state of exception. In Hamlet and Hecuba, Schmitt turns to Shakespeare in order to elaborate his own political theology by reading Hamlet as a “counter-myth of early modern politics,” which calls for the Sovereign`s decision in the face of the secularization of politics. There is, however, an ambiguity or lack of logic in Schmitt`s reading of Hamlet, which also reveals the aporia of his political theology, and behind this lies Hamlet which shows us not the necessity of the Sovereign`s decision but the impossibility of it.